International Society for Reef Studies


European Meeting

4 th – 7 th September 2002

Abstracts Volume

Hosted by:

Cambridge Coastal Research Unit

Department of Geography

University of Cambridge.International Society For Reef Studies (ISRS)

ISRS European Meeting

Robinson College, Cambridge

4 th – 7 th September 2002


Cambridge Coastal Research Unit

Department of Geography

University of Cambridge

Abstracts Volume

Editors: S. Brooks, T. Spencer, K. Teleki and M. Taylor

Local Organising Committee Scientific Committee

Sue Brooks, Birkbeck College University of London Colin Braithwaite, University of Glasgow

Annelise Hagan, University of Cambridge Sue Brooks, Birkbeck College University of London

Tom Spencer, University of Cambridge John Bythell, University of Newcastle

Michelle Taylor, UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre Christian Dullo, GEOMAR

Kristian Teleki, University of Cambridge Marcos Gektidis, University of Frankfurt

Edmund Green, UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre

Jason Hall-Spencer, University of Glasgow

Jane Hawkridge, Mote Marine Laboratory

Piers Larcombe, James Cook University

Martin Le Tissier, University of Newcastle

Lucien Montaggioni, Universite de Provence

Chris Perry, Manchester Metropolitan University

Brian Rosen, Natural History Museum

Tom Spencer, University of Cambridge

Kristian Teleki, University of Cambridge

Sandy Tudhope, University of Edinburgh

Helge Vogt, Independent Consultant

Elizabeth Wood, Marine Conservation Society

Rachel Wood, Schlumberger Cambridge Research

Additional support provided by the International Coral Reef Action Network (ICRAN).i

Table of Contents


Abstracts: Plenary Addresses 1

Abstracts: Oral Presentations 5

Abstracts: Poster Presentations 113

Index of Authors 157.ii


Abstracts are presented in the order: plenary addresses, oral

presentations and poster presentations. Abstracts for both oral and

poster presentations are arranged by first author.

In most cases abstracts are printed as they have been received and have

not been edited for content. Some ‘light editing’ of titles and

affiliations has been carried out to ensure uniformity of presentation.

Neither the Cambridge Coastal Research Unit, nor the

Organising/Scientific Committee of the ISRS European Meeting accept

responsibility for content..Plenary Addresses..Plenary Address 1

Wednesday 4 th September, 2002

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Australian Institute of Marine Science and Reef CRC

PMB 3, Townsville Qld 4810, Australia

Great beauty, high diversity and healthy recolonisation characterise the few turbid inshore coral reefs

of the Great Barrier Reef that remain in near-pristine condition. By contrast, other inshore reefs are

severely degraded, and some consider pollution, in the form of increased supply of land-derived

nutrients, sediments and pesticides, to be a major cause of their degradation. At local scales, pollution

impacts are well documented and accepted, however, at regional scales, pollution is frequently

denied to be a cause of reef degradation, and indeed causal links have been difficult to demonstrate.

This is due to factors such as (a) a lack of historic data, (b) high spatial and temporal variability in

pollutants, (c) the background of other forms of disturbances, and (d) non- linear responses of

organisms to pollution. Overall, pollution appears to be a lesser threat for coral reefs than coral

bleaching or destructive fishing. However, unlike many other forms of disturbances, many pollutants

accumulate and are stored in the system, thus system responses may become chronic once the

system’s buffering capacity is exhausted.

Here, I will examine various links between inshore reef degradation and pollution. This will comprise

a review of field and laboratory data from many parts of the world, followed by presentation of new

experimental and reef ecological studies. It will include the characterisation of the ecological

properties of near-pristine inshore reefs, and will contrast these with reefs frequently exposed to river

plumes from agricultural areas. I will then identify the two most likely mechanisms for reef

degradation in regions exposed to pollution. Additionally, potential secondary mechanisms of

pollution will be discussed, such as the enhanced survival of crown-of-thorns larvae, which may have

profound effects on the wider ecosystem.

Pollution and reef degradation is a complex issue and there are many threads of evidence of varying

strengths to be considered, e.g. field studies with notoriously imperfect controls and laboratory

experiments that oversimplify natural systems. It is not surprising that simple hypothesis tests are

unable to resolve such complex questions. After all, it took decades of extensive and expensive

research until epidemiologists established sufficient weight of evidence linking cigarette smoking

with lung cancer– a link that is obvious in hindsight. As scientists, we need to synthesize multiple

and complex sources of information, weigh the evidence, quantify effect sizes, and predict the

ecological consequences and socio-economic costs of alternative actions. It is then up to a better

informed society to decide how much ecological change is acceptable..Plenary Address 2

Thursday 5 th September, 2002

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Scripps Institution of Oceanography

University of California, San Diego

La Jolla, California 92093-0244 USA

Basic ecological understanding of coral reefs is based on an unnatural mix of mostly small species

whose trophic relations are greatly distorted by overfishing. Large megafauna, including fishes,

sharks, sea turtles, crocodiles, sea cows, and seals have disappeared from entire reef systems

worldwide. Vertebrates in general are greatly reduced and comprise less than 2% of the total free-living

animal biomass on most reefs where the structure of food webs is dominated by very small

fishes and invertebrates. The habitat complexity of reefs and seagrass beds is also greatly reduced

over wide areas. Historical analyses demonstrate that virtually all reefs are affected by overfishing

including partially protected areas like the Great Barrier Reef. Historical trajectories of the decline in

reef ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific have the same slope as those from the tropical western Atlantic.

The only difference is the initial starting date of intense exploitation that was much earlier in the

Atlantic. Successful restoration and management require a more realistic and historically informed

understanding of the ecology of pristine coral reefs that can only be obtained by a combination of

retrospective analyses, modeling, and intensive studies of ecosystem structure and function of the

very few isolated reefs that have escaped intensive exploitation..Plenary Address 3

Friday 6 th September, 2002

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Department of Biology

University of York,

York YO10 5YW UK

It is accepted that zooxanthella function, especially photosynthate release to the coral, underpins

shallow water coral reefs, and that the breakdown of the zooxanthella-coral symbiosis at coral

bleaching is a response to anthropogenic factors. A key development in recent years has been the

appreciation that zooxanthellae are not functionally uniform. The purpose of my talk is twofold.

First, the extent to which molecularly-distinct zooxanthellae vary in ecologically- important traits,

including photosynthetic parameters, susceptibility to bleaching and acclimatory capabilities, will be

addressed. Second, the ecological consequences of this variation at scales from the individual colony

to the reef will be explored, especially in the context of anthropogenic factors..Plenary Address 4

Saturday 7 th September, 2002

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002





Department of Geology & Geophysics

Edinburgh University

West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JW,

Scotland, UK

As they grow, massive reef-building corals record environmental information in the physical

structure and chemical composition of their aragonitic skeletons. This attribute, combined with

annual skeletal growth bands, rapid growth rates, and colony longevity, makes corals valuable

palaeo-environmental archives, capable of yielding records with a temporal resolution of ± a few

months over several centuries. In addition, since the aragonitic skeletons are suitable for high-precision

U-series and 14 C dating, analysis of ‘fossil’ corals provides an opportunity to extend the

records back into the late Quaternary. These palaeoenvironmental records serve two purposes.

Firstly, corals may be used to extend beyond the instrumental record of environmental change,

thereby yielding crucial new insights into the coupled processes that control climatic and

oceanographic variability and change on decadal to millennial timescales. Secondly, the records

provide an essential context against which to view the current status and predicted decline of modern


A major research effort has been directed towards reconstructing variability in temperature, salinity

and terrestrial run-off from analysis of annually-banded massive corals. In most cases, chemical

tracers in the skeleton are used as a proxy for the environmental parameter of interest. These records

are particularly powerful for investigating interannual variability. For example, coral data has shown

that the El Niño Southern Oscillation climatic phenomenon has varied significantly in its strength

over time, with modern ENSO probably stronger than at any other time over the past 130,000 years.

Coral geochemistry is also used to reconstruct variations in ‘mean’ conditions (e.g., change in mean

temperature, salinity, rainfall etc.). This has proven to be more difficult, due to uncertainties in

assumptions about individual tracers. Nonetheless, significant progress is being made through the use

of replication of records and use of multiple and new proxies. For example, combined trace metal

and stable isotope measurements are producing consistent patterns of temperature change on decadal

to glacial- interglacial timescales; there is exciting new work on the use of barium as a proxy for

suspended sediment input to the coastal zone over the past few centuries (McCulloch et al, this

meeting); and coral growth rates are being successfully used to reconstruct SST change over the past

few centuries. Analysis of the structure, age and elevation of corals and coral reefs also continues to

yield new insights into the magnitude, timing, rates and mechanisms of sea- level change on decadal

to 10 5 year timescales.

These coral data are contributing to a picture of tropical environments that have varied substantially,

and rapidly, over much of the past few hundred thousand years. In many ways, the last few thousand

years appear anomalous, having relatively stable (warm) mean climate and sea- level, but relatively

large interannual (ENSO) variability. These data provide a crucial testing- ground for models that

attempt to predict future climate, and the impact of natural and anthropogenic environmental change

on coral reefs..Oral Presentations..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Nicola Allison, Adrian Finch

School of Geography and Geosciences,

University of St Andrews, Irvine Building, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9AL, UK

Sr/Ca in coral skeletons has potential as an indicator of past seawater conditions but exhibits

geochemical heterogeneity on a small spatial scale (<100 µm) that does not reflect variations in sea

surface temperature (SST) or chemistry. Skeletal Sr/Ca is affected by variations in skeletal

calcification rate which may be dependent on the photosynthetic activity of the zooxanthellae in coral

tissue. The skeleton deposited at night may be unaffected by these variations and may be a more

reliable indicator of SST (Cohen et al. 2001).

We used secondary ion mass spectrometry with a 10 µm diameter analysis spot to construct records

of Sr/Ca in a Porites lobata specimen from Lanakai, Oahu, Hawaii. Analyses were performed on

sections cut perpendicular to the growth surface of the coral skeleton, spanning annual bands. Parallel

tracks were analysed following fasciculi (material deposited during the day) and centres of

calcification (deposited at night).

The Sr contents of the day and night material follow similar seasonal trends but are offset with night

carbonate typically enriched by 350-400 ppm Sr. The day carbonate profile is characterised by large

spiky Sr fluctuations, which are deposited approximately days apart and are superimposed on the

general Sr seasonal trend. These fluctuations may relate to daily variations in coral calcification rate

which is in turn affected by light intensity and water temperature. The Sr range observed in day

carbonate (~900 ppm) is equivalent to ~5ºC on the Sr palaeothermometer for Porites day carbonate

(Cohen et al. 2001) which is in good agreement with the observed seasonal temperature range.

The Sr range the in night carbonate profile (~600 ppm) is much larger than that reported previously

and is equivalent to ~16ºC on the Sr palaeothermometer for night carbonate (Cohen et al. 2001).

Calcification at night is slower than in the day and previous studies suggest that the slope of the Sr-SST

relationship in night carbonate approximates to that seen in inorganic aragonite precipitates.

This is inconsistent with our data. While the Sr range in the night carbonate is reduced compared to

that of day material, some short term Sr spikes are still present. Sr varies by up to 300 ppm over

distances of <100 µm, which is nominally equivalent to <1 week skeletal growth. These spikes do

not reflect variations in SST. We suggest that while biological effects on Sr incorporation are

minimised in night carbonate, significant biological effects may still occur in this material.

Cohen AL et al., Kinetic control of skeletal Sr/Ca in a symbiotic coral: implications for the

palaeotemperature proxy, Paleoceanography, 16, 20-26, 2001..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002



William R. Allison

Coral Reef Research and Management

Rangas First Floor, Violet Magu, Henveyru, Male, MALDIVES

The author has studied community change in Maldivian coral reefs since 1990. Rasdu and Addu

Atolls were repeatedly surveyed during the period 1991 to 2001. Included in the survey sites at those

atolls are sites surveyed during the Xarifa (1958) and Indian Ocean (1964) expeditions. Survey

methods included line intercept and point transects, video transects, photo-quadrats and visual

surveys. The different quantitative methods were tested to assure comparable results. COADS SST

data was obtained for the period 1980 – 2000.

Comparison of 1991 survey data with the data obtained some three decades earlier showed that large

declines in coral cover had occurred at most of the Xarifa and IOE survey sites. Acroporidae and

Pocilloporidae had declined the most. Large areas of dead branching corals in growth position were

also observed in many other parts of Maldives. During the period 1991 – 1998 coral cover generally

increased in Rasdu and Addu although there was little change at most of the IOE sites in Addu and

one site in Rasdu. In April – May 1998 a large proportion of the corals in both atolls and the

Maldives died during a severe bleaching event. Hardest hit were Acroporidae, Pocilloporidae, soft

corals (except dendronepthids) and Millepora. Although mortality was very high, "extirpations" were

not observed. At a few locations coral cover and dominant type seemed to change little in 1998, but

one large patch of coral that had apparently survived since 1958 died in 1998. Large massive coral

colonies, especially Porites, declined significantly in abundance over the entire period.

Reef bleaching and mortality in 1998 were highly correlated with elevated SST's in April and May of

that year. It seems probable that the elevated SST's and bleaching observed in 1988 contributed to the

state of reef communities documented in 1991. Anthropogenic effects were also involved in some

locations, most clearly at Gan in Addu and probably at Veligandu in Rasdu..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Rolf P.M. Bak, Gerard Nieuwland

Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ),

P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands

Shallow reefs were destroyed and deep reefs suffered high coral mortality by displaced hurricane

effects. Hurricane Lenny never came near the island of Bonaire (N.A.) but waves generated by the

storm hit the leeward coast of the island. There were three main effects on the fringing reefs: 1 where

westerly waves hit the reefs frontally all living organisms were cleaned off the reef at depths from 0

to 6 m. 2 Dislodged corals, debris and coarse sediment was deposited between 6 to 20 m on the reef

slope. 3 Fine sediment (diam 100 µm) was transported to the reef at greater depth (> 30 m). This

sediment accumulated at the deep reef in front of the damaged shallow reefs and, through deep lateral

transport along the reef slope, also at locations that were unharmed in the shallow reef. Sediment was

efficiently cleared off living surfaces by most corals at the reef slope shallower than 25 m but not at

greater depths. Surveys (random quadrats) at 35 m depth showed the impact of fine sediment to

depend on coral species, and high mortality of dominant species such as Agaricia lamarcki. The deep

reef may be a stable habitat in terms of wave movement but rare events such as sedimentation will

cause catastrophic damage..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002





Andrew C. Baker, Craig J. Starger, Tim R. McClanahan, Peter W. Glynn

Wildlife Conservation Society

Center for Environmental Research and Conservation, Columbia University, MC 5557, 1200

Amsterdam Avenue, New York, New York 10027, USA

Coral bleaching as a result of sustained seawater warming is a major threat to coral reef ecosystems

worldwide. The long-term capacity of reef corals to survive these episodes is likely to be dependent,

at least initially, on the diversity and specific identities of the symbiotic dinoflagellates

(“zooxanthellae”) they contain. Because different algal symbionts appear to vary significantly in their

susceptibility to bleaching, we hypothesized that the symbiont community structure of coral reefs

following a severe bleaching event: (1) differs from that of the same reefs prior to bleaching; (2)

more closely resembles the community structure of reefs found at higher temperatures; and (3) has a

higher bleaching threshold than before and is consequently more likely to survive future temperature

anomalies of similar magnitude. We tested the first two of these hypotheses by using Restriction

Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs) in large subunit ribosomal RNA genes to identify the

symbionts of reef corals from Kenya (Indian Ocean), Panama (far eastern Pacific) and Saudi Arabia

(Arabian Gulf and Red Sea) after the 1997-98 El Niño event. We found that scleractinian corals in

Kenya, Panama and the Arabian Gulf contained symbionts in two clades of Symbiodinium (C and D).

The high relative abundance of one of these clades (Symbiodinium D) in Kenya and Panama,

combined with its virtual dominance in high-temperature Arabian Gulf reefs and comparative

scarcity in Panama prior to the El Niño, suggest this symbiont lineage may have global importance in

determining the response of reef corals to future thermal bleaching events. Red Sea reefs that were

relatively unaffected by bleaching contained relatively little Symbiodinium D but also contained

significant numbers of a third Symbiodinium clade (A), perhaps due to their high latitude location.

These results indicate that, although an absolute upper limit must exist, we should not assume that

bleaching temperature thresholds remain constant over time. Recent bleaching history, regional

symbiont diversity and time between bleaching events may be important factors in determining the

long-term response of coral reefs to global climate change..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Yael Ben-Haim, Eugene Rosenberg

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life

Science, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978 Israel

Coral bleaching and other diseases of corals have increased dramatically during the last few decades.

A high correlation has been reported between increased sea temperature and the incidence of coral

diseases. A new coral pathogen was isolated from diseased Pocillopora damicornis corals near

Zanzibar in the Indian Ocean. Based on its 16S rDNA sequence, genomic DNA fingerprinting

analyses, and phenotypic characteristics, the pathogen was classified as a novel species of Vibrio,

named Vibrio corallilyticus. Infection of corals in controlled aquaria at 26-29°C, with a pure culture

of V. corallilyticus caused tissue lysis of P. damicornis fragments. At 29°C, lysis began as small

white spots after 3-5 days, rapidly spreading so that by 2 weeks the entire tissue was destroyed,

leaving only the intact bare skeleton. When an infected diseased coral was placed in direct contact

with a healthy one, the healthy coral lysed in 2-4 days, further indicating that the disease was

contagious. Inoculation with as few as 30 bacteria per ml was sufficient to infect and lyse corals.

Seawater temperature was a critical environmental parameter for the infectious process: infection and

lysis occurred rapidly at 27-29°C, slowly at 26°C but tissue lysis was not observed at 25°C. At 24-25°

C, pure cultures of V. corallilyticus caused bleaching of all 16 corals infected within 2-4 weeks.

The pathogen was reisolated from the diseased tissues of the infected corals. Uninoculated control

corals at 24-25°C showed no bleaching. The bacterial bleached corals contained less than 12%

zooxanthellae concentration compared to healthy corals.

During the summer of 2001 when seawater temperature in the Red Sea (Eilat, Israel) reached over

27°C, there was considerable diseased corals. High numbers of V. corallilyticus were found in

diseased tissues, whereas it was not detected in healthy corals. V. corallilyticus was found to be

geographically distributed. Five additional strains of V. corallilyticus have been isolated, three from

diseased P. damicornis in the Red Sea, and aditional two strains from bivalve larvae, from the

Atlantic Ocean (Brazil) and Europe (Kent Region). These five strains showed high genotypic and

phenotypic similarities to V. corallilyticus type strain, and all were also pathogenic to P. damicornis.

These findings support the bacterial hypothesis of coral bleaching, and indicate a relationship

between temperature and the outcome of bacterial infection of corals..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002



O. Ben-Tzvi, Y. Loya, A. Abelson

The Institute for Nature Conservation Research,

Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel

Coral reefs are deteriorating globally. Concern to the future of coral reefs drove governments, NGOs

and scientists to enhance reef monitoring worldwide. Monitoring would be valuable if it can point to

changes in the state of the examined coral community. The value of this indication can be especially

high when deterioration begins, since at early stages of deterioration the chance of reversing the

process is higher. Some widely used monitoring methods compare coral community parameters such

as live cover, mortality rate, size-frequency distribution, species richness and diversity. Coral

communities differ naturally from each other due to their depth, location, exposure to water flow and

their history of disturbances. It is expected to find significant differences in all of the above-mentioned

parameters when comparing different coral communities. In many cases however, these

differences are not indicative of the state of the coral community, do it remains stable or is it

changing. Only repetitive monitoring exactly at the same site can accurately and objectively point out

if the examined reef state is changing.

Here, we suggest a practical approach that offers a solution to the above problem by providing an

indication of the relative state of the community in addition to an indication of the trend of reef health

(developing or deteriorating). This approach is based on an index (Deterioration Index; DI) that

compares community parameters (i.e. mortality and recruitment rates) within the community as

opposed to comparing the same parameter between different reefs.

The DI was developed during a study of young coral communities developed on artificially laid rocks

in shallow water along the coast of Eilat (Gulf of Aqaba), where it was relatively straightforward to

identify the disturbed communities.

Subsequently, we examined this method on natural coral reefs at Eilat and the Seychelles. The DI

values obtained at Eilat clearly indicate that some of the examined reefs are experiencing

deterioration while others are in a relatively reasonable shape. High DI values were calculated for the

southern part of Eilat’s Nature reserve (i.e. the Japanese Gardens) indicating a declining community.

This part of the Nature Reserve reef is of high species diversity and live cover. However, the

recruitment rate is very low and the mortality rate is relatively high. The DI, therefore, indicates a

problem despite the illusive image of a well-preserved reef community, as may be misinterpreted

from the high live cover and species diversity. This indication acquired from the DI during a single

monitoring occasion shows the same results obtained by the reserve management team, after a long

term monitoring.

Results from the Seychelles surveys demonstrate that most reefs were severely damaged during the

last bleaching event. The DIs obtained there, show that most of these reefs are rehabilitating.

However, at some sites the DI values were quite high. Among them are sites that were bleached and

now have a high algal cover, and sites where the bleaching rate was relatively low but now

experience low recruitment. The results show that the DI approach can serve as an efficient tool for

MPA selection and management. This is due to the low-cost, fast-yielding and reliable data, which

can be obtained by inexperienced surveyors within a short-time (one hour) training..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002



Francesca Benzoni, Carlo Nike Bianchi, Carla Morri

Acquario Civico e Stazione Idrobiologica di Milano

Viale G. B. Gadio 2, I-20121 Milano, Italy

The coral communities of the Gulf of Aden have been traditionally believed to be sparse and poorly

developed due to the effects of the cold, nutrient-rich water of the Arabian Sea upwelling. Recent

studies, however, have shown that they are actually significant and diverse. A survey of the coasts of

Hadramaut and Shabwa provinces, Republic of Yemen, in early 1998, found extensive coral

communities at all hard-bottom sites examined along a 130 km stretch of coast, from Al Mukalla

(14 o 31’N 49 o 9’E) westwards to Belhaf (13 o 58’N 48 o 11’E). Due to the lack of detailed cartography of

the region, hard bottom sites were located within the study area by means of spot check surveys.

Coral communities were assessed using line intercept transects carried out at sites with high coral

cover at different depths. Coral life- form categories were recorded, while dominant hard and soft

corals were identified to genus level. A diverse array of coral communities was found through the

study area. The main type, particularly at depths greater than 4 m, was a high cover Porites

community, typically composed of very large massive and sub- massive colonies. Large monospecific

areas of branching corals, especially Pocillopora damicornis, were common on shallower hard

substrates, a feature these coral communities share with those of Oman to the east. Islands, both near-shore

and offshore, tended to have better developed and more diverse coral communities than were

found fringing the mainland shore. The main factors influencing the presence, structure and

composition of coral communities in the study area seem to be the presence of available substrate,

depth and distance from the Arabian Sea upwelling. At the time of the 1998 survey the Hadramaut

and Shabwa coral communities were in excellent general health conditions, with no sign of bleaching

mortality in the recent past. True coral reefs have been reported to be very rare in the northern Gulf

of Aden, and this applies to our study area as well. Nonetheless, unexpected extensive and high-cover

coral carpets have been found in Hadramout and Shabwa. These surprising features of coral

communities in Yemen, as well as the striking patterns revealed in recent years in other sites of the

Gulf of Aden claim for further investigation in the whole area..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Bianchi C.N., Pichon M., Morri C., Colantoni P., Bernardini G., Benzoni F., Baldelli G.

Marine Environment Research Centre, ENEA Santa Teresa

P O Box 224, I-19100 La Spezia, Italy

The 1998 bleaching event, which followed abnormally high sea surface temperatures (up to 34 °C),

caused widespread mortality in the reefs of the Maldives. Mortality rates were highest (approaching

100 % in certain sites) for branching and tabular species of the genus Acropora, for the

Pocilloporidae and for the hydrocoral Millepora, particularly in shallow water. Mortality rates were

lower below 20 m and in general for massive species, for which colonies affected by bleaching

mostly displayed only partial discoloration of the tissues and death. No mortality at all was observed

on the octocoral Heliopora caerulea. A recent (April 2002) survey of coral populations in 12 sites

(reef slopes in inner and outer locations as well as within passes) has shown that a majority of

colonies, for nearly 140 species belonging to virtually all reef coral families and especially Poritiidae,

Agaricidae, Fungiidae, Mussidae and Faviidae, presented adult sizes and minor or no sign of

mortality - an observation which suggests that most of them had survived the bleaching event. Very

large colonies of Porites sp.p. and Diploastrea heliopora have managed to survive although only in

relatively small patches over the whole colony, with average patch size ranging from 5 to 15 cm in

diameter. Patterns of recruitment were followed through yearly surveys. As early as April 1999, two

different size classes of Acropora had settled on the reefs. Largest recruits were up to 14 cm tall,

suggesting that the first wave of recolonization arrived soon after the mortality event. No Pocillopora

recruits were observed until 2000. In 2001, Pocillopora recruits were recorded mostly above 5 m

depth on the outer slopes and in the passes, with densities up to 5 recruits m -2 . The density of recruits

was similar for Acropora, but the recruits were spread over a larger depth range, and were also

observed in other types of reef environment than outer slopes and passes. In 2002, the abundance of

Acropora recruits did not change, while a relative lower number of Pocillopora recruits were

recorded. Small- sized colonies (< 5 cm in diameter) were the most represented in both years,

suggesting renewed recruitment waves. A relative higher proportion of comparatively large-size

colonies (up to 25 cm in diameter for Acropora) would indicate rapid growth. Faviidae, Poritidae and

Agariciidae were the most abundant recruiters other than Acropora and Pocillopora, and the genera

Pachyseris and Leptoseris, in particular, showed the highest number of non-branching recruits. No

Millepora recruits have been observed to date. Overall, the se data allow for cautious optimism with

respect to the recovery capacity of Maldivian coral reefs following a major bleaching event..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




C. J. R. Braithwaite, H. Dalmasso , L. F. Montaggioni

Division of Earth Sciences, Glasgow University, Glasgow G12 8QQ

A new deep borehole, drilled to a depth of 210 mbsf (metres below sea floor), on Ribbon Reef 5 on

the Great Barrier Reef off Cooktown, NE Australia, reveals a shallowing- upwards succession

punctuated towards the top by a series of erosion surfaces. Reef accretion has been controlled by the

response of the system to changing sea level.

Carbonate deposition began about 770 ka ago, during isotope stage 16, with a series of debris flows.

These reflect deposition on a relatively deep slope or ramp rather than a shallow platform and are

represented in the core from 210 to around 180 mbsf. Lithoclasts indicate that carbonate deposition

began in the area before the period represented by the cored succession, and was followed by a

period of lower sea-level that resulted in erosion. However, the cored succession shows no evidence

of erosion at these depths.

Overlying carbonates, from 178- mbsf to 155 mbsf are fine-grained grainstones with few relatively

large coral fragments and rhodoliths dominated by melobesioids. These originated in water less than

about 60 m deep but deposition was probably at greater depth. From 155 mbsf the succession is

dominated by locally coarse grainstones and wackestones, again with intervals of rhodoliths. An

upward transition from melobesioids to lithophylloids implies a progressive warming and shallowing

of waters, reflecting progradation of the platform margin. Downslope sediment movement may have

resulted from local oversteepening or storm activity on the shallower platform. The corals present

from 120-95 mbsf imply derivation from shallower water, but steeply inclined laminae suggest

continuing downslope transport. Rhodoliths, Halimeda and symbiont-bearing benthic foraminifera

indicate derivation from waters less than 60 m depth.

Typical reef assemblages were probably not established until about 100 mbsf depth in the core,

isotope stage 11. Grainstones are typical of the succession from 100-74 mbsf. Coral fragments in

these are predominantly of massive forms with bored surfaces and crusts of coralline algae. They

suggest derivation from quiet and/or relatively deep (15-30 m) water.

An upwards transition to an assemblage of robust branching corals, is paralleled by a change in the

dominant algae, from melobesioids and lithophylloids to mastophoroids. These changes imply a

progressive shallowing, and deposits probably reflect reworking on a shallow slope. More coral-bearing

limestones were deposited during isotope stages 11 and 9. The lack of evidence of a

progressive shallowing to emergence implies that the upper part of the succession has been removed

by erosion. The apparently unbroken succession to 36 mbsf and the lack of evidence of emergence

below this indicates a progressive accretion in which changes in sea level in the vicinity of the

borehole did not fall below the depositional surface..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Jon Brodie, Michelle Devlin, Glenn De’ath

Australian Centre for Tropical Freshwater Research

James Cook University, Townsville, Australia

Phytoplankton chlorophyll a has been monitored monthly since 1992 at 86 stations in the Great

Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon. The stations are located on eight transects across the shelf from 13 0 S to

23 0 S. A primary objective of the monitoring program is to detect changes in the inshore environment

of the GBR resulting from the rapidly increasing loads of nutrients being exported from the

catchment of the GBR. Data were analysed using generalized additive models and accounted for

spatial and temporal effects. In the analyses stations were grouped by ‘inshore’ (< 25 km from the

coast), likely to be influenced by terrestrial runoff, and ‘offshore’ (> 25 km), unlikely to be strongly

influenced, and by five latitudinal regions of the GBR.

Strong differences in chlorophyll a exist across the shelf with inshore stations mean concentrations in

most transects significantly greater than offshore except in the north. In northern transects mean

chlorophyll concentrations are low ( ~ 0.25 mg/L) both inshore and offshore. Mean concentrations in

offshore stations in the rest of the GBR are similar (0.15 – 0.27 mg/L) except in the Capricorn region

in the far south where offshore mean chlorophyll is 0.55 mg/L. In contrast to northern transects

inshore mean chlorophyll concentrations from Port Douglas south fall in the range 0.45 – 0.75 mg/L.

Strong seasonal effects are evident with mean summer/wet season (December – April) values ~ 50%

greater than those in winter/dry season (May – November). Significant temporal patterns in the data

over the ten year period in each transect were observed and these may be correlated with the

influence of ENSO on river discharge but analysis of this possibility is not complete.

Mean chlorophyll concentrations in inshore areas adjacent to catchments highly developed for

agricultural and urban uses are more than double mean concentrations in inshore areas adjacent to

Cape York catchments in the north which are largely undeveloped. Discharge of nitrogen and

phosphorus from developed catchments has increased approximately fourfold over the last 150 years,

with the largest increase occurring in the last 50 years. Phytoplankton appears to be responding to

this enrichment. This signal of nutrient enrichment is of significance to the ecosystem health of inner-shelf

reefs of the GBR. In addition mean concentrations of chlorophyll above 0.6 mg/L in the inshore

Townsville to Port Douglas region of the GBR are relevant to theories which link the initiation of

crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks to nutrient enrichment..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




S. D. Brooke, C. Koenig, C. M. Young

Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Fort Pierce, Florida 34946

The Ivory Tree Coral Oculina varicosa, forms extensive bioherms or “banks” of azooxanthellate

colonies at depths of 70-100m along the edge of the Florida Hatteras slope. Healthy reefs support

invertebrate and fish communities as diverse as those of tropical coral reefs, and are a critical

spawning habitat for a number of commercial fisheries species. In 1984 the Oculina Banks were

declared a Habitat Area of Particular Concern (HAPC) and were protected from damaging benthic

activity. During the 1990’s it became apparent that despite protected status, large areas of the banks

had been physically damaged and fisheries were in decline. In 1994, the OHAPC status was changed

to Experimental Oculina Research Reserve to protect snapper and grouper fisheries, and a coral

restoration effort was initiated. Several types and configurations of concrete structure were deployed

over several years along damaged reef tract using large concrete structures. These structures were

intended to promote coral settlement in areas of denuded substrate, but after several years, most

showed no signs of coral recruitment. In 1998, study of reproduction and larval development was

initiated in order to assess natural re-colonisation potential and optimise restoration efforts. Research

revealed that O. varicosa is a gonochoristic broadcast spawning species, with small eggs (~100mm)

and an average fecundity of 850 (sd: 478) eggs per polyp. The gametogenic cycle begins in the early

summer and spawning occurs during late summer and fall, with no obvious relationship to lunar or

tidal phase. Planulae are small, approximately 160mm in length, and settle approximately 21 days

after spawning. Larval planktonic duration was integrated with hydrodynamic information to

estimate larval dispersal potential. It appears that larvae not only have the potential to be transported

between the deep reef tracts, but may also contribute larvae to near-shore zooxanthellate populations

during summer upwelling events. Preliminary genetic research supported ecological evidence that

gene exchange occurs between deep reefs and shallow water populations of O. varicosa.

Unfortunately, despite the protected status of the Oculina banks, and reproductive criteria conducive

to re-colonisation, the Banks have not recovered, and the healthy reef tracts have been reduced to two

small areas at the southern extent of the range. Possible explanations for the continued demise and

lack of regeneration of the Oculina reefs include illegal trawling, unknown natural causes and very

low coral recruitment rate.Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Nicola Chapman, Colin Moore

Heriot Watt University,

Riccarton, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS

The serpulid polychaete, Serpula vermicularis, is a common member of the marine encrusting

community in Europe. Throughout most of its range S. vermicularis occurs in the form of individual

tubes or occasionally as intertwining bundles of a few tubes, cemented to hard substrata, such as rock

and mollusc shells. However, at just three sites in northwest Europe massive reefs, often exceeding a

height of 50 cm and a width of 60 cm, they develop in shallow, sheltered waters.

The greatest development of these serpulid reefs is found in Loch Creran, Scotland, where their

presence has been instrumental in the designation of Loch Creran as a Special Area of Conservation

(cSAC) under the EC Habitats Directive. This will necessitate the development of a programme to

monitor the status of the reef habitat, which is under potential threat from fishing, aquaculture and

mooring activities.

From previous observations by divers it is believed that serpulid reefs provide a habitat for a diverse

associated community, although no detailed studies of the community have been published. The aim

of this study is to characterise the community, to provide a monitoring baseline and to provide

information to underpin the development of a monitoring strategy. The conservation importance of

the habitat will also be assessed by comparisons with the associated community of other biogenic

reef habitats.

Ten entire serpulid reefs were removed by diver from Loch Creran, selected to represent a broad

spectrum of reef size. Reef size was measured in situ by determination of height and width and in the

laboratory by measurement of weight. Sessile and motile fauna and flora retained on a 0.5 mm screen

were identified and counted.

The presentation will describe the nature of the reef community and will illustrate the relationship

between reef size and community diversity and species richness. By employment of multivariate

statistical techniques the relationship between species composition of the community and reef size

will be examined. The conservation importance of the habitat will be discussed and the implications

of the work for future monitoring programmes established..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Omer Choresh 1 , Abdussalam Azem 2 , Yossi Loya 1

1 Department of Zoology, 2 Department of Biochemistry, George S. Wise Faculty of Life

Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel

Organisms respond to stress, which causes damage to cellular proteins, by inducing synthesis of Heat

Shock Proteins (HSPs). Induction of HSPs is one of the most familiar mechanisms of reaction to

various stressful environmental conditions (e.g. adverse temperatures, increased UV irradiation,

osmotic stress and xenobiotics). These proteins play a major role in modulating protein folding,

transport and repair during normal conditions, with higher levels of their expression being induced

under stress. The relationship between environmental tolerance of organisms and the expression of

HSPs has been studied in diverse aquatic and terrestrial organisms. However, in some groups of

organisms, such as sessile marine invertebrates, some HSPs are not well characterized and their

function and significance to adaptation are not well understood. As a major step towards

characterizing the stress response of marine invertebrates, we set out to develop general protocols for

purifying the mitochondrial (mt) HSP60 and HSP70 of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis. We also

examined the role of mt-HSP60 and mt-HSP70 in adaptation of marine invertebrates to thermal stress

through a study of the influence of changes in seawater temperature on the expression of these

proteins in A. viridis. Laboratory and field experiments reveal for the first time the existence of mt-HSP60

and mt-HSP70 in sea anemones; and furthermore, that their expression varies with changes in

temperature. A. viridis displayed high levels of both proteins when extreme temperature conditions

(31°C) prevailed in stressful habitats, such as tide pools. Further, we have developed purification

methods, based on several chromatography columns and western blot analysis, fo r both mt-HSP60

and mt-HSP70. These methods allow purification of large amounts of the proteins for further

sequence analysis. We also found new antibodies that indicate changes in the expression levels of mt-HSP60

and mt-HSP70. Partial sequence data were obtained for the purified mt-HSPs. The amino acid

sequences for both proteins are homologous to amino acid residues of the mt-HSPs of several

organisms, including Drosophila and mammals, which show the proteins to be highly conserved

between organisms. However, these fragments showed less similarity when compared to plastid

HSPs from plants and to bacterial HSPs. We further found mt-HSP60 expression for the first time in

various marine invertebrates, including scleractinian corals. These results may be particularly

significant for coral reefs, which constitute one of the most spectacular and diverse ecosystems on the

planet. Our study may offer a useful tool for detecting mt-HSP60 and mt-HSP70 in marine

invertebrates, and contributes to the understanding of the role of HSPs in the adaptation of organisms

to stressful environments. Identification of new HSPs of marine invertebrates is expected to enable

rapid and accurate quantitative monitoring of short-term and long-term fluctuations in marine

ecosystems. The importance of such research lies in using the expression of specific stress proteins as

an early warning system for changes in community structure in disturbed marine habitats, and in

assessing the ability of reef ecosystem to withstand global changes..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002





Rory P. Cooney, Olga Pantos, Martin D.A. Le Tissier, John C. Bythell

Department of Marine Sciences & Coastal Management,

Ridley Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne,

Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK

An increasing number of reports have documented dramatic changes and continuing declines in coral

reef communities which have been attributed to both natural and anthropogenic factors. It is widely

accepted that diseases of reef corals are an important factor in determining coral reef community

structure, and that diseases may make a significant contribution to the observed coral reef

degradation. Although these diseases are a major ecological problem, their aetiology and

pathogenesis is poorly understood. In fact, the overall knowledge of the microbial communities

associated with diseased and non-diseased corals remains poor, as most studies to date were

constrained by the limitations of traditional microbiological techniques based on microscopy and


The bacterial community associated with black band disease (BBD) of the scleractinian corals

Diploria strigosa, Montastrea annularis and Colpophyllia natans was examined using culture-independent

techniques. Two complementary molecular screening techniques of 16S rDNA genes

(Amplified 16S Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis [ARDRA] of clone libraries and Denaturing

Gradient Gel Electrophoresis [DGGE]) were used to give a comprehensive characterisation of the

community. Findings support previous studies indicating a low bacterial abundance and diversity

associated with healthy corals. A single cyanobacterial ribotype was present in all the diseased

samples, but this was not the same as that identified from Phormidium corallyticum culture isolated

from BBD. The study confirms the presence of Desulfovibrio spp. and sulfate-reducing bacteria that

have previously been associated with the BBD consortium. However, the species varied between

diseased coral samples. We found no evidence of bacteria from terrestrial, freshwater or human

sources in any of the samples. We report the presence of a previously unrecognised potential

pathogen (an a-proteobacterium identified as the etiological agent of Juvenile Oyster Disease [JOD])

which was consistently present in all the diseased coral samples. The molecular biological approach

described here gives an increasingly comprehensive and more precise picture of the bacterial

population associated with BBD..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002





Samantha de Putron

Bermuda Biological Station for Research

Ferry Reach, St. Georges, GE 01, Bermuda

This study examined the sexual reproduction of the brooding Scleractinian Porites astreoides and the

broadcasting Gorgonian Pseudoplexaura porosa in Bermuda. Variations in seawater temperature at

the study sites and across the years are related to a contrasting pattern of temporal and spatial

reproductive effort between the species. The lagoon of the Bermuda pseudo-atoll can be divided into

three physiographic reef zones that have different annual temperature profiles. The temperature at

the inshore reefs fell to 15.5 °C during winter and rose to 30.5 °C in the summer. Oceanic waters

buffer the outer rim reefs, which moderated the temperature range to 19-29 °C. Inter-annual

variability of seawater temperature profiles occurred over the study period, with summer

temperatures in 1998 being relatively warm, those in 1999 being moderate and those in 2000 being

relatively cool. P. astreoides released planulae in July and August of 1999 and 2000 from all three

reef zones, extending into September both years at the cooler offshore reefs. Overall, planulae

production was greatest at the Rim Reef each year and an inclined temperature gradient is shown

across the reef zones to the Inner Lagoon with a corresponding decrease in reproductive effort. There

is a significant negative relationship between reproductive effort and the average temperature for the

proceeding month. There was no inter-zone difference detectable in P. porosa reproductive effort;

however, there was inter-annual variation. In 1998, when the temperature was slower to rise and

remained high throughout the summer, spawning occurred only during September and October. In

1999 and 2000, when the temperature rose earlier in the year and remained high for a short period,

spawning was restricted to July and August. Reproductive effort was lowest in the cool summer of

2000. In contrast to P. astreoides, there is a positive relationship between reproductive effort and the

average temperature for the preceding month over the study years, although the correlation is only

significant for spermary production at the rim reef. The study of the reproductive biology of corals in

Bermuda is of particular interest because these reefs are the most northerly in the Atlantic (32N

65W), a distribution extreme for many species. The control of temperature on reproductive cycles is

important in the context of changing global conditions, increasing the need for a greater

understanding of the effects of temperature on this sensitive part of the coral life cycle..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Lyndon M. DeVantier, Denise M c Corry

Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3, Townsville, Queensland 4810, Australia

We undertook an ecological assessment of coral communities of Hong Kong in 2001-02 to assess

their distribution, community structure and status, and to identify sites of high conservation value.

Here, corals and coral communities occur near the physico-chemical tolerance limits for their

survival and for reef growth. The communities exhibit strong gradients in distribution, species

diversity and abundance, all being highest in northeastern waters - more oceanic, being further away

from the estuarine influence of the Pearl River Delta. Hong Kong waters do not support major reef

development, rather the best developed coral communities form incipient reefs, but with substantial

biogenic accretion. Some of the coral communities are characterized by high coral cover (> 50 %),

and are comprised of a much richer coral fauna than known previously: 88 species in 30 genera of 12

families of the Scleractinia, including approximately 45 new distribution records and an undescribed

species of the astrocoeniid Stylocoeniella. The corals form five major community types with strong

geographic and environmental affinities and key indicator species. Approximately one quarter of

species are ubiquitous, occurring in moderate - high abundance in more than one-third of survey sites

and across several of the community types. By contrast, over one third of species have locally

restricted distributions (occurring in < 10 % of sites) and low relative abundances, and thus are

particularly prone to local extinction following disturbance. Hong Kong’s naturally marginal

conditions for coral and reef growth are exacerbated by turbidity, salinity and temperature

fluctuations (bleaching), predation, bio-erosion and further compounded by trawling activity, fishing

traps and nets, anchoring, sewage, dredging, dumping and land- fills. Minimizing the controllable

local impacts (trawling, netting, anchoring, run-off, pollution from local sources, land- fills, dredging

and dumping) through continued proactive management will help to sustain these communities and

increase their resilience to larger scale climatic impacts beyond local control. The study demonstrated

that the present marine parks were well selected in terms of conserving high quality examples of two

coral-dominated community types. Management recommendations include continued expansion of

the established marine parks, development of additional marine parks encompassing a coral-dominated

community type not well represented in the park system at present, improved surveillance

and policing of designated marine parks, continued implementation of ‘no anchor’ areas, raising of

community awareness and other measures to help minimize human impacts at key sites..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Terry Done 1 , Ray Berkelmans 1 , Roger Jones 2, Peter Whetton 2, Scott Wooldridge 1

1 Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB#3, Townsville MC, Qld, 4810, Australia 2 Climate Risk and Integrated Assessment Project, Climate Impact Group, CSIRO Atmospheric

Research, Private Bag No.1, Aspendale, Victoria 3195 Australia

Impacts of coral bleaching and patterns of survival of corals are patchy at spatial scales from oceans

to a single patch of reef. Reefs of the Great Barrier Reef are mostly several kilometers in length and

breadth. Following a bleaching event, their appearance and ecological structure in the short term are

affected by the relative abundance of coral species that are more and less bleaching-prone. Coral

species composition is also likely to affect each habitat’s future attractiveness and productivity under

regimes of increased frequency and severity of heat and light stress predicted to occur with global

climate change. We are exploring the likely appearance of the Great Barrier Reef in coming decades

by combining temperature monitoring, ecological assessments, a climate impact model and an

ecological disturbance and recovery model. Daily sea temperatures recorded at two AIMS reef

weather stations for a decade combined with Berkelmans’ bleaching threshold curves were used in

the CSIRO weather simulator ‘ReefClim’ to simulate various bleaching indices for the years 2010,

2030 and 2050. Post-2002 ecological assessments of coral survival were used to define six levels of

bleaching impact, (from cosmetic to catastrophic) in terms of ‘set-back’ of the coral community, and

to link these to the bleaching thresholds predicted for the future. The future scenarios generated for

coral communities near the two AIMS weather stations will be presented, and the sensitivities of the

modeling approach discussed..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002



Sophie Dove

Centre for Marine Studies, University of Queensland,

St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia

Recently it has been suggested that host pigments may reduce the susceptibility of reef-building

corals to bleaching by offering their symbiotic dinoflagellates shade. Whilst elevated temperature is

the primary cause of bleaching, the rate at which corals bleach has been shown to be faster under

higher levels of irradiance. In an experimental study with three colour morphs of Acropora aspera

collected from adjacent positions on the reef flat of Heron Island GBR, we demonstrated that a

heavily pigmented coral morph whilst offering greater shade to their symbionts, bleached at a faster

rate than less pigmented morph and underwent significantly higher mortality if left to recover for a

month after heat is withdrawn. The experimental data suggests that the response to temperature of

these three colour morphs was highly variable with differential rates of zooxanthellae and/ or tissue

loss. Cytochrome b analysis of host failed to discriminate colour morphs and gross cladistic analysis

of symbionts revealed no distinctions. The properties of bacterially expressed host pigments suggest

a novel shading mechanism for these pigments that could be significantly affected by elevated

temperature..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002



Nicholas K. Dulvy, R. E. Mitchell, N.V.C. Polunin

Department of Marine Sciences & Technology

University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK

The search for ecosystem features and processes that maintain resilience remains the Holy Grail of

ecology. The traditional view is that 'bottom up' factors such as recruitment, nutrients and disturbance

drive the structure and functioning of producer communities, e.g. corals and algae. More recently,

theory suggests ecosystem resilience is maintained by numerous weak trophic links among species.

But in reality a few strong links between predators and producers (known as trophic cascades) may

also exist. On reefs, the fulcra linking predators and producers are either herbivorous urchins, or the

coral- feeding starfish Acanthaster planci. These relatively strong trophic cascade interactions have

the potential to short circuit energy flow throughout ecosystems resulting in a phase shift and

therefore reducing resilience. While the importance of 'top down' predatory control for ecosystem

resilience has been suspected for a long time, the evidence has been elusive. We demonstrate

increasing densities of Acanthaster along a gradient of increasing fishing pressure, consisting of 13

Fijian islands. At the two most heavily fished islands, with lowest predator densities, the benthic

communities had phase shifted from domination by calcifying organisms to domination by non-calcifying

organisms, e.g. algae, sponges, soft corals. We theoretically demonstrate how fishing

reduces coral reef resilience by removing predatory controls of starfish populations..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002






Simon R Dunn 1 , Jeremy C Thomason 2 , Martin D A LeTissier 2 , John C Bythell 2

1 School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Life Sciences Building, Crown Street,

Liverpool, L69 7ZB, UK

2 Centre for Coastal Management and Marine Sciences, School of Biological Sciences,

University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Claremont Rd, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK

Changes in activity of different forms of cell death in the symbiotic sea anemone Aiptasia sp. were

measured in response to different amounts of hyperthermic stress over time. Programmed cell death

(PCD) and cell necrosis activity within the host and zooxanthellae were identified using established

techniques (Dunn et al. 2002). The results indicated the amount of cells undergoing PCD within

anemone host tissue increased from an underlying cell turnover rate within hours of treatment. The

increase in PCD activity was temperature dependent and correlated to the onset of zooxanthellae

release from degraded endoderm. As different temperature treatments continued, the level of PCD

declined and the amount of cell necrosis increased indicating a thermal threshold for PCD activity.

Both PCD and cell necrosis of zooxanthellae increased exponentially, from an underlying cell

turnover rate, with time in all temperature treatments. Host cell degradation, zooxanthellae release

and degradation was correlated to bleaching in response to different amounts of hyperthermic stress.

Changes in activity of programmed cell death pathways within host cells and zooxanthellae is

important to the understanding of bleaching events, raising interesting questions regarding the

evolution of this process and the activation of the cellular trigger mechanisms involved.

S.R. Dunn, J.C. Bythell, M.D.A. Le Tissier, W.J. Burnett, J.C. Thomason (2002) Programmed cell

death and cell necrosis activity during hyperthermic stress- induced bleaching of the symbiotic sea

anemone Aiptasia sp. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 272 (1) 29-53..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002






Eisinger, M., Paster, M., van Treeck, P., Schuhmacher, H.

Institute of Ecology, Dpt. Hydrobiology

University of Essen

45117 Essen


We report here on a research project aiming to develop rehabilitation measures for mechanically

degraded reef areas with a minimum of environmental harm and interference with living resources.

The CONTRAST project (COral Nubbin TRAnsplantation STudy) – jointly run with the Egyptian

Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) and the Ras Mohammed National Park authorities – mainly

focuses on the application and further development of an environmentally friendly technology for

reef rehabilitation including trials to select suitable coral species for transplantation.

We used the ERCON (Electrochemical Reef CONstruction) technology to build the substrate for

coral transplantation. Through electrolysis, minerals from the seawater, mainly calcium carbonate,

can be precipitated onto a given matrix (preferably made of steel mesh) by connecting the mesh as

cathode; a titanium grid serves as anode. Installations with various designs were applied to follow the

development of the coral transplants.

Coral fragments (“nubbins”) were derived from ship groundings and other damaged reef sites. In

total, 597 nubbins were transplanted: 506 acroporids (Acropora hemprichii, A. digitifera, A.

eurystoma, A. granulosa, A. squarrosa, A. valida, A. hyacynthus, A. cytherea, A.clathrata) and 91

milleporids. Despite heavy grazing by the coralivorous snail Drupella cornus and strong algal

blooms during spring time 65% of all nubbins survived the first year. The lowest mortality rates were

observed in Millepora dichotoma (2%), Acropora hemprichii (19%) and A. eurystoma (18%). Axial

growth rates significantly varied between species. Among the acroporids, A. hemprichii exhibited the

highest values (19,4 mm/year), Millepora dichotoma grew 14,2 mm/year. All nubbins developed a

strong holdfast at their bases by overgrowing the grid and were hereby fixed in addition to the

electrochemical accretion process itself. Some nubbins extended their bases over more than 25 cm².

The promising results could be the base for the creation of “stepping stones” characterized by stable,

spaciously heterogeneous substrates carrying donor colonies transplanted onto these small

“protoreefs”. These protoreefs are intended to serve as receiver and provider of coral recruits. In this

way, the dispersal of sexual propagules could be enhanced over a large area. Apart from the

application of completely new structures in degraded reef areas (as demonstrated in this study) single

units could be inserted as “reef prostheses” in partially impoverished reefs..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




J. S. Feingold

National Coral Reef Institute, Nova Southeastern University Oceanographic Center, 8000

North Ocean Drive, Dania Beach, FL, 33004, USA

The cushion starfish Pentaceraster cumingi was observed feeding within a free- living coral

community located adjacent to Devil’s Crown, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. Here, numerous

individuals of the fungiid coral Diaseris distorta and unattached branching colonies of Psammocora

stellata occur in 15m depth on calcareous sand and coral rubble substrata. Of 440 Pentaceraster seen

within the coral community during 13 different observation periods 58.2% were feeding (cardiac

stomach everted onto substratum and/or coral) and 41.8% were not feeding. During 4 observation

periods 39 Pentaceraster displayed strong avoidance of Diaseris individuals and preferentially

consumed colonies of Psammocora. Although Diaseris composed 29% of the bottom cover around

these feeding Pentaceraster, it was a food item 5% of the time. In contrast, Psammocora composed

36% of the bottom cover, but was a food item 64% of the time. No preference was shown for feeding

on Psammocora skeletons that commonly supported growths of macroalgae, bryozoans and other

encrusting macro-invertebrates. Dead Psammocora composed 32% of the bottom cover and was a

food item 31% of the time. The relative importance of Pentaceraster corallivory in this community

will be assessed with special reference to coral population dynamics following disturbances

associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Thomas Felis 1 , Jürgen Pätzold 1 , Henning Kuhnert 1 , Saber A. Al-Rousan 1,2 , Salim M. Al-Moghrabi

2 , Gerold Wefer 1

1 Fachbereich Geowissenschaften, Universität Bremen,

Klagenfurter Str., 28359 Bremen, Germany 2 Marine Science Station, P.O. Box 195, Aqaba 77110, Jordan

The northern Red Sea is one of the rare locations where massive annually banded corals grow at 28-29°

N. A coral oxygen isotope record from this subtropical region revealed the strong influence of

mid- to high- latitude climatic modes on Middle East climate variability during the past 250 years. An

oscillation with a period of 5-6 years in the coral record reflects atmospheric teleconnections

associated with the Arctic Oscillation/North Atlantic Oscillation, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, but

also with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation.

Fossil corals from the northern Red Sea provide the opportunity to investigate whether these

teleconnections where active during selected time windows throughout the late Quaternary. A 5-6-year

periodicity is detected in a 44- year coral oxygen isotope record from the last interglacial period.

This could indicate Arctic Oscillation- like atmospheric variability during Marine Isotope Stage 5e.

With respect to late Holocene climate variability a new 100-year coral oxygen isotope record from

about 3000 calendar years BP will be presented.

The application of the coral Sr/Ca paleothermometer in conjunction with oxygen isotopes indicates

cooler and fresher mean conditions in the northern Red Sea during the last interglacial, with a higher

sea surface temperature seasonality of about 50%. Coral records for time windows during the mid-Holocene

indicate an increased seasonality in the hydrologic balance between 6000 and 4500

calendar years BP.

Felis et al. (2000), Paleoceanography 15, 679-694.

Rimbu et al. (2001), Geophysical Research Letters 28, 2959-2962..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002



Michael E. Field, M. Bothner, E. Brown, S. Cochran, P. Jokiel, A. Ogston, C. Storlazzi,

US Geological Survey, Pacific Science Center,

1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA, 95064 USA

Terrigenous sediment run-off and deposition on coral reefs is recognized to potentially have

significant impact on coral condition in Hawai’i and other high islands in the tropical Pacific and

Caribbean. Human habitation of these islands has resulted in significant changes in the drainage

basins and to coastal areas, and these changes have in turn influenced the volume of terrigenous and

carbonate sediment released to the reefs. Within the past century, significant changes in land use have

accelerated the amount of sediment transported to and stored on the reef off south Moloka’i.

Deforestation, agriculture, domestic and feral grazers, hillside housing construction, and coastal

development have exacerbated historical run-off of sediment.

The south coast of Moloka’i contains an extensive fringing reef nearly 50 km in length, the longest

and most extensive reef tract in the Hawaiian Islands. The reef exhibits a richness and density of live

coral that are amongst the highest in the islands; many areas of the reef exhibit more than 80 % live

coral cover. A contributing factor to the success of corals in constructing a major reef structure on

south Moloka’i is its setting. The reef is protected from damaging northerly storms, from persistent

northeast trade winds, and from most southerly swell events by its south- facing exposure and

shielding by neighbor islands.

Our approach to understanding sedimentation and its impact on the Moloka’i coral reef system

includes three primary efforts: mapping terrigenous deposits and their sedimentologic and

geochemical characteristics; measuring relevant processes that inject and redistribute sediment to the

reef system; and real- time monitoring of sedimentation “events” on the reef.

The inner most reef flat (within 50 m of the shoreline) is characterized by a 10- to 30-cm thick

muddy sand layer. Farther seaward (>500 m) sediment thickness over the hard substrate is highly

variable (0 to 50 cm, and in places > 1.0 m) owing to the variation in relief of the ancestral reef

platform. Areas of exposed limestone and exposed old coral ridges are barren of sediment and

intervening low areas and small reef holes are sites of accumulation. Mud, mostly terrigenous in

origin, dominates in the nearshore zone; elsewhere on the reef flat sediment is mostly carbonate sand

with minor amounts of admixed terrigenous-carbonate mud.

Terrigenous mud is transported to the coast during major rain events that occur on annual to decadal

time scales. Fine sediment deposited on the reef flat is trapped in a ~200- m wide belt where it resides

for periods of years to decades. Measurements of waves, currents, turbidity show that a portion of the

fine sediment stored on the reef flat is resuspended daily by trade wind waves occurring during high

tides. Thus fine sediment is effectively recycled and small additions have repeated effects in blocking

light, abrading and mantling live coral, and decreasing recruitment sites. An added impact from

hillside erosion is an apparent increase in nutrients associated with sediment particles, which leads to

rapid growth of fleshy algae. Some impacted areas of the reef during the last century now appear to

be recovering, while others are not..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Maoz Fine, Yossi Loya

Department of Zoology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 69978 Israel

Bleaching of corals results in the loss of their symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) and/or their pigments.

Coral bleaching is often linked to global climate change, especially elevated seawater temperature and

high solar irradiance. When the coral loses its zooxanthellae, it loses its main energy resource, putting at

risk its essential biological functions. Certain coral species survive severe bleaching events better than

others, leading to major structural shifts in some coral communities. One of the most intriguing

questions consequently being asked by coral reef researchers is why are some coral species more

resilient to bleaching events and better survive them than others?

Integration within hermatypic corals has long been the focus of scientific interest. Resource integration

is a basic life-preserving ability and one of the most important advantages of clonal and colonial

organisms. Nevertheless, this ability has never been investigated in corals undergoing bleaching. In the

present study, we focused on resource integration and translocation of 14 C-labeled photoassimilates in

the temperate Mediterranean stony coral Oculina patagonica during and between bleaching events.

Using point labeling ( 14 C) techniques, we labeled healthy parts of the colony and examined oriented

translocation of photoassimilates towards regions of high demand, such as regions of the colony that

undergo lesion repair and regions interacting with competing neighboring organisms. In each

experiment, we labeled colonies at different bleaching stages. Lesion recovery rate, competitive abilities

with neighboring organisms and translocation of photoassimilates during these processes were studied at

different bleaching stages. We have showed that lesion recovery and competitive superiority are coupled

with oriented resource translocation. We also found the existence of a bleaching threshold that

postpones intra-colonial integration in O. patagonica at bleaching percentage greater than 40%.

Bleached colonies of O. patagonica with >40% bleached surface area showed low resource integration

and low translocation rates of photosynthetic products. This is reflected in low lesion recovery rates of

bleached colonies and competitive inferiority (with neighboring organisms) of bleached colonies

compared with non-bleached colonies. At the same time, it is possible that such disintegration between

the healthy sections of the colony and the bleached ones contributes to overall colony survival by

preserving the resources within the section with greatest chances of recovery after the bleaching event.

Indeed, over 90% of bleached O. patagonica colonies survive and recover from bleaching during winter.

We suggest that coral species with low bleaching threshold are better survivo rs of bleaching events as

they cease translocation of resources at earlier stages of bleaching, maintaining a reservoir of resources

for survival and recovery..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Jean-François Flot, Makoto Tsuchiya

Department of Chemistry, Biology and Marine Science, University of the Ryukyus

Senbaru 1, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan

Human cells contain 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes; this chromosome number is an invariant

of our species. Much information regarding our biology can be read directly by looking at our

chromosomes: for instance, biological gender depends in most case on the presence or absence of

sexual chromosomes, recognizable by their shape. The origin of our species can be inferred from the

morphological comparison of our chromosomes with the ones from apes and monkeys. In plants such

as wheat, loss and gain of chromosomes and hybridization lead to network- like (and not tree-like)


In spite of the huge interest on chromosomes numbers and morphologies in other groups of living

organisms, there is little information available concerning scleractinian coral chromosomes. Up to

now, chromosome numbers in tropical reef corals have only been published for 29 species out of

about 800, which represents less than 4%. These researches have addressed so far only 6 genera (out

of about 110), in 3 families (out of 18) (Heyward 1985; Kenyon 1997).

Existing protocols all make the task of determining chromosome numbers very cumbersome and

time-consuming, as the starting material is living coral embryos and the method yields only a small

fraction of exploitable chromosome preparations. In this research, we have been trying to improve

existing protocols and to find new methods to quickly produce accurate and reliable chromosome

preparations that may allow us not only to determine chromosome numbers but also to study their


Coral embryos were collected at James Cook University’s Orpheus Island Research Station, in the

central section of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (North Queensland, Australia), from December

1 st to 12 th , 2001; at the Akajima Marine Science Laboratory, Japan from May 26 th to June 2 nd , 2002;

and at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology at Coconut Island, Oahu, from June 16 th to August 14 th ,

2002. 10-11 hours embryos were put in seawater containing 3% colchicine for two hours, which was

followed by a 30- minute osmotic shock treatment in a mix of 65% seawater and 35% tap water.

Embryos were then fixed and their chromosomes observed using a wide array of different methods.

Heyward, A. (1985). Proc. 5th Int. Coral Reef Congress, Tahiti, 1985, vol.6: 47-51

Kenyon, J.C. (1997). Evolution 51(3): 756-767


J.-F.F's research was supported by a scholarship from the Japanese Ministry of Education

(Monbusho) and by a research grant from the PADI Project Aware Foundation...Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Galzin René, Lecchini David

Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes – UMR CNRS 8046

Université de Perpignan

66860 Perpignan cedex – France

The settlement stage of coral reef fish, period during which larvae coming from the ocean take up

residence in a particular population, represents a relatively short time (just a few weeks) in the life

cycle. But it has been proposed as the crucial stage of the life cycle, because it can determine the

dynamic and structure of the adult communities. This stage is characterised by the high mortality of

coral reef fish new settlers (80 to 95 % of the population decrease by predation within one to two

months) and by a specific settlement strategy (selective choice of suitable habitat). In the present

work, we investigate the influence of specific factors of settlement strategy (shelter availability,

interaction with conspecifics or competitors, and density of new settlers colonising the lagoon) on

predation on coral reef fish new settlers. We choose to use Chromis viridis of 10 mm (fish just

settled) and 20 mm long (fish already adapted in the reef) as study model. Our results demonstrated a

significant variation in the mortality of 10 and 20 mm new settlers according to substratum. This

influence may be due to the characteristics of shelter: adaptability of shelter to the size of the new

settlers, quality of shelter which corresponds to the possibility of access to the habitat for the fish, and

acclimatization of fish to an artificial habitat, identical to their natural habitat. Alternatively,

predation could inhibit interaction between conspecifics and competitors during the settlement stage,

when predation pressure is strong on the new settlers. Finally, the density of new settlers could

influence predation (density-dependent mortality) whe n the density is high. But when the density

becomes low, this mortality does not seem to be influenced by the density of new settlers (density-independent

mortality). This means that, according to the larval supply, either the density-dependent

mortality (pattern of competition) or the density- independent mortality (pattern of recruitment

limitation) determines the juvenile population stock. This study, then, shows this high mortality by

predation and the determinant factors of settlement strategy influence each other, and thus determines

the dynamic and structure of the adult communities. This conclusion also finds a field of application

in projects of coral reef replenishment..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Caroline Garaway, Nicole Esteban, Vicki Cowan

Marine Resources Assessment Group Ltd

47 Princes Gate, London, SW7 2QA, UK

In the Caribbean, MPA’s are seen as a prominent means of addressing coastal resource management.

Ecological impacts of MPA's have been well researched and are usually shown to be positive for

biodiversity (Dixon et al., 1993) and fisheries management (Roberts and Polunin, 1993; Wantiez et

al., 1997). Amongst advocates of MPA’s there has been a tendency to extol their potential value in

socio-economic terms. In reality, the establishment of protected areas often generates deep

resentment in communities that find themselves excluded from resources to which they have

traditionally had access, undermining the viability of those protected areas (Horrill et al., 1996).

Over the last ten years, management of MPA’s has evolved from being a preservation tool to

integrating considerations of development, sustainable use of resources and stakeholder participation

(Meffe et al., 1997). With this focus, it is believed that they can play a key role in conserving natural

ecosystems and contribute substantially to sustainable development (IUCN, 1997).

The purpose of this research is to identify current institutional constraints to, and development

options for, successfully implementing MPA’s in a way that leads to a sustained improvement in the

livelihoods of poor people in the Caribbean. A key premise of this work is that successful

implementation and beneficial stakeholder outcomes, inc luding outcomes for the poor, are

inextricably linked and priority will be given to understanding the dynamic relationship between

processes and outcomes. Particular attention has been paid to systems that include community

participation in decision- making to see what benefits this brings to the poorer groups and to

understand the structures and processes needed to achieve it.

An initial review of institutional and ecosystem characteristics of 80 MPA’s in the Central and

Antillean biogeographic zones of the Caribbean took place mid 2001 (Geoghegan et al., 2001) and

was succeeded by an analysis of operational and non-operational MPA case studies in Belize,

Jamaica, Turks & Caicos Islands and Dominica to investigate factors contributing to successful and

unsuccessful outcomes of MPA management. The participatory basis to all methods of enquiry and

series of facilitated workshops has brought researchers and a range of stakeholders together to

address key issues and explore solutions. Research at the operational MPA case studies involved

evaluation of the impacts of successfully implemented MPA management on poor people’s

livelihoods and included PA (participatory appraisal) exercises (e.g. wealth and well being; trends in

capital assets; changes in livelihood opportunities; ease of access to local institutions to improve

livelihood options) to understand poorer groups’ perceptions of MPA impacts. A series of

biophysical studies were undertaken by the University of the West Indies (UWI) to assess the

environmental sustainability of MPA’s. A legal review was also conducted to understand how the

external policy environment influences MPA management.

This presentation will explore research findings, including the overall review of institutional and

ecosystem characteristics of Caribbean MPA’s and a more in-depth evaluation of the factors

contributing to successful and unsuccessful outcomes of MPA management and evaluation of the

impacts of successfully implemented MPA management..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Gektidis, M.1 , Chadwick-Furman, N. E.2 , Goffredo, S.3 , Dubinsky, Z. 2

1 Geologisch Paläontologisches Institut, J.W. Goethe Universität, Senckenberganlage 32-34,

60054 Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 2 Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900, Israel, and Interuniversity

Institute for Marine Science, P. O. Box 469, Eilat 88103, Israel. 3 Department of Evolutionary and Experimental Biology, University of Bologna, via F. Selmi 3,

I-40126 Bologna, Italy

The distribution and abundance of carbonate-eroding microorganisms was investigated along a

bathymetrical gradient in waters of the Red Sea adjacent to Eilat, Israel. Experimental carbonate

substrates were deployed in depths of 0m, 6m, 15m and 30m, placed in clear and shaded habitats for

a period of 6 months. The community of microendoliths that had colonised the substrates by then was

taxonomically analysed. It shows a large correspondence with microendolithic communities from

Atlantic, Caribbean and Pacific marine environments. The same array of species of Cyanobacteria,

Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Fungi was found to colonise comparable water-depths in Eilat. This

study concludes and summarizes a series of investigations on the impact of microendoliths in marine

tropical environments..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002



J. David George, David M. John

The Natural History Museum

Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK

Most coral reefs in the southern Arabian Gulf are shallower than 10m and normally are subject to

very high summer seawater temperatures and year-round high salinities. In fact the southern Gulf

has the highest global summer seawater temperatures and the corals (or their symbiotic

zooxanthellae) are probably surviving near their upper physiological tolerance limits. These reefs are

composed primarily of the branching coral Acropora or of colonies of mound-forming Porites. In

many cases inshore reefs fringe the outer edge of shallow-water limestone platforms that often extend

seaward for many kilometres from a landmass, be it the mainland or an island. Offshore patch reefs

form a cap on a base of limestone, sandstone or fasht.

In the summer through to the autumn of 1996 we observed that approximately 98% of the Acropora

bleached and subsequently died along the coast of Abu Dhabi and adjacent Dubai, although the non-branching

corals were largely unaffected. The death of the Acropora coincided precisely with a

prolonged period of higher-than-normal seawater temperatures. Later a similar mass mortality of

Acropora was reported by divers in Qatar and Bahrain where summer seawater temperatures were

also abnormally high for an extended period. An even more prolonged incidence of abnormally high

seawater temperatures occurred in the summer of 1998 and this resulted in the majority of the

remaining reef- forming corals in Abu Dhabi being severely affected; an estimated 50-80% mortality

being observed in the western and central regions of the Emirate.

A consequence of the coral death has been a dramatic increase in cover of the once relatively

inconspicuous non- geniculate red coralline algae and mat or turf forms that have now colonise the

dead coral skeletons. The most abundant and conspicuous coralline alga overgrowing the dead coral

(Lithophyllum kotschyanum) is slowing the disintegration of the branching Acropora skeletons in

particular, by providing them with a coating of limestone. Nevertheless, the relentless activities of

boring clionid sponges and bivalve molluscs along with the grazing of greatly increased numbers of

the sea urchin Echinometra mathaei are gradually reducing the Acropora thickets to rubble and in

some places are significantly reducing the volume of the dead Porites mounds.

Some coral regeneration and recruitment has taken place since the 1998 incident. However, the

gradual increase in average seawater temperatures in the region over the last 30 years and the more

frequent occurrence of prolonged higher-than-normal summer seawater temperatures leads us to

believe that the future of coral reefs in the southern Arabian Gulf is bleak. We speculate that in the

next few decades the once coral-dominated reefs will become transformed into ones composed

essentially of coralline and turf- forming algae with shallower areas becoming overgrown during the

cooler winter months by dense forests dominated by fleshy brown macroalgae..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




David S. Gilliam 1 , Susan L. Thornton 1 , Louis E. Fisher 2 , and Kenneth Banks 2

1 National Coral Reef Institute (NCRI)

Nova Southeastern University Oceanographic Center (NSU OC)

8000 North Ocean Drive

Dania Beach, Florida 33004 USA

2 Broward County Department of Planning and Environmental Protection (BC DPEP)

218 S.W. 1 st Ave

Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33301 USA

Significant coral reef community development along the eastern shelf of the United States is often

described as stopping north of the Florida Keys (Latitude 230’N). Nevertheless, a coral reef

ecosystem continues northward (160+ km) of the Keys, through Miami- Dade, Broward, and into

Palm Beach Counties, Florida (Latitude 2N). The coral communities associated with this high

latitude reef system have approximately 30 species of stony corals with a coverage of 2-3% and

includes a diverse assemblage of soft corals, sponges and fishes. NSU OC and NCRI are working

with local resource mangers (BC DPEP) on a reef monitoring program that collects information on

stony (species richness, cover, mortality and disease) and soft corals (abundance), sponges

(abundance), fishes (abundance and species) and sedimentation (rate and grain size). The reef system

of Southeast Florida is typically described as having three reef ridges/terraces that run parallel to

shore in sequentially deeper water. The general depth of the crest of the inshore (or first) reef is 5 m;

the middle (or second) reef is 10 m; and the offshore (or third) reef is 17 m. Water temperatures were

measured in 2000 and 2001 and ranged from a minimum of 19.5 °C in the winter months (December

– February) to a maximum of 31.0 °C in the summer months (July – September). This reef system

occurs near a highly urbanized area (the population of Broward County exceeds 1.6 million people,

two inlets discharge offshore, and the reefs are within 3 km of the coast). As such, commercial and

recreational fishing and diving, major shipping ports, ship groundings and dredging activities

influence the system. The unique features of this reef system, and its proximity and value to the urban

community of Southeast Florida, demand continued monitoring and increased investigation into the

processes that affect it..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Goffredo S., Mattioli G., Zaccanti F.

Department of Evolutionary and Experimental Biology,

University of Bologna, via F. Selmi 3, I-40126 Bologna, Italy

Studies performed to date on the population dynamics in scleractinian corals refer, mainly, to tropical

species. Although scleractinian corals are common to the Mediterranean benthic fauna, data

concerning demography in species of this area are rare. Balanophyllia europaea is a solitary

zooxanthellate coral living off the rocky Mediterranean coast at depths ranging from 0 to 50m. Its

reproductive biology is characterized by simultaneous hermaphroditism and brooding. We studied

individual growth rates and the structure of the population living off the coast of Leghorn at Calafuria

(eastern Ligurian Sea). B. europaea individuals living in this area were found at depths ranging from

1 to 13 meters with an average population density of 16 individuals m -2 (SE = 3); maximum density

was reached at 6 m depth with a peak of 113 individuals m -2 (SE = 33). At this depth, we studied the

growth patterns in 62 individuals for a two-year period. The linear growth rate was found to be

inversely correlated to the individual size of the polyps. As the polyps length increased (= major

diameter of the polyp’s oral disc) growth rate decreased. This correlation held true to a maximum

length of 21 mm at which point growth rate became practically zero. Von Bertalanffy’s theoretical

growth function obtained on the basis of measurements taken in the field was confirmed by counting

the annual skeletal growth bands on specimens scanned using CT (computed tomography). From

growth data, we estimated the ages of 1814 individuals. The resulting survival curve showed that

average age of individuals in this population was 4 years with a maximum longevity of 20 years.

Compared to populations of B. elegans living off the north American Pacific coast, the other

congeneric species for which data on population dynamics and reproductive bio logy are known,

individuals of B. europaea achieve greater lengths and longevity (about two and three times,

respectively) and a lower population density (about 35 times lower). The difference in existing

demographic features pertaining to the two species summed to the actual differences in their ecology

(B. europaea is zooxanthellate and B. elegans is azooxanthellate) and in their reproductive biology

(hermaphroditism in B. europaea and gonochorism in B. elegans; and an elevated fecundity, short

incubation period with small planktonic planulae in B. europaea and the exact opposite in B. elegans)

point to the fact that in the two species exist two opposite life strategies..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Marie Le Goff-Vitry, Alex Rogers

School of Ocean and Earth Science

University of Southampton

Southampton Oceanography Centre

European Way

Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK

The azooxanthellate scleractinian coral, Lophelia pertusa, is distributed globally on continental

slopes, mid-oceanic ridges and in fjords. In the North East Atlantic, it is the main reef constructing

species in the upper bathyal zone on continental margins and offshore banks. These cold, deep coral

reefs are associated with a highly diverse animal community. These ecosystems are still poorly

understood, but under increasing threat from the expanding human activities beyond the continental

shelf, and notably bottom-trawling. Recommendations are needed to monitor Europe’s deep-water

coral margin. In order to understand the capacities of the coral to withstand human impacts and to

recover from them subsequently, data concerning the population genetic variability, mode of

reproduction and dispersal must be gathered.

Efficient molecular tools can be used to address such population genetic structure issues.

Microsatellites are non-coding DNA sequences constituted by short tandemly repeated motifs

dispersed throughout the genome. Because they are inherited in a Mendelian manner, selectively

neutral and very variable among individuals, they can be used as high-resolution molecular markers

for investigating population substructure. For this purpose, a genomic library enriched for

microsatellites was constituted for Lophelia pertusa and ten specific microsatellite markers were

developed to screen a set of individuals sampled at different sites distributed along the European

margin. Comparison with a model population, described by Hardy-Weinberg principle as panmictic

and under no selection force, showed a marked departure from this state of equilibrium. This reveals

the substantial contribution of asexual reproduction to the maintenance of the population and

suggests the existence of local, isolated sub-populations in the considered geographic area.

In order to check these preliminary hypotheses, a more detailed analysis, involving inter-site

comparisons and using bigger sample sizes, was performed. As a result, North East Atlantic Lophelia

population appeared highly structured, suggesting a very low gene flow between areas. The relative

contribution of sexual versus asexual reproduction to the maintenance of populations showed

considerable variation among sites. These results have strong implications for the recovery of the

reefs following human impact; recolonisation of a disturbed area is likely to be slow. Moreover, the

observed heterogeneous distribution of the genetic diversity across the margin means that the loss of

a specific population can affect the overall genetic diversity for the species across the entire area.

Further statistical analysis is to be performed on the existing data and the microsatellite approach will

be combined with other molecular methods to check the validity of these conclusions and to get a

broader view of the genetic history of Lophelia populations along the European margin..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002



Ed Green, Mark Spalding, Corinna Ravillious, Jamie Oliver

UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre,

219 Huntingdon Road, Cambridge, CB3 0DL, UK

With increasing global environmental degradation calls for ‘protection targets’ are being made more

frequently. For example the 4 th World Congress on National Parks and Protected Areas in 1993

advised that 10% of each biome receive protection. Likewise, the 1 st Symposium on Marine

Conservation Biology in 1997 called for an increase in the number and effectiveness of MPAs so that

20% of all nations’ Exclusive Economic Zones and the High Seas be protected by the year 2020. One

problem with such recommendations for marine ecosystems is that the data have not been available

to calculate the quantity protected and to estimate when targets for protection have been reached.

Increases in the accuracy and resolution of global coral reef maps have recently been possible

through the International Coral Reef Action Network (ICRAN) and the research behind the World

Atlas of Coral Reefs. Considerable improvement to global information on those marine protected

areas (MPAs) which contain coral reefs has been made through the same initiatives. Consequently

our understanding of the global distribution of coral reefs and the efforts being made to manage them

through the use of protected areas has never been better. New estimates of global coral reef area have

been produced and the inventory of data on coral reef MPAs – location, size, boundaries - is more


The results of ongoing analysis which has combined coral reef maps and MPA data will be presented.

The amount of coral reef presently being managed within MPAs will be estimated, and variations by

region and management regime will be calculated. A comparison will be made between protection

offered by nationally and internationally designated MPAs. The utility of global ‘protection targets’

for coral reefs will be discussed in relation to management effectiveness, which for most MPAs

remains unknown..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002



Guest JR, Baird AH, Goh BPL, Chou LM

Department of Biological Sciences

National University of Singapore

Blk S2 14 Science Drive 4



There are very few reports of multispecific, synchronous coral spawning from reefs in Southeast

Asia. It has been suggested that on low latitude reefs the ‘mass spawning’ phenomenon may be

absent, or significantly reduced. Singapore is a small, industrialized and heavily populated Southeast

Asian country, located approximately north of the equator. Despite there being high levels of

sedimentation and turbidity in the coastal waters, reasonably diverse coral communities can be found

around some of the islands to the south of the mainland. Histological analysis of selected coral

species sampled between September 1999 and October 2000 showed the presence of mature gametes

at two times of the year (Feb – April and Sept – Nov). Sampling of Acropora species to determine

the extent of reproductive synchrony within the population was conducted at Singapore’s southern

most reef (Raffles Lighthouse, 10’N 1045’E). Sampling was carried out by breaking off a

branch from the middle of the colony and noting the presence or absence of mature eggs (which are

pigmented) or immature eggs (which are white). In March 2002, a few days prior to the full moon,

48.5% of the Acropora population had mature eggs, 10% had immature eggs and the rest had none (n

= 113). In April 2002, 23% of the Acropora population contained mature eggs (n = 74), and in May

2002 none of the sampled colonies contained mature eggs (n = 79). On the 3 rd , 4 th and 5 th nights after

the March 2002 full moon, synchronous spawning of corals was observed on the reef at Raffles

Lighthouse. At least 18 different coral species from 10 genera and 5 families (Acroporidae, Faviidae,

Merulinidae, Oculinidae and Pectiniidae) were observed releasing gametes over the three nights. This

observation demonstrates that mass coral spawning can indeed be a characteristic of equatorial reefs.

The possible environmental cues involved in synchronizing corals on low latitude reefs will be

discussed..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Jason Hall-Spencer 1 , Michael J. Risk 2

1 University Marine Biological Station

Millport, Isle of Cumbrae, KA28 0EG, UK

2 School of Geography and Geology,

McMaster Univ., Hamilton ON Canada L8S 4M1

The continental shelves of both Europe and North America support thriving deep-water “reefs.” Their

distribution is puzzling: northern Europe and the southern USA have Lophelia reefs, whereas Canada

has gorgonian forests. Hovland has suggested that Lophelia reefs are nourished from below, via

hydrocarbon seepage. All reefs, deep and shallow, may therefore be classified as to their relative

dependence on energy sources:

-sunlight:via zooxanthellae- most modern offshore coral reefs.

-seepage: via bacterial remobilization-northern Europe, Western Australia, Louisiana.

-exogenous: zooplankton; POM and DOM from terrestrial sources- inshore reefs, Paleozoic rugosan


Deepwater reefs are under at least as much stress as shallow reefs, with reports ranging from

widespread damage to complete extirpation (usually from trawling). They need protecting, because of

their immense value in fisheries, the priceless climate archive in the coral skeletons, and (last but not

least) as possible sources of gametes to recolonise and re-establish reefs on the shelves if we ever

clean up our act.

Both types of reef-Lophelia bioherms and gorgonian forests-represent habitat complexity, and hence

are deep-water FAD’s. The Lophelia reefs are sometimes large accumulations of skeletal debris, with

a reticulate surface coral veneer-these seem to attract monkfish and demersal roundfish (esp.

grenadiers). The Canadian coral forests, B. T. (Before Trawling) formed extensive thickets, with

individual corals to 10 m in height. These were select areas for halibut, cod and redfish. The decrease

in fish catches concomitant with habitat destruction has caused erection of deep-water MPA’s in

Norway and off Tasmania. Canada has done nothing.

Evolution of the deep coral fauna is a mystery. Atlantic zonation may be temperature dependant, but

temperature alone does not explain the disjunct distribution of Lophelia. Reproductive habits of

individual corals will be important. Some “deep” species can range from 4 km to 4 m in depth, and

some exist in zooxanthellate and azooxanthellate forms. If indeed dire predictions come true, and we

lose all our shallow reefs in the next few decades, the only hope of natural recolonisation of the

shallow shelves will be the deep survivors.

Verification of some of these predictions will come from the corals themselves. Deep-water corals

are far better climate recorders than are reef corals: they live at all depths in all oceans, and have

equivalent lifespans (several centuries). They are reliable (and KIE-free) temperature recorders, with

monthly precision. Our research group has just retrieved a 250-year record of the North Atlantic

Oscillation, which drives the location of the Gulf Stream..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Deirdre E. Hart

School of Geography and Oceanography,

University of New South Wales ADFA,

Canberra, ACT 2600, Australia

This paper reports on a PhD project concerning the nature of contemporary ecological, sediment and

hydrodynamic interactions within a reef flat system, the relationship between different reef flat

environments and the adjacent island beach and, in particular, the present sediment sources of the


Fieldwork for the investigation was conducted on Warraber, a small, oval-shaped coral cay and large

platform reef system with a combined total area of 11 km 2 , in the central Torres Strait, Australia. An

array of beach profiles and reef flat transects were surveyed, beach and reef flat sediments were

sampled and an ecological census was conducted on the reef flat. Wave, current and tide measuring

instruments were used to examine water flows across the reef flat and longshore and cross-shore

flows around the island margin. Twelve sets of four-directional sediment traps were employed in

conjunction with the hydrodynamic instruments.

Initial analyses indicate that water flows across the reef flat were dominated by topographically

modified tidal flow. Reef flat exposure and submergence reflected the interaction of platform

morphology with water levels and exerted strong controls on the energy conditions, and the

ecological and sedimentology characteristics of each reef flat zone. Eight distinct ecological-sediment

reef flat zones were identified. These include muddy-sandflats with brown algae, large

areas of sandflat covered with gastropods, broad bands of dense branching corals and a diverse,

encrusted, coral-algal rim. The size and composition of insitu reef flat sediments was diverse,

variable and related to the local carbonate producers. The beach sediments, in contrast, were less

variable, being dominated by gastropods and, to a lesser extent, coral and calcareous algae fragments.

The present supply of beach sediments originated from a limited area of the reef flat, including

elevated sandflats to the east and dense branching coral zones to the west of the island. Sediment

transport rates around the island were very variable and dominated by longshore movement. Small

seasona l changes were observed in the island beaches whilst significant seasonal differences were

observed in reef flat sediment deposits.

Initial findings indicate that important factors controlling the variability of gross sediment transport

rates across the Warraber reef flat were exposure and submergence, the strength of tidal currents and

the availability of insitu material. The potential for material from each reef flat zone to contribute to

beach deposits was, in part, a function of proximity to the island. However, this potential was also

strongly controlled by more complex interactions between the tides, reef flat water levels and

topography, and by the availability of appropriately sized sediment. Further analyses will aim to (1)

determine the rate of sediment production in the various zones of the reef flat; (2) refine the sediment

pathways across the reef flat and onto the island beach; and (3) tease out the relative roles of tides,

topography, hydrodynamic patterns and distance as determinants of reef flat and beach sediment

sources and sinks..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002



Marshall L. Hayes*, Mark J. Vignola

Duke University Marine Laboratory

135 Duke Marine Lab Rd.

Beaufort, NC 28516 USA

* present address :

Observatoire Océanologique Européen Centre Scientifique de Monaco

Av. Saint Martin

Monte Carlo 98000 Monaco

Research interest in the association between corals and microbes has increased dramatically in recent

years, particularly in response to evidence of disease emergence in the world’s coral reef ecosystems.

Here, we explore the potential of using bacteria labelled with fluorescent proteins in experimental

studies of bacterial interactions with the coral mucosal surface and the underlying epithelium. Three

fluorescent-protein expression vectors (p519gfp, p519cfp and p519rfp) have been successfully

transferred via tri-parental conjugation to a bacterial strain implicated in the white plague type II

disease in scleractinians. The genes encoded on these plasmid vectors differ in the spectral signal of

their fluorescent products, thus providing flexibility when dealing with problems of coral

autofluorescence. In our studies, the temperate stony coral, Oculina arbuscula, serves as the host

organism for closed-system inoculation experiments. We show that fluorescent-protein expression

does not adversely affect bacterial survival and activity and that maintenance of the plasmid vector

remains stable even in the absence of the counterselectable marker. Epifluorescence and confocal

laser scanning microscopy are used to visualize the presence of pathogenic bacterial cells in

association with coral cells. In principal, this approach may promise a rapid and non-destructive

method to track bacterial adhesion, colonization, and perhaps even invasion of coral tissue in situ..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002



Gregor Hodgson, Jennifer Liebeler, Georg Heiss

Reef Check, Institute of the Environment

1362 Hershey Hall Box 951496

University of California at Los Angeles

Los Angeles CA 90095 – 1496 USA

During the five-years from 1997 to 2001, 1081 reefs in all oceans were monitored using the Reef

Check protocol. The results of the 1997 survey were the first to demonstrate that there was a global

coral reef crisis due to overfishing. Subsequent results have shown a continuing decline in many of

the 25 Reef Check indicators of reef health such as butterflyfish, grunts, grouper, parrotfish and sea

cucumber. Several indicators such as lobster and Tridacna clams are missing from most reefs. Over

the five-year period, the percentage of living hard coral has been consistently higher in the Pacific

than the Atlantic. Recently killed coral was four times higher in the Pacific than the Atlantic in 1998

following the global bleaching event, but is now equal in the two regions. Since 53% of the

monitored reefs have some form of legal protection, and 90% are in developing countries,

enforcement appears to be a continuing challenge. In these protected sites, diver damage was ranked

as a major perceived impact in both oceans, with fishing and sewage also important. The theory that

participation in Reef Check wo uld lead to increased stewardship has been demonstrated by teams

helping to establish and maintain successful marine parks in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002



Ove Hoegh-Guldberg

Centre for Marine Studies,

University of Queensland, St Lucia,

QLD 4072, Australia

The growing link between mass coral bleaching and global climate change is driving an urgent need

for information on how changes in global sea temperature, the major factor driving coral bleaching

events across the globe, will affect the viability of the world’s coral reef ecosystems. The potential

scale of this ecological change is of major concern in both developing and developed nations. In

response to this concern, UNESCO’s Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC)

established an expert Study Group focused on Coral Bleaching and Related Indicators of Coral Reef

Health in 2000. The aim of this group was to integrate and develop research that will allow more

reliable predictions of climate impacts and the development of better bioindicator tools for managers.

At the first meeting held 9-11 April 2001 at IOC, Paris wide ranging discussions between the group

and the representative of a related World Bank project led to the fusion of the group to become the

IOC/UNESCO-World Bank Targeted Working Group on Coral Bleaching. The immediate goals of

the reconstituted group are to identify critical gaps in our knowledge of the molecular to ecological

processes involved in mass coral bleaching, and to develop specific, testable hypotheses that will be

the focus of targeted investigations in four key ocean areas. The ocean areas selected are located in

East Africa (Zanzibar), the Philippines (Bolinao), Eastern Australia (southern GBR) and Mexico

(Puerto Morelos). In addition to targeted research activities, the work plan is aiming to involve local

scientists and students in a series of activities that will range from training workshops to collaborative

experiments. The project development is partially funded by a World Bank Block B grant, in

addition to funding from host institutions like the University of Queensland and is designed to

explore how a full work plan can be implemented to pursue a complex set of questions over 5 years.

A 2002 workshop on Heron Island was the first step in testing the concept of targeted research within

one of the four ocean areas. A large group (32 scientists and 18 postgraduate students) collaborated

on testing hypotheses developed during the April 2001 discussions in Paris. The coincidence of a

major bleaching event across the Great Barrier Reef during the workshop led to some unusual

opportunities for the targeted working group to pursue questions associated with a “natural”

bleaching event. Among the highlights of this successful workshop were a major audit of symbiotic

dinoflagellate strains, the discovery of new coral diseases for the GBR region, new insights into the

role of cell suicide and apoptosis in bleaching and the important role of clonal variability in coral

stress tolerance..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




C. Hueerkamp*, E. Weil**

*Center for Tropical Marine Ecology ZMT, Bremen, Germany.

**Dep. Marine Sciences, U. of Puerto Rico. Box 908, Lajas PR 00667 USA

Reef-building corals can complement their nutrition needs in many different ways. The two most

important are translocation of photosynthetic products from the endosymbiotic zooxanthellae and

capture of zooplankton by the tentacles of the polyps. Corals bleach under temperature stress

conditions; the density of their symbionts declines and the corals lose not only their colour but also

their main nutritional source. Two massive species of the genus Montastraea from the Caribbean

coast of Puerto Rico were selected to conduct feeding experiments under temperature stress; M.

faveolata with relatively small polyps and M. cavernosa with larger polyps. Two distinct morphs of

M. cavernosa were separated, M1 has very large polyps, and M2 has significantly smaller polyps.

However, both M1 and M2 morphs have significantly larger polyps than M. faveolata. Experiments

were designed to compare the role of feeding by tentacle capture under temperature stress conditions

and a control. Non-bleached coral pieces were collected from the field and exposed to elevated water

temperature in an aquarium to compare the effects of enhanced zooplankton feeding (with nauplii of

Artemia salina) on bleaching induction. Pieces of the same colony were kept in an aquarium with

normal temperature. Zooxanthellae counts were made in tissue samples to quantify the extend of

bleaching. The amount of ingested Artemia was determined to assess feeding activity, and the

nitrogen content was also measured. M. cavernosa M1 exhibited the least bleaching susceptibility

whereas M. faveolata (with smaller polyps) showed a fastest decrease in the density of zooxanthellae.

The most resistant species was M. cavernosa with higher zooplankton feeding rates at higher

temperatures compared to ambient temperature conditions. The less tolerant coral was M. faveolata

which showed the same trend of increasing feeding rates at higher temperatures but, this trend was

less consistent over time.

The results suggest that zooplankton feeding can partly substitute the loss of the zooxanthellae up to

a certain degree and duration of bleaching. It is proposed that corals with bigger polyps and larger

tentacles, like M. cavernosa, can increase zooplankton feeding during bleaching for a certain time

period and therefore, can better compensate the decline of zooxanthellae and the resulting nutritional

deficit during sea warming episodes. This may be an explanation of why M.cavernosa bleaches,

when it does, later during intensive bleaching events..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002



Hutchinson, D.J., Brown, K., Côté, I.M.

University of East Anglia

Schools of Biological Sciences and Development Studies UEA Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are the primary form of protection in the marine coastal zone and are

being used by many as a spearhead for marine conservation. However, there is much debate with

regard to their effectiveness. This paper addresses a key question in this debate, namely, “What

defines MPA success?”, and in doing so will highlight areas for potential research and discussion.

Reef communities are both biologically and socially dynamic systems which form complex

interactions. This complexity is often not fully recognised, and hence leads to complication in the

operation of many MPAs. Through a review of the objectives and outcomes of a large number of

Caribbean MPAs, we show that an understanding of context is essential for effective analysis and

hence recommendation. This is further supported by a detailed examination of the social and natural

systems of three Eastern Caribbean MPAs; Barbados, Bonaire and St. Lucia. We show that the use

of a priori performance criteria in the evaluation of MPA success requires careful consideration

before implementation. This is a highly relevant exercise considering the increasing number of

attempts from both the social and natural sciences to assess MPA success using such methods. The

use of most performance criteria implies an inherent assumption that the system under study should

match a predefined template. However, the objectives stated on paper during MPA establishment

may not often match real outcomes due to the complex nature of institution-ecosystem interactions.

We suggest that defining the success of reef-encompassing MPAs depends very much on the

responsible and intelligent use of criteria. A precursor to their implementation, which will lead to a

more realistic appraisal, is to take into account constantly shifting social intentions and the ability of

the whole system to respond to change. To accurately define success will depend on a thorough

understanding of the natural and social environment, which can only come about through a balanced

interdisciplinary approach..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




J. Rebecca Jacobs, Donald C. Potts

Ecology and Evolutionary Biology,

University of California,

Santa Cruz CA 95064 USA

Appreciation for the long-term consequences of global change on coral reefs and the coral-zooxanthella

symbiosis may be constrained by a late Holocene perspective that tends to limit

thinking about scleractinian ecology and evolution to predominantly oceanic settings, without

considering either the conditions under which scleractinians and coral- zooxanthella symbiosis

evolved during the Triassic or those experienced since then. We propose that a variety of turbid,

inshore habitats have been continuously available to scleractinians through geological time, that these

have provided both ecological and evolutionary continuity, and that they have served as both refugia

for scleractinian corals during non-reefal periods and as primary habitat. We propose such turbid,

inshore environments have influenced the evolution of scleractinian corals and the evolution of coral-zooxanthella

symbiosis. Since these coastal habitats are now strongly influenced by human

activities, it is important to consider the consequences for long-term coral survival in these habitats,

especially since anthropogenic activities on land are degrading coastal ecosystems and may be

increasing the distribution of turbid habitats. With the ever- increasing stresses on coral reef

ecosystems, consideration of how corals respond, and of possible advantages that may be conferred

by the coral- zooxanthella symbiosis in inshore environments may enhance understanding of the

capacity of scleractinians to adapt to global change..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




1 Craig R Johnson, 1 Piers K Dunstan, 2 Ove Hoegh-Guldberg

1 School of Zoology, and Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute, University of Tasmania,

GPO Box 252-05, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia 7001 2 Centre for Marine Studies, University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia 4072

Because coral species show differential susceptibility to bleaching, and coral communities are so

variable, predicting the effects of coral bleaching on benthic coral reef communities requires

developing predictive models of particular reef locations. We developed a spatial (cellular automaton)

model of shallow benthic communities on two midshelf reefs on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). We

considered only corals, turf algae, and non-geniculate coralline algae since these are the principal space

occupants. The dynamics of the model is driven entirely by local processes, namely, outcomes of

neighbour-specific interactions, neighbour-specific growth rates, and recruitment and mortality rates.

These parameters were estimated from observations in 140 fixed quadrats photographed every 6

months over 3 years.

Despite that the potential state-space of predicted communities is very large, actual community

structure of the real reefs in terms of the absolute cover of 12 life- form (physiognomic) categories was

predicted accurately as an emergent property of the models. Having derived a model that predicts

community structure of the real reefs, we simulated several scenarios of coral mortality as a result of

bleaching and climate change. In all simulations, bleaching events occur at intervals of 10 years over a

100 year period, and there is annual recruitment of all 12 life-form groups. The effect of bleaching

events on coral mortality was as observed in the 1998 bleaching event on the GBR when maximum

water temperatures rose to 31.5 °C.

For all scenarios, the model predicts significant degradation of reefs in <100 years. With no further

warming and a single bleaching event each decade, cover of turf and coralline algae increases to ~75%

while coral cover declines to ~25% in 60 years. If ocean warming continues at 0.1 °C per decade, and

assuming 100% mortality of corals at 32.5 °C (based on recent observations of thermal tolerance

thresholds over the latitudinal range of the GBR), then coral cover declines steadily to <15% after 100

years. Control reefs without bleaching support 60% coralline and turf algal cover, and 40% coral cover.

Notably, different guilds of corals respond differentially to bleaching. Some groups decline gradually

with successive bleaching events (e.g. most Acroporidae), others show little effect for several decades

before declining suddenly (e.g. Faviidae), while groups little affected directly by bleaching (e.g.

massive Porites) can increase in abundance under some bleaching scenarios. The abundance of

thermally ‘tolerant’ genotypes may persist at relatively constant levels for several decades of bleaching

before suffering sudden reductions in cover.

Because this type of spatial model can readily integrate processes from the molecular to community

level, it is a strong candidate for further refinements of predictions of the effect of climate change on

the community structure and dynamics of coral reefs..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Brian D. Keller

Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary

P.O. Box 500368

Marathon, FL 33050, USA

The Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary is a 9,850-km 2 marine protected area managed by the

U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the State of Florida. A comprehensive

management plan was implemented in 1997 to protect and conserve marine resources of the Florida

Keys. One aspect of the management plan is the creation of a network of 23 fully protected zones

(marine reserves); the Tortugas Ecological Reserve was implemented in 2001 as the 24 th fully

protected zone, the largest marine reserve in U.S. waters (518 km 2 ). An ongoing monitoring program

is designed to determine effects of “no-take” protection on heavily exploited fishes and invertebrates,

benthic communities, and human activities. Data on the abundance and size of reef fish, spiny

lobster, and queen conch; algal cover; and coral cover, diversity, and recruitment are collected from

fully protected zones and adjacent reference sites. Socioeconomic analyses are also being conducted.

Preliminary reports indicate increases within the fully protected zones in the number and size of

heavily exploited species such as spiny lobster and certain reef fishes. Slower-growing benthic

species such as corals and sponges have not shown significant changes within fully protected zones,

possibly because the zoning plan was implemented less than five years ago..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002



Rebecca Klaus, John Turner 1

Ecology & Epidemiology Group, Department of Biological Sciences,

University of Warwick, CV4 7AL, UK

1 School of Ocean Sciences, University of Wales,

Bangor, Menai Bridge, Anglesey, LL59 5EY, UK

Efforts to map and assess the global extent of coral reefs at risk have ignored the significant extent of

non-reefal coral communities. Although lacking the classical geomorphological structures of a ‘true’

reef, these communities can harbour diverse and unique assemblages and confer many of the same

benefits. In addition, non-reefal coral communities typically occur in marginal locations, subject to

unusual physical regimes, which may confer additional resilience during times of environmental

stress. Glynn proposed the theory that upwelling areas could act as refugia for species diversity

during mass coral bleaching events in the Pacific. Mass coral bleaching events have been linked to

both prolonged exposure to solar radiation and elevated sea temperatures associated with large-scale

disturbances in ocean-atmospheric dynamics. The theory that zooxanthellate coral communities in

areas subject to cool upwelled water could act as potential species refugia is investigated with respect

to the severe 1997-1998 Indian Ocean wide coral bleaching event, with particular reference to the

islands of Socotra (Republic of Yemen), including Samha and Darsa, Abd Al Kuri, Sabunya, and Kal

Farun, located in the extreme northwest Indian Ocean (12-13 o N, 52-55 o E). The islands of Socotra

are exposed to a wind-driven upwelling system, known as the Great Whirl, resulting from the

northwards passageof the Somalia current along the east African coast during the boreal summer

months. Recent surveys have found that these islands support a diverse (250+ species) scleractinian

coral fauna. Coral dominated communities found along the northern shores of these islands naturally

intergrade with mixed macroalgal and coral communities on expose southern shores. Bleaching

induced mortality of coral communities around the islands of Socotra was spatially variable and

ranged from negligible around the outer islands to severe (>90% mortality) along northern shores.

The spatial distribution of bleaching induced mortality around the islands was compared with high

resolution (9km daily AVHRR Pathfinder) sea surface temperature (SST) to determine whether

upwelling had influenced bleaching outcomes..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002





Karl Kleemann 1 , Bert W. Hoeksma 2

1 Institute for Palaeontology, University of Vienna, Althanstr. 14, A-1090 Vienna, Austria 2 National Museum of Natural History / Naturalis,

P.O. Box 9517, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands

Bivalve species of the mytilid genus Lithophaga, including a new one, are recorded from Indonesian

mushroom corals (Scleractinia: Fungiidae). True associations with live hosts include L. laevigata, L.

lessepsiana, L. lima, L. punctata spec. nov., and L. simplex, while specimens of L. malaccana and L.

mucronata have been found in bore holes in encrusted or dead parts of infested corals.

Diagnosis for L. punctata n.s.: Valves with minute, elevated dots antero-laterally to postero-ventrally,

periostracum darker above that area. Largest available specimen: 13.5-5.0-4.7 mm. Host corals are

Fungia (Pleuractis) paumotensis, F. (Verrillofungia) repanda, F. (V.) scabra, Halomitra pileus,

Lithophyllon mokai, and Sandalolitha robusta.

Host corals of L. laevigata are Fungia (V.) scabra, and F. (V.) spinifer.

Host corals of L. lessepsiana are Fungia (Danafungia) horrida, Halomitra pileus, Herpolitha limax,

and Lithophyllon undulatum.

Host corals of L. lima are Fungia (P.) moluccensis, F. (V.) scabra, Lithophyllon undulatum.

Host corals of L. simplex are Fungia (Wellsofungia) granulosa, and Sandalolitha robusta.

It is obvious that there is no clear host-specificity in the associations of Lithophaga and mushroom

coral species.

The present results suggest that the Lithophaga species recorded from mushroom corals at the

Spermonde Shelf, South Sulawesi, predominantly occur on nearshore reefs..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




David Kline, Mya Breitbart, Nancy Knowlton, Forest Rohwer

Marine Biology Research Division

Scripps Institution of Oceanography

University Of California, San Diego

La Jolla, CA 92093-0202 USA

Coral disease incidence has increased dramatically since first being reported in the early 1970s.

Increasing numbers of coral colonies and species over wider geographical ranges are affected by

disease, resulting in extensive mortality throughout the Caribbean. Despite the major ecological

impact of coral disease, the etiology of most coral diseases remains unclear. Corals harbor unique,

associated microbial communities. These coral-associated bacterial communities are diverse, species

specific, and similar in corals from widely separated reefs. The nature of the relationship between

corals and their associated bacteria has yet to be established. The balance of a symbiotic relationship

is not static, and under stressful environmental or physiological conditions it is possible that the

associated symbionts can multiply and cause disease. Whether any of the uncharacterized coral

diseases are caused by imbalances in the regulation of the normally associated microbiota remains to

be determined. Mitchell and Chet (1975) demonstrated that certain stresses kill corals via bacterial

overgrowth (i.e., coral treated with antibiotics did not die when exposed to crude oil, copper sulfate,

or dextrose). However, the Mitchell and Chet study used concentrations of stressors that are unlikely

to occur even on extremely polluted reefs. This study expanded upon the work of Mitchell and Chet

(1975) by testing a greater range of environmental and anthropogenic stresses, at more

environmentally relevant concentrations. To elucidate the nature of the relationship between a coral

and its associated bacteria, methods were developed to determine bacterial growth rates and numbers

on corals. These methods were used to determine how the bacterial community growth

characteristics change with anthropogenic stress and disease. Our results indicate that the coral-associated

bacterial community is tightly regulated, possibly through nutrient limitation, and this

regulation breaks down with carbon (glucose) addition and disease..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002





Kochzius M, Söller R, Khalaf MA, Blohm D

Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Genetics, FB2-UFT,

University of Bremen, P.O. Box 330440, 28359 Bremen, Germany

Fishes on coral reefs, such as the lionfish Pterois miles, have a life history with two totally different

phases: adults are relatively strongly side-attached, whereas larvae of virtually all species are

planktonic. Therefore, large-scale dispersal and high gene flow could be expected. However, due to

the fjord-like hydrography and topology of the Gulf of Aqaba isolation of populations might be

possible. The gulf is a 180 km long and 6-25 km wide northern extension of the Red Sea and

separated by a shallow sill. The aim of this study is to reveal genetic population structure, genetic

diversity, and gene flow between populations of the lionfish P. miles in the Gulf of Aqaba and

northern Red Sea. The applied molecular marker is a 166 bp sequence of the 5’ mitochondrial control

region. It is the most variable mitochondrial gene in fishes and a suitable marker to investigate

genetic population structure. Among 94 P. miles specimens 32 polymorphic sites were detected,

yielding 38 haplotypes. Sequence divergence among haplotypes ranged from 0.6% to 9.9% and

genetic diversity was high (h=0.85, =1.9%). AMOVA indicates no restriction of gene flow between

the Gulf of Aqaba and northern Red Sea ( ct = 0.05258). Consideration of observed high genetic

diversity, paleoceanography of the Red Sea, and life history of P. miles indicate that the revealed

genetic population structure reflects high gene flow and panmixia. However, it is not possible to

estimate on which time-scale gene flow operate. Therefore, coastal zone management in the Gulf of

Aqaba has to follow the precautionary principle and should not rely upon fast replenishment or re-colonisation..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




E. Kramarsky-Winter, Y. Loya

Dept of Zoology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences,

Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

Coral reef degradation due to anthropogenically induced stress has recently been the cause of much

concern For corals found in these areas, the ability for sustaining the population depends on the

survival at the individual (clone) level as well as at the genet level. Survival at the individual level is

a result of the individual”s capacity for physiolo gical plasticity. Reproduction and the ability to repair

damage are two aspects of the coral’s physiology that play cardinal roles in their ability to survive

stress. In the Red Sea the solitary free living fungiid coral Fungia granulosa, is common in areas of

high sedimention and physical abrasion, thus providing a good model system for studying the

mechanisms for overcoming stress. To ascertain what physiological adaptations may aid these corals

to survive, the reproductive cycle and capacity for repair following damage was followed for a period

of three years using standard histological techniques and in situ obsrevations. Moreover the effect of

tissue damage on reproductive effort and conversely of reproductive state on the capacity for repair

was examined in experimentally manipulated corals. Results showed that F. granulosa is a

gonochoric broadcast spawner. Gametogenesis begins in early March at a time of high productivity in

the Gulf of Aqaba. Only individuals over 5.0 cm in diameter are reproductive. Spawning occurs in

July- August when the water in the Gulf is relatively calm. This led to the choice of spring and fall as

the experimental periods for inflicting tissue lesions. Lesions were inflicted on mature and immature

corals using an air pick and the corals were maintained in situ. This procedure was carried out on one

set of corals during gametogenic months (spring), and on another set during post reproductive months

(fall). Tisse repair and regeneration were monitored using photography and computerized image

analysis. Corals that underwent damage during post reproductive months, underwent complete repair

within 8 weeks, while those that were damaged at the beginning of gametogenesis did not. Immature

corals did not undergo complete repair regardless of season. Moreover when reproductive effort was

investigated two months following removal of 30% of surface tissue, results showed that fecundity

was reduced by 50%, though gametogenesis continued, indicating cellular and energetic trade-offs

between the two processes. The relationship between amount of tissue damage and tissue repair in

this coral was also studied. Corals that had up to 50% of the oral surface tissues removed underwent

complete repair providing at least part of the polyp mouth remained. When the polyp mouth was

removed coral tissues began developing new mouths buds. In addition following periods of

“catastrophic” disturbances where many individuals underwent extensive damage to their tissues the

corals survived by a reorganization of the remnant tissues and the formation of buds which then grew

into new polyps. A model illustrating how environmental disturbance affects the relationship between

regeneration and reproduction is proposed..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Piers Larcombe, Bob Carter

Marine Geophysical Laboratory, James Cook University,

Townsville 4811 Australia

Understanding the relative impact on shelf sediments of daily low-energy versus episodic high-energy

phenomena (e.g. cyclones, tsunami) is crucial to our understanding of how shallow water

sedimentary systems function. Around 30-40% of today’s continental margins lie in the tropics and

sub-tropics, where cyclones are major mechanisms of sediment supply to the shelf, and sediment

transport upon it. Understanding the sedimentary dynamics of tropical shelves at various stages of sea

level is therefore a fundamentally important issue. However, current sedimentation models for

tropical shelves are strongly influenced by studies of ocean plateaux such as the Bahamas, and often

do not fit well with the characteristics displayed by mixed terrigenous-carbonate systems, which are

geologically common and important in petroleum exploration.

The modern Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is part of the world’s largest and best known mixed

terrigenous-carbonate continental margin. The GBR shelf contains three shore-parallel sedimentary

belts. An inner shelf zone of terrigenous sedimentation at depths of 0-22 m; a middle shelf zone of

sediment starvation at depths of 22-40 m; and an outer shelf reef tract with its inner edge at c. 35-40

m depth. These zones are controlled by the dynamics of northward, fair-weather, alongshelf drift,

driven by southeasterly trade winds, and by the regular passage of tropical cyclones. Cyclones cause

wind-driven north-directed middle shelf flows in excess of 130 cm/s, which erode the seabed,

concentrate the sparse mobile sediment into sand ribbons, and advect suspended load onto the outer

part of the nearshore terrigenous sediment prism and into inter-reef depocentres within the reef

complex. Cyclones largely control the input of new sediment into the Great Barrier Reef system, via

river flooding, seabed erosion or reef breakage. They also help to control the partitioning and

dispersion of the main shore-parallel belts of terrigenous inner shelf, sediment-starved middle shelf,

and outer shelf carbonate reef tract sediment. Acting as a sediment pump, especially during

interglacial highstands, cyclones have exerted great control on the development of the modern GBR

province and its sediments by maintaining a broad shelf-parallel zone of episodically mobilised

sediment and scoured seabed, upon which coral reefs have been unable to form.

Contrary to current models, (i) GBR storm beds are most likely to be preserved intact close to the

shoreline, and they also become coarser-grained away from the shoreline; and (ii) for the central

GBR, “highstand shedding” only applies to carbonate sediment at the scale of local reefs; system-wide,

oceanographic controls cause high rates of carbonate sedimentation on the slope during both

sea-level rise and highstand; concomitantly, terrigenous sediment accumulates fastest on the slope

during sea- level rise, and slowest during sea- level lowstand and highstand..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002





Gerrardo L. Ledesma 1 , Jean-Luc Solandt 2 and Peter Raines 2

1 The Philippine Reef and Rainforest Conservation Foundation, Inc.,

#3 Dona Ceferina Building,

Mandalagan, Negros Occidental,


2 Coral Cay Conservation Ltd., The Tower, 125 High Street, London SW19 2BL, UK

The Danjugan Island Marine Reserve and Sanctuaries (DIMRS) (Cauayan municipality, Negros

Occidental, Philippines) was established via a collaborative project that pioneered a unique approach to

marine resource management. The Philippine Reef and Rainforest Conservation Foundation, Inc.

(PRRCFI) has been working in partnership with Coral Cay Conservation (CCC) since 1995, in order to

carry out survey and education work to create the DIMRS, which was fully gazetted in February 2000

by the provincial council. Baseline surveys and training of fisherfolk, community members and

government personnel has expanded since 2000 to the adjacent municipalities of Sipalay and Hinoba-an

where further potential reserve areas have been proposed. This work has come under the umbrella of

a provincial environmental programme called The Southern Negros Coastal Development Programme

(SNCDP). A local community (Barangay Elihan) has requested to have their own marine sanctuary due

to the success of DIMRS, and with the assistance of PRRCFI and CCC scientists, surveys have been

carried out together with trained local community members to help establish reserve boundaries. This

area has particularly high coral cover for Negros Occidental, and good potential for future coral

accretion through recruitment and adult coral growth. Similarly, after initial CCC surveys in early

2000, further marine reserves have been recommended in other municipalities, and PRRCFI aim to

continue the work of the SNCDP within the municipalities of Sipalay and Hinoba-an. Therefore, as a

result of baseline marine biological surveys coupled with community education and technical training

by the PRRCFI/CCC partnership, there has been an increase in the number of potential and existing

marine protected areas in Negros Occidental as a knock-on effect of the successful establishment of the

DIMRS.Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002



Björn Lindberg, Christian Berndt, Jürgen Mienert

Dept. of Geology, University of Tromsø 9037

Tromsø, Norway

The University of Tromsø studies the northernmost known occurrences of cold-water reefs as a

contributor to the EU- funded program ECOMOUND (Environmental Control on Mound Formation

along the European Margin). The presence of cold-water coral reefs along the entire coast of Norway

has been known for some time, but the reefs have only recently been subjected to thorough stud ies.

Several prerequisites for the existence of the reefs are known, including water temperature, current

activity and the presence of hard substrate on which reef- growth can initiate. Several of the reefs

found on the Norwegian margin seem to be closely linked to micro-seepage of hydrocarbons from

deeper-lying reservoirs, but elevated HC- levels have not been proved at all locations. The question

still remains, whether or not the presence of the reefs is linked to the local (and regional) sub-surface


High-resolution acoustics (seismics and side-scan sonar), video- imaging, coring, HC-analyses and

isotope-analyses provide a solid data-set for the study of the Fugløya reefs (first discovered by

Hovland et al. during a pipeline survey). The reefs can be more than 30 m high and are dominated by

Lophelia pertusa. They are found from 130 to 180 mbsl, consistently located on topographic highs of

morainic material deposited during the last glaciation. The oceanic conditions are strongly influenced

by the influx of Atlantic water (Norwegian Current) with temperatures of ~7.7°C and salinity of

34.7‰, and tidal currents with velocities up to >30 cm/s were measured. A local basin containing

primarily sandy sediments nearby the reefs displays circular depressions of ~5 m depth and ~20 m

diameter, interpreted to be pockmarks due to migration of fluids from the sub-seafloor. The region is

on the boundary to the Barents Sea, and existing geologic maps indicate that the underlying bedrock

is crystalline, thus pointing towards a non-thermogenic origin of the migrating fluids causing the

pockmarks in the area.

Further studies of the reefs can assess their value as an indicator of the sub-surface geology as well as

a possible paleoclimatic proxy, given that the d 13 C and d 18 O values are linked to the environment in

which the corals grow, and the parameters are recorded in the skeleton..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002



Iain A. Macdonald

Manchester Metropolitan University

Department of Environmental and Geographical Sciences, John Dalton Building, Chester

Street, Manchester, M1 5GD, UK

Turbid reefs have been the subject of many ecological investigations and have commonly been

associated with lower living cover of benthic organisms, decreased diversity of organisms and a

general range reduction of fore-reef bathymetric zonation. Whilst these studies stress the impacts of

increased sedimentation on reef composition, the longer-term potential for carbonate accumulation

and the processes controlling accumulation under these conditions remain poorly understood.

This study examines these processes within a lagoon environment at Discovery Bay, Jamaica. The

site is naturally turbid, and these conditions are exacerbated by additional external inp uts of bauxite

dust. This results in high mean sedimentation rates (average 5.2 ± 2.2 -2 d -1 ), although at times

these reach the proposed threshold levels (10 -2 d -1 ) beyond which reef development is

suppressed. In-situ measurements of light also indicate high attenuation rates, such that the surface

illumination is reduced to 9.5% at 15m depth. Models are presented which illustrate patterns of reef

development, community structure and framework preservation for shallow (0-10 m) and deep (15-25

m) parts of the site.

Shallow sites are characterised by a rigid reef structure of dead in-situ Acropora sp. Live coral cover

is minimal (3.7%) with Siderastrea sp. (domed morphology) and Madracis mirabilis dominating.

Sediment production is dominated by the calcified green algae Halimeda sp. (5m – 19.7%; 10m –

39.0%) and the articulated coralline algae Amphiroa sp. (5m – 37.6%; 10m – 16.0%). Framework

preservation is influenced by high rates of internal bioerosion (mainly by sponges and worms) and

low encrustation rates (coralline algae and the foraminifera Gypsina plana dominate the secondary

framework community). In combination these factors contribute to a predicted low accretion rate.

Deep sites are characterised by loose sediment with little solid reef structure. Live coral cover is very

low (5.4%). Montastrea annularis dominates the coral community and exhibits flat tiered growth

morphologies. Partial mortality and rejuvenation are common. Sediment production is dominated by

bivalves (20m – 36.5%; 25m – 39.5%). Framework preservation is influenced by high infestation by

internal bioeroders (particularly sponges and bivalves) and by minimal encrustation (mainly

serpulids). In combination these factors contribute to a predicted very low accretion rate.

This study demonstrates restricted framework development under conditions of high sedimentation

and turbidity, coupled with only a small effect from secondary framework contributors and an

infestation of borers. The major sediment contributors (Amphiora sp., Halimeda sp., and bivalves)

also differ from typical fore-reef (coral dominated) assemblages. Overall, low carbonate

accumulation rates are predicted for these reefs..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Ian G. Macintyre

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History,

Washington, DC 20560, USA

Two species of zooxanthellate or tropical reef corals occur in patches on flat rock outcrops in Onslow

Bay, North Carolina. Solenastrea hyades (Dana) and Siderastrea siderea (Ellis and Solander) were

found in water depths of about 20 to 40 meters. These corals survive temperatures of less than

16degC for three months of the year (mid-January to mid-April), which is the generally accepted

minimum tolerance limit for the survival of tropical reef corals. These corals were found scattered on

mostly Miocene quartz sandstone outcrops and are not forming a reefal framework. Dominantly

tropical benthic macro algae and a variety of tropical reef fish are associated with these reef patches.

Rock outcrops are abundant in Onslow Bay because of a restricted sediment supply related to limited

river outflows. These suitable substrates and the inshore migration of the Gulf Stream during summer

months are major factors that allow these tropical reef communities to exist so far north. The inner

depth limit of about 20 meters is related primarily to a lack of suitable hard substrate and suspended

sediments caused by water turbulence. More work is needed to study the life histories of the two

coral species to reveal if they are capable of reproducing under these hostile conditions and also to

document the settlement periods for their planulae. In addition, more information is needed on other

groups that are associated with these tropical coral patches, particularly octocorals and sponges..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Cornelia Maier 1 , Jürgen Pätzold 2 , Rolf P.M. Bak 1

1 Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research,

P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands

2 University of Bremen,

Dept. of Geosciences, Postfach 33 04 40, 28334 Bremen, Germany

Scleractinian corals hosting endosymbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) occur over a wide depth range

within the photic zone of coral reefs. Different species are distinct in their distributional depth range,

with some species being confined to a narrow depth range while others can be found over the whole

reef slope. We investigated the skeletal d 13 C versus d 18 O, zooxanthellae densities and photopigments

of three different species of the genus Madracis. The species M. pharensis is abundant over a wide

range between 5 and > 60 m depth, while M. mirabilis and M. formosa are restricted to a narrow

range growing shallow (<20 m) or deep (> 40 m), respectively. We hypothesize, that the distinct

distributional depth range of the three species is due to adaptation to the respective light regimes.

Because coral d 13 C and d 18 O are both controlled by kinetic isotope effects and, because d 13 C is in

addition affected by the coral / zooxanthellae metabolism (P:R ratio), any species specific adaptation

to particular depth regimes must be reflected in the skeletal d 18 O versus d 13 C ratios. Apart from

environmental factors (temperature and salinity), photosynthesis and calcification rate are controlling

factors in coral isotope fractionation. The efficiency with which corals under various light regimes

photosynthesize and calcify, and the linkage between photosynthesis and calcification, become

apparent when applying skeletal d 13 C versus d 18 O of the 3 Madracis species. The d 13 C vs. d 18 O

ratios of e.g. M. pharensis (broad depth range) and M. formosa (narrow range, deep) - both sampled

at 50 m depth – indicate that M. pharensis has hardly been growing and is hence at its distributional

depth limit, while M. formosa has even in 50 m depth a positive P:R ratio and skeletal growth. We

consider the ratio of d 13 C and d 18 O a useful ‘proxy’ to determine the ecological adaptation of single

species to various depth or light regimes. Moreover applying skeletal d 13 C versus d 18 O may be a

vital tool in reconstructing past conditions of reef health and reef growth..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Jennie Mallela

Manchester Metropolitan University, Department of Environmental and Geographical

Sciences, Chester Street, Manchester, M1 5GD, UK

This study examines the structure and composition of fluvially impacted coral reef communities and

associated sediment production in Rio Bueno, Jamaica. Rio Bueno is a small (ca. 0.5 km wide)

embayment, located on the northern coast of Jamaica (N 18° 28’, W 077° 27’). The area is

characterised by clastic sediment and freshwater inputs from the Dornock River, resulting in abiotic

conditions exhibiting pulsed fluctuations (e.g. variation in salinity, turbidity, light attenuation).

Detailed fieldwork during the summer of 2001 demo nstrated that mean (± SE) sedimentation rates in

the central western embayment area were 10.6 (± 0.98) mg cm -2 day -1 . Outer embayment areas

demonstrated a mean (± SE) sedimentation rate of 3.1 (± 0.40) mg cm -2 day -1 . In addition to

continual natural disturbances, the study area has historically been subjected to mangrove and

seagrass clearance, whilst the over-exploitation of fisheries resources continues.

Inner embayment areas appear heavily impacted by the Dornock River, with a substrate composition

of close to 100% silt (occasional patches of seagrass (less than 1%) occur). No other habitat types

occurred at these innermost sites. Framework production was bathymetrically restricted to areas

shallower than 27 - 35 m within the central, fluvially impacted sites. In contrast, the outer, less

impacted sites have been demonstrated to support drop-offs to = 200 m, with corals present to depths

of =60m. The spatial and bathymetric restriction observed in the central embayment areas can be

considered an effect of a highly turbid, reduced- light environment.

Macro algae and turf dominated the community composition, comprising between 25% and 30% of

benthic cover in the central fluvially impacted sites, and between 40% and 70% at less impacted

sites. However, hard coral cover comprised 9% to 11% of benthic cover at the central fluvially

disturbed sites and 8% to 12% at less impacted outer sites.

The results of the study are discussed in the light of ongoing work, which is focused on developing a

carbonate bud get for inner and outer regions of the Rio Beuno embayment area..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002



Mikhail V. Matz, Yulii Labas, Konstantin Lukyanov, Sergey Lukyanov

Whitney Laboratory, University of Florida, 9505 Ocean Sho re Blvd,

St Augustine, FL 32080, USA

Coral reef ecosystems are characterized by the amazing variety of colors, but the evolutionary roots

of this diversity remain largely unknown. Anthozoa represent a unique case when each visually

perceptible basic color is essentially determined by the sequence of a single protein, homologous to

green fluorescent protein (GFP) from Aequorea victoria. This provides unique opportunity to address

the question of color evolution in the environment directly by applying the tools of molecular

phylogenetics, and in addition, to characterize and monitor variations in coloration in terms of

expression of individual genes. GFP-like proteins of Anthozoans are a very diverse family that

existed in the form of at least four separate lineages even before separation of sub-classes Zoantharia

and Alcyonaria. The most surprising fact is that, notwithstanding these ancient diversity roots,

origination of new colors seems to happen right now: there are multiple independent events of color

diversification observed in the most terminal parts of the phylogenetic tree. Combining this fact with

the molecular data obtained for the proteins of different colors, such as results of site-specific and

random mutagenesis and X-ray crystallography, we hypothesize that the phylogenetic pattern and

color polymorphism in reef Anthozoa is a result of a balance between selection for GFP- like proteins

of particular colors and mutation pressure driving the color conversions. An in-depth phylogenetic

analysis will clarify whether the color diversification process goes on continuously within the protein

family, or we are witnessing a unique one-time event triggered by some environmental changes in the

recent past..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Malcolm McCulloch, Stewart Fallon, Timothy Wyndham,

Erica Hendy, Janice Lough, David Barnes

Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra 0200, and

Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Australia

The impact of European settlement on water quality in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) of Australia is a

longstanding and still highly controversial issue. Studies of erosion and sediment transport in river

catchments have shown substantial increases since European settlement; a consequence of large-scale

modification of the river catchments from grazing, agriculture, mining and associated activities such

as land clearing. The magnitude and scale of these anthropogenic induced changes and importantly

their impact on the marine environment, however remains highly uncertain. Here we describe a new

approach to assist in the quantification of both anthropogenic and natural (pre-European) sediment

fluxes entering the GBR. This approach is based on the application of in-situ geochemical tracers in

corals and has the advantage of providing a direct quantitative measure of the sediment/nutrient (P)

fluxes that are actually reaching coral reefs.

Using the relatively new technique of high resolution (weekly to fortnightly) laser ablation ICP-MS,

continuous scans of the trace element compositions were undertaken on 300-400 year old Porites

coral cores (growth rate of ~1-2 cm per year) from the GBR of Australia. During high intensity

rainfall events, there are massive discharges of freshwater and suspended sediments into the GBR

lagoon, particularly from the Burdekin River. Barium concentrations in corals, a tracer of suspended

sediment load, reveals two distinctive patterns. In the 1770’s when Captain Cook first explored the

east coast of Australia, there is only limited evidence for flood-plume related suspended sediment

fluxes entering the inner GBR. However, immediately following European settlement in 1870, there

is a sustained increase in the Ba during flood events. This is indicative of a significant increase in

suspended load being delivered to the inner GBR, coincident with the first grazing activities by

European settlers in the river catchments of the GBR. These results therefore provide unequivocal

evidence for river flood-plumes transporting substantially increased fluxes (x4 to x8) of suspended

sediment and hence nutrients into the inner GBR reef. Sediment fluxes are modulated by land-use

intensity and climate, principally droughts. Following the drought of 1968/69, the suspended

sediment load increased x3 during the subsequent 1970 flood, presumably due to enhanced erosion of

the highly denuded catchments. In the 1970’s and 1980’s sediment loads in the Burdekin River

further increased following the introduction of more drought resistant cattle breeds such as Bos


This study provides both a ‘natural’ pre-European baseline as well as a quantitative measure of

anthropogenic fluxes against which reduction of sediment loads to the GBR can be targeted.

Reducing terrestrial runoff into coral reefs is essential if they are to survive the lethal combination of

direct anthropogenic impacts and now climatic stresses from unusually warm ocean temperatures..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002





Roger McLean

School of Geography and Oceanography

University of New South Wales

Australian Defence Force Academy

Canberra ACT 2600 Australia

At the age of 24, J Stanley Gardiner joined the ‘Coral Reef Boring Expedition’ to Funafuti atoll for

the first of the three expeditions to test Darwin’s subsidence theory of coral reefs. Gardiner spent

upwards of three months on Funafuti. His 1898 publication appeared in the same year the third

expedition ended and six years before the major results of the expedition were published by the

Royal Society/British Museum. Among other things, Gardiner concluded that Funafuti ‘had been

elevated by about 10 feet’ and that the islands on the atoll were ‘now being washed away’. In 1899

Gardiner spent 10 days on Goidhoo atoll, the first of the Maldivian atolls he visited during his six

month expedition to the Maldives. On Goidhoo, he came to the same conclusions as on Funafuti, viz

he found ‘proof of elevation’ as well as the ‘slow but steady erosion’ of islands. Three decades later,

in reviewing his own and others work on reefs and islands in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, Gardiner

admitted that he ‘had not materially altered his views’, though he had become much more precise

about the timing of the higher sea level, endorsing Daly’s deduction that it was 3500-4000 years ago.

What was Gardiner’s evidence for these conclusions on Funafuti and Goidhoo? Were his

interpretations similar to those of his contemporary expeditioners and later researchers? And, how

does his sea- level history and island erosion hypothesis stack- up now, after 100 years?

This paper addresses these three questions. Generally Gardiner’s conclusions have been endorsed.

Indeed, on the face of it they stack-up pretty well. For instance, Dickinson, in a recent paper

(Quaternary Research, 1999) indicates that the shoreline morphology of Funafuti ‘reflects a relative

mid-Holocene-sea-level high stand’, and that the shoreline erosion, which is presently occurring on

Funafuti, foreshadows the potential impact of global warming on atoll islands. Dickinson’s evidence

on is based primarily on field observations and data from secondary sources, as well as a notion of

where Funafuti fits within the regional sea- level context.

An extensive geomorphic survey, including levelling profiles and mapping all of the islands on

Funafuti, and a more modest survey using similar techniques on Goidhoo atoll has been carried out

by the author and colleagues. These surveys, showed no indisputable evidence for a higher mid-Holocene-

sea- level high stand nor any evidence for chronic island erosion, apart from shorelines that

have been subject to substantial modification from human impact. Radiometric dates from reef flats

and islands of both atolls are consistent with this view, which is contrary to the conclusions of

Gardiner and other workers on Funafuti and Goidhoo. Reasons for this situation are advanced,

including the views of some of Gardiner’s contemporaries which were more ambiguous about the

field evidence..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002



Rebecca. E. Mitchell, N. K. Dulvy, N. V. C. Polunin

Department of Marine Sciences and Technology

University of Newcastle upon Tyne

Ridley Building

Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK

If fishing alone determines sea urchin abundance through removal of predators and grazing

competitors, then urchin density will be greater on reefs with higher exploitation pressure where

other anthropogenic impacts do not exist. We tested whether sea urchin abundance differed across a

gradient of fishing pressure among thirteen traditional fishing grounds, in a region of Fiji where

additional human disturbances are negligible. The abundance of sea urchins in Lau was low, ranging

from 0.1-0.8 urchins m -2 , and although differences in both their total abundance and diversity were

evident among grounds, these differences did not relate systematically to variations in fishing

pressure or benthic variables. Only the abundance of juvenile urchins indicated a positive relationship

with fishing pressure. Multiple regression models were used to explain relative influences of benthic

variables alongside fishing pressure, but significant results with juvenile urchins appear to be

influenced primarily by the most heavily fished ground. We conclude that in the absence of other

anthropogenic inputs, recruitment to adult urchin populations at low subsistence- levels of fishing is

more likely to be driven by a combination of processes rather than by predation alone..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002





Montagna Paolo, Mazzoli Claudio, Silenzi Sergio, Corain Livio

Dept. Mineralogy and Petrology, Padova Univ., Garibaldi 37, I-35137 Padova, Italy

Many palaeoclimatic studies focus on the atmosphere-ocean relationship as the major point to

understand decadal and longer-term climate variability. Although the most evident effects of climate

changes on seawater mainly concern the oceans, also in minor basin, such as in the Mediterranean

Sea, deep and complex changes are commonly observed and therefore they could be analysed,

studied and related to the global climate system.

The highly seasonal nature of the Mediterranean climate regime makes this region particularly

sensitive, and potentially very vulnerable, to climate changes. Thus there is a need for rigorous

assessment of the patterns, causes and impacts of Mediterranean climate fluctuations. Such

understanding needs reliable measurements of relevant parameters, such as sea surface temperature

(SST), for an adequate interval of time; in the lack of both instrumental observations and historical

records of relevant meteorological parameters we have to rely on indirect measurements (proxy

data), such as corals.

A living non-tropical coral (Cladocora caespitosa) (L.) from the North-western Mediterranean Sea,

has been examined by optical polarized light (PL) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and

chemically analysed by electron (EMPA) microprobe with the aim to define in detail its

microstructural features and determine the reliability of its use as a palaeo and living environmental

and climatic proxy. Petrographic observations and geochemical data show different morphological

and compositional portions of the primary aragonitic texture of the coral and the presence of a

secondary aragonitic precipitation (interseptal filling). Aragonitic crystals that form interseptal

filling, show lamellar arrangement completely different from trabecular structure that forms septa,

paliform lobes and theca wall. Different morphological features were analysed, and geochemically

characterised. The aim of the research was to carry out a detailed investigation on the calcification

centres, the needle-shaped crystals and the interseptal fillings, by studying the distribution of minor

and trace elements such as Sr, Mg, S, Si and Al, in order to recognise possible microchemical

differences in small coralline areas and reveal little scale heterogeneities which are averaged in

conventional bulk sampling techniques.

Minor and trace element distribution between centres of calcification and the surrounding fibres in

different areas of the corallite has been pointed out. Small spatial scale study has allowed to

determine the microstructural geometry of the coral and its geochemical features, improving the

analytical methods for the future use of C. caespitosa as a environmental proxy (SST, Salinity,

anthropogenic inputs, etc.). This study has been extremely important to understand how to obtain

geochemical information from primary aragonite, without a contamination of a secondary aragonitic

contribution. Since C. caespitosa is the only shallow coral existing in the Mediterranean Sea, such

petrographic and geochemical characterization is fundamental to prove the reliability of this species

as a climate proxy, and it offers the possibility to obtain long time series, never documented before in

the Mediterranean marine environment..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002





Anne Müller 1 , Michael K. Gagan 2 , Janice M. Lough 3

1 Department of Geology, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 2 Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200

3 Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3, Towns ville MC, QLD 4810, Australia

A major and recently topical question concerns the effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 on coral

calcification rates. Coral calcification rates have been used to derive information on carbonate

saturation state in the ocean and to derive conclusions on atmospheric CO2 levels in the past and

future. We present coral skeletal density, extension, calcification, d 18 O and d 13 C data for two long

coral cores spanning ~ 1840-1994 AD at Ningaloo Reef Marine Park, Western Australia, one of

which includes significant secondary precipitation of marine inorganic aragonite. We show that this

secondary aragonite can lead to the incorrect conclusion of reduced calcification in the 20th. In our

coral, a 30% cementation at the start of the century corresponds to the decrease in calcification

towards the present derived from modeling and experimental studies. While calcification rates alone

are ambigous for conclusions on reef calcification and coral growth, calcification rates in

combination with d 13 C values allow to see diagenetic alteration in recent corals. Furthermore, the

combined use of coral density, growth rate and calcification data supports correct conclusions on

coral calcification. We show that diagenesis can seriously effect paleoceanographic reconstructions

from calcification rates and d 13 C and may have serious implications for paleo-CO2 reconstructions

and conclusions on past episodes of coral bleaching..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




H.G. Multer 1 , E. Gischler 2 , J. Lundberg 3 , K.R. Simmons 4 , E.A. Shinn 5

1 9855 State Route 961-F, Arkport, NY 14807, USA 2 Geologisch-Paläontologisches Institut, J.W. Goethe -Universität, 60054 Frankfurt/Main, FRG 3 Dept. Geography, Carleton University, Ottawa Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada

4 US Geol. Survey, Federal Center, Denver CO 80225, USA 5 US Geol. Survey, St. Petersburg FL 33701, USA

The southern margin of the Pleistocene Florida Platform is well known from the coral-bearing Key

Largo Limestone and the ooid-rich Miami Limestone that crop out along the island chain of the

Florida Keys between Miami and Key West. These units were deposited during the last interglacial

highstand of sea level ca. 125 yr BP (oxygen- isotope stage 5e). Based on sedimentological and

chronological (U-series dating) investigations of 12 long and 57 short cores, the youngest of the

Pleistocene Q-units (Q1-Q5) of the Key Largo Limestone of south Florida was further subdivided

into Q5e and post-Q5e. Individual units correspond to highstands of sea level, and units are, to a

large part, separated from each other by subaerial exposure horizons reflecting sea level lowstands of

the Pleistocene. Units Q1 and Q2 are characterized by abundant quartz and to a lesser extent by

skeletal fragments of molluscs and foraminifera. We speculate that units Q1 and Q2 may have been

deposited during the high sea levels of oxygen-isotope stage 11 between 420-360 ka. Abundant

carbonate production and reef development occurred during deposition of unit Q3, presumably

during isotope stage 9. The abundance of corals and coral boundstone decreases in unit Q4

(corresponding to isotope stage 7), which can be subdivided in a lower quartz-rich and an upper

carbonate-rich succession. Unit Q5e (equivalent to isotope stage 5e), which forms the present day

emergent Florida Keys, is again rich in massive corals (Montastrea annularis) and reefs. The

seaward-dipping geometry of this unit and the scarcity of the Atlantic breakwater Acropora palmata

support the contention that this Q5e platform margin had a ramp-type character. Shelf- margin reefs

with Acropora palmata developed during deposition of post-Q5e units and correspond to highstands

of sea level during isotope stages 5a and 5c. These deposits, which exhibit shelf margin wedge and

offshore outlier reef geometries, act as foundations of the Holocene bank barrier reefs at the modern

south Florida shelf edge..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002



M. M. Nugues, M. van der Geest, H. Waska, R.P.M. Bak

Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), PO Box 59,

1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands

Over the past two decades, many coral reefs in the Caribbean have experienced an increase in the

abundance of macroalgae which has resulted in a greater frequency of direct encounters between

corals and macroalgae. Yet, few studies have examined how these interactions and their effects vary

with species characteristics and anthropogenic influence and whether they form definite and

consistent hierarchical structure. Here, naturally occurring interactions between corals and three

species of macroalgae, Halimeda opuntia, Dictyota menstrualis and Lobophora variegata, were

surveyed at two different depths on six reefs along the South coast of Curacao, Netherlands Antilles.

Reefs were chosen upstream and downstream of local human impacts to represent a gradient of

human influence. Damage to both parties in interactions was recorded in the form of recently dead,

bleached or discolored coral tissue or physical damage to the alga. In addition, experimental field

contacts between corals and algae were conducted to study the competitive abilities of different coral

species and the mechanisms of damage to the algae. The survey showed the number and impact of

interactions to depend on both coral and algal species, but also on reef location along the gradient.

Upstream reefs showed fewer interactions and less damaged coral tissue per interaction at both

depths compared to downstream reefs, suggesting a strong influence of local human factors. The

forced interactions experiments did not always reflect the pattern observed in the reef survey. Results

indicated differences in aggression among corals, with some species able to damage algal blades by

extrusion of mesenterial filaments. However, in the field, overgrowth and damage of these corals by

macroalgae was conspicuous. The complexity of the development of dominance pattern over time

and variation in environmental factors may preclude any consistent competitive hierarchies between

corals and algae..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Rupert F.G.Ormond, Jennifer S. Ashworth, Randolph J. Velterop

University Marine Biological Station

Millport, Isle of Cumbrae, KA28 0EG

Underwater visual census counts were conducted across a small no-take zone and its adjacent open

fishing zones in Nabq with the aim of analysing fish abundance and size distribution across boundary

areas at three depths and for eight fish families. Although fishing pressure from the artisanal

Bedouin fishery is considered moderate, differences in fish abundance since reserve creation have

been found and this study provides a more detailed examination of the reserve dynamics. The

families Serranidae (groupers) and Lethrinidae (emperors) displayed higher abundance in the no-take

zone over all depths whereas Acanthuridae (surgeonfishes) showed the reverse pattern of increased

abundance in the open areas. Fishing gear is predominantly gill and trammel nets leading to

differential fishing pressure at the various depths surveyed with deeper areas of reef slope too deep

for the nets, resulting in altered patterns of abundance with depth. Seven of the eight families showed

significantly higher abundance in the no-take zone in the backreef lagoon, whereas only two families

showed significant differences in abundance at 10m depth. Gradients of abundance from the centre

of the reserve outwards were also influenced by depth, with Siganidae (rabbitfishes) showing a

decrease in abundance from the centre in the lagoon but an increase at 3m and 10m. One species

each of snapper and grouper (Lutjanus ehrenbergi and Cephalopholis argus) showed a significant

decrease in abundance with distance from the reserve centre (over the combined depths) whereas four

species of surgeonfish (Acanthurus nigrofuscus, Ctenochaetus striatus, Zebrasoma desjardinii and

Naso unicornis) and one species of rabbitfish (Siganus argenteus) showed significant increases in

abundance. Habitat differences coupled with differential fishing pressure (both between depths and

areas), the small size of the no-take zone and imperfect enforcement of fishing regulations have lead

to varying dynamics across this no-take zone..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002





Christine Perrin 1 , David C. Smith 2

1 Laboratoire de Paléontologie, 8 rue Buffon, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle,

75005 Paris, France

2 Laboratoire de Minéralogie, 61 rue Buffon, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle,

75005 Paris, France

In carbonate skeletons, including corals, the presence of organic matrices is well known. These

skeletal matrices have been recognized to play a major role in skeletogenesis and formation of

biocrystals. Sleractinian skeletons are therefore characterized by a compositional heterogeneity which

is fundamentally based on this organo- mineral duality. Effects of early diagenesis on scleractinian

skeletons are primarily controlled by their initial ultrastructural patterns and the composition and

spatial distribution of these skeletal organic matrices.

The earliest stages of diagenesis in coral skeletons have been investigated by comparing

microstructural and ultrastructural features from the uppermost skeletal parts of living colonies (i.e.

previously occupied by the living soft tissues) with those obtained from the older part of the same

skeleton. The various ultrastructural and diagenetic patterns observed with SEM have been analysed

by Raman microspectroscopy in order 1) to characterize mineral and organic skeletal phases in situ,

and 2) to detect transformation of any of these mineral or organic phases due to very early stages of


Microstructural and ultrastructural patterns:

In addition to its organo- mineral duality, the initial heterogeneity of a scleractinian skeleton is shown

by the occurrence of a micron-scale zonation of fibres resulting from incremental growth during

elementary cycles of biomineralisation, and also by the presence of two basic structural features,

fibres and calcification centres, clearly differentiated from each other. Within the species analysed,

micro- and ultrastructural data reveal an additional fine-scale diversity related to taxonomy. At the

timescale of colony life, the earliest processes of diagenesis produce a thin fringe of syntaxial

aragonite cements, alteration of the incremental zonation of scleractinian fibres and also preferential

diagenetic changes within calcification centres. These first modifications of coral skeletons are

obviously controlled by the biological ultrastructural characteristics of scleractinian taxa and also

suggest that early diagenesis does not necessarily imply drastic changes of environmental conditions.

Raman microspectroscopy:

The characteristic 155 & 1085 cm -1 bands common to both aragonite and calcite were evident in all

spectra and attention was thus focussed on the other bands in order to distinguish these two

polymorphs. Most spectra revealed no specific trace of calcite. Organic matter has been recognised in

some spectra on the basis of several bands in the range typical of C-H vibration. A few extra bands in

various spectra have not yet been identified as belonging to organic or mineral matter or to yet further

parasites. Hence, at the present time, the existence of organic material is detected with confidence,

but no chemical assignment is yet possible..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002





Chris Perry

Manchester Metropolitan University

Department of Environmental & Geographical Sciences,

Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD

Inhaca Island, southern Mozambique (lat: 26 o S, long: 33 o E) is located towards the southerly

latitudinal limits of coral reef growth in the Indian Ocean. The island forms part of a small barrier

island complex produced by the northward transport of sediment along the Natal coast. The island

comprises a series of high (up to 115 m) vegetated dunes, interspersed by low, freshwater marsh

areas. High energy conditions and significant clastic sediment transport occurs along the eastern

(Indian Ocean) side of the island, whilst western shores of the island (Maputo Bay) represent areas of

deposition and are characterised by low energy conditions, and the development of extensive

intertidal sandflats and seagrass beds.

Reef development around the island is at best patchy and restricted to the margins of channels which

dissect the extensive intertidal flats on western and southern fringes of the island. Three main sites of

coral growth are currently identified but, at all sites, active framework accumulation is severely

restricted (both spatially and bathymetrically). Coral growth is limited to the upper 4–6 m, but

framework accumulation is only significant in the upper 1–3 m. In many cases large Porites sp.

‘bommies’ produce a basic reef structure, with other common coral genera including Acropora sp.,

Favia sp., Platygyra sp., Pocillopora sp. and Montipora sp.. In addition, the diversity of the reef-associated

fauna is severely restricted. In contrast to lower latitude reef systems, reef development is

therefore both spatially and bathymetrically constrained and reflects low carbonate production rates

in these marginal (high latitude) and high turbidity sites.

Sediment samples recovered from reef and reef-related areas also indicate very low productivity of

carbonate sediments. Three main carbonate sediment producing environments are identified, 1) intra-reef

areas, 2) intertidal coral rubble zones, and 3) seagrass beds. Intra-reef sediments comprise

predominantly coral (40–50%) and mollusc (15–30%) grains, with secondary coralline algae (5–

10%), echinoid (~5%) and foraminifera (1–2%). Coral rubble zones are characterised by mixed

carbonate:siliciclastic sediments, with corals (~25%), molluscs (~10%) and coralline algae (~5%)

again representing the dominant carbonate constituents. Siliciclastics comprise around 50% of the

substrate. Seagrass beds are also characterised by mixed carbonate:siliciclastic sands, but with lesser

amounts of carbonate (typically <20%). Predominant carbonate grains are molluscs (10–15%) and

foraminifera (10–15%). Halimeda which is typically an important reef sediment producer is absent at

all sites. Areas of open, intertidal sands, which occur between these carbonate producing areas, are

siliciclastic dominated (80-90% quartz) with lesser amounts of glauconite, feldspars and lithoclasts.

Carbonate grain assemblages do not, therefore, conform to typical chlorozoan (tropical) associations,

further emphasising the marginal nature of carbonate production in these high latitude reef systems..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002



Nicholas Polunin, Ivor Williams

School of Marine Science & Technology,

University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK

Can we extrapolate the events of the 1980s on shallow N Jamaican reefs to other Caribbean reefs,

what does ‘phase shift’ imply, and what do we really know about underlying mechanisms and their

reversibility? On deeper (12-15m) reefs where it seems Diadema was never abundant, a strong

negative correlation across 19 sites in 5 Caribbean locations between herbivorous fish biomass and

macroalgae hints at a gradual, not step-wise, transition via grazing from high- to low-coral states.

However there appears to be a limit to the amount of substratum (~60% cover) scarids and

acanthurids can keep macroalgal- free at the present time. Further, an experiment in Belize with

‘pseudocorals’ suggests that loss of coral and limited herbivore pressure can contribute to macroalgal

overgrowth through spatial escape from grazing. We suggest that (i) the consequences of coral

bleaching, disease and hurricane impacts and (ii) loss of grazing fish through fishing contributed to

large scale algal overgrowth on deeper reef tracts. The Jamaican phase shift (i) appears not to be a

systemic switch between alternative states more (ii) a dramatic change which occurred in a short

space of time. Systematic comparison of protected reefs with those unprotected from fishing tends to

remind us that at shallow and deep reefs the connection between fishing and the phase shift has been

indirect; reef degradation will not simply be reversed by excluding fishing..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Juniawan Priyono, Prof. Dr. Dulbahri

Faculty of Geography Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Coral reef ecosystem at Teluk Cendrawasih Marine National Park, Papua, Indonesia has inside very

big potential resources, unfortunately its exploitation bring about damaged. The exploitation and

development need more planning in an integrated manner, with rationally coral reef management.

Former step in this management system is developing coral reef spatial database in digital format that

rounds up its existing, distribution, wide area, conditions, type, and its species. Coral reef data that

having spatial and temporal references need a system for collecting, storing, and management.

Geographic Information System (GIS) as a computer-based system with four capabilities to handle

geographical reference data, i.e. entering, data management, manipulating and analyzing, along with

output; most appropriate to apply. GIS product also could be published on World Wide Web that can

be accessed by everyone in everywhere through internet browser.

The development of coral reef spatial database, with Web-based GIS (Geographic Information

System) application, rounds up activity: (1) Digital mapping of area restriction and management

zones are carried out over digitizing, editing, UTM transformation, tabulation of attribute data, and

map’s layout process; (2) Coral reef condition mapping is carried out by image processing of Landsat

Thematic Mapper base on Lyzenga’s algorithm application. Field surveys for classify determining

are carried out base on line intercept transect (LIT) method for remote sensing purpose; (3) Coral

tabular database in digital format is arranged base on US Fish & Wildlife Service Division of Law

Enforcement (1991) and Australian Institute of Marine Science (1994) standard; (4) Web pages are

taken for relate on map and tabular database in an interactive manner with internet mapping software

and to publish database on internet.

The result of this research can be accessed pass through : sahul/tcmnp/mapdb/coralmap.asp.Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002



Edward G. Purdy, Edward L. Winterer

Foxbourne, Hamm Court

Weybridge, Surrey KT13 8YA, UK

The Darwinian model for the successive evolution of fringing reefs, barrier reefs and atolls with

progressive subsidence has been generally accepted following the indisputable proof of subsidence

provided by drilling results on Pacific atolls. Nonetheless, there is no proof that subsidence ever

produced such a genetic succession of reef types. Instead, there are data that don’t fit the

expectations of the model, such as the similar lagoon depths of barrier reefs and atolls as opposed to

the subsidence theory’s prediction that atolls should have significantly greater depths.

As in the case with atolls, the maximum lagoon depth of 69 modern barrier reefs is statistically

correlated with the lagoon catchment area for modern rainfall. Present day, low latitude, oceanic

rainfall patterns would seem to be an appropriate proxy for relative geographic differences in glacial

lowstand rainfall, even though the absolute amounts of rainfall are unknown. Consequently, the

correlation suggests the importance of Pleistocene subaerial solution in contributing to barrier reef

morphology. Further support for antecedent influence occurs in the form of barrier reef passes in

which the depth of the reef pass is correlated with onshore drainage volumes. Choked or partially

blocked reef passes seem likely to represent breaching of a pre-existing drainage divide that

separated seaward from lagoonward directed meteoric drainage during glacial low stands of sea level.

The role of carbonate deposition in contributing to lagoon morphology relates to lateral infilling of

the lagoon by rim-derived sediment and the vertical accentuation of antecedent relief. In at least one

instance bilateral progradation in both a seaward and lagoonward direction can be demonstrated.

Resulting barrier reef morphology reflects the alternating consequences of Pleistocene fluctuations in

sea level. During sea level rise, there is an accentuation of antecedent relief followed by highstand

progradational infilling of the lagoon by rim-derived sediment. During lowstands the infilling is

terminated and the lagoonward facing infilled edge is eroded, commensurate with the development of

solution morphology on the subaerially exposed carbonates. The consequences of the numerous

Pleistocene and perhaps earlier fluctuations of sea level are the barrier reef morphologies that we see

today..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Samuel Purkis, Jeroen Kenter

Dept. Sedimentology

Faculty of Earth and Life Science

Vrije Universiteit

De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Presented is a technique to monitor benthic assemblages on the fringing coral reef tops of the central

Egyptian Red Sea using Landsat TM imagery calibrated by field measurement. Above water spectral

reflectance measurements of reef top substrates were made on a section of reef top surrounding

Marsa Shagra using an OceanOptics spectrometer. An analytical model was formulated and proven

capable of removing the influence of a water column of known thickness from an above water

measurement provided that values for the water’s inherent optical properties were available. Both the

field spectra and atmospherically corrected TM image were corrected for the influence of the

intervening water column using the model to retrieve values of substrate reflectance. Unlike the field

spectra, depth was not known for every pixel in the satellite imagery, as ancillary bathymetric data

for the area was not available. Instead, a simple generic model of reef topography and in situ tidal

measurements were combined to provide an estimate of depth. The processed field spectra were

assembled into 7 classes representing the dominant substrate assemblages present on the reef top and

resampled to the bandwidths and sensitivity of the 3 visible bands of Landsat TM. Image

classification was afforded using a maximum likelihood method based on a normal probability

density function. Each image pixel was assigned to the substrate class to which the probability of

membership was greatest based on the covariance distribution of the field spectra. Accuracy

assessment of the resulting benthic habitat maps was performed against 87.3 km² of metre-scale

ground-truth data using both Kappa and Tau coefficients calculated from standard error matrices. In

areas where bathymetry was absent, classification accuracy was calculated to be 47% higher than

would be expected through chance agreement. In the limited areas where bathymetry was known,

classification was found to be significantly (P=0.01) more accurate and over 70% better than chance.

The work indicates that in areas where bathymetry data is absent, but predictable using a simple

topographic model, Landsat TM can be used to resolve both the geographic extent and

geomorphological and ecological zonation of the reef top at a regional scale. In areas where an

independent measure of bathymetry is available, it is shown that benthic habitat distribution can be

predicted with a high degree of accuracy and that quantitative analysis is possible. As differentiation

between optically similar substrates such as seagrass and green algae is displayed, the detection of

community phase-shifts of such classes can be used as a sensitive proxy for environmental stress.

Landsat offers a 25 year archive of imagery with which to investigate the seasonal, annual and

decadal dynamics of the reef-top. Such information is valuable to quantify the temporal dynamics of

carbonate depositional environments, as well as the impact of construction and habitat alteration

related to tourism development in the area. The results highlight the utility of spaceborne remote

sensing techniques to monitor short-term events in real time that could not be tackled through in situ

survey for logistical reasons..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Götz B. Reinicke, Helmut Schuhmacher

German Oceanographic Museum

Katharinenberg 14/20, D-18439 Stralsund, Germany

Coral reef benthic community structures reflect the temporal integration of species specific

ecological demands over prevailing environmental conditions. Dynamic processes, such as

recruitment, colony fragmentation, growth and retreat or mortality, however, create within-community

fluctuations in composition and abundance on the species level. The quantification of the

natural „noise“ in community dynamics is essential for the status evaluation of recent coral reefs and

coral community recovery (succession) after natural perturbations or anthropogenic disturbances.

Repetitive surveys of test squares (25 m²) were used to estimate rates of species and area turnover in

the living benthic coverage. Four pristine reef sites (wind- and leeward outer reef and lagoon slopes

respectively, all at 10-12 m depth) at the Sanganeb-Atoll/Sudan were first mapped in 1980 (Mergner

H & Schuhmacher H 1985 Helgol Meeresunters 39: 375). Resurveyed in 1991, the data analysis

revealed relative species turnover values (Trel, Schoener TW 1983 Oikos 41: 372) ranging 1.97-3.24

%yr -1 (median 2.67 %yr -1 ). They largely agree with values calculated from transect data of Caribbean

coral communities: 2.28 ± 1.04 %yr -1 , n=21 (Carysfort Reef, Florida, Dus tan P & Halas JC 1987

Coral Reefs 6: 91).

Rates of areas colonised or cleared by new or disappearing species during the census interval were

used to estimate areal turnover periods of living coral communities: the overall recruitment periods

calculated from newly recruited species in the test areas (median 416 ys, ranging 323-755 ys)

exceeded the overall clearing periods calculated from disappearing species (median 342 ys, ranging

312-527 ys). Assuming a balanced overall area budget of colonising and clearing processes (with

rather stable ratios of unoccupied substrate, Sheppard CRC 1985 Mar Ecol Prog Ser 25: 259) the

difference most likely is compensated for by recruitment and vegetative propagation of persistent


Comparison with a coastal fringing reef near Aqaba/Jordan (Gulf of Aqaba, test square first mapped

in 1976, by Mergner H & Schuhmacher H 1981 Helgol Meeresunters 34: 115) revealed significant

differences in community turnover parameters. Different clearing rates during two census intervals of

6 and 7 ys resulted in a high value for Trel (4.3 %yr -1 ) during the first interval with a subsequent

period of increased recruitment. Calculated periods of overall area turnover (205 ys for species

recruitment, 22 ys (!) for clearing) lay well below the reference values from the central Red Sea and

appear to reflect onshore anthropogenic impact.

Results demonstrate the relevant time scale of several hundreds of years for coral community

development and highlight their vulnerability to short term impacts.

This study was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Schu 75/13).Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Sophie Richier 1 , Pierre -Laurent Merle 1 , Paola Furla 1 , Francois Sola 1 , Denis Allemand 1,2

1 UMR UNSA-INRA 1112, Faculte de Science, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, BP71, F-06108

Nice Cedex 02, France

2 Centre Scientifique de Monaco, Avenue St-Martin, MC-98000 Monaco, Monaco

Plants have acquired, through their evolution, defense mechanisms against oxidative stress, which

mainly act against ROS generated consequently to the photosynthetic O2 production. Such a ROS

production is however not limited to plants but also to some animals living in symbiosis with

chlorophyllian organisms. One of the best-known symbiotic systems is the phototrophic association

between Cnidarians and Dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium sp. known as zooxanthella). Among these,

hermatypic Scleractinian corals and sea-anemones are largely distributed in the oceans. The aim of

the present study is to characterize the first enzyme involved in the cellular oxidative defenses, the

superoxide dismutase (SOD), in a Mediterranean sea anemone (Anemonia viridis) and in a

hermatypic coral (Stylophora pistillata). During oxidative stress conditions, the SOD act by

dismutating O- in H2O2, which is subsequently transformed in H2O and O2 by another enzyme, the

catalase. First results have confirmed the presence of coelenteric oxygen variations in a tentacle of the

sea anemone, with a hyperoxia state during the daytime (60 % of dissolved O2) and an anoxia state

during the night-time. The isozymes of Cnidarian SOD were visualized on native polyacrylamide gel

and the specific activities were measured by spectrophotometry. In Anemonia viridis, three classes of

SOD have been identified using specific inhibitors. They differ from each other by the metallic co-factor

(Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and Fe-SOD) and tissue-specific isozymes have also been shown for

each class. An active Cu/Zn-SOD isozyme was restricted to animal compartment (ectodermal and

endodermal cells), although an inactive one was localized by Western Blot in the zooxanthellae. Four

Mn-SOD isozymes were distributed among symbiotic partners. One of those was common to both

Cnidarian and zooxanthella cells and located in the mitochondrial compartment, three others were

restricted to endodermal cells and to the zooxanthellae. Finally, two Fe-SOD are located not only in

the zooxanthella compartment but also in the endodermal cells. The apparent molecular weight

(MWapp) and isoelectric point (pI) were determined for each isozyme. Analysis of the Stylophora

pistillata SOD isozymes shows a different pattern of the electrophoretypes, which suggests a species-specificity

of the SOD isozymes. Nevertheless, S. pistillata presents also at least 7 isozymes with

three main electrophoretypes having pharmacological Mn-SOD characteristics. The presence of high

isozyme diversity, typical to photosynthetic organism, is supposed to be involved in the extraordinary

adaptation of the symbiotic Cnidarians to oxygen variations..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Bernhard Riegl

National Coral Reef Institute, Nova Southeastern University Oceanographic Center,

8000 N. Ocean Drive, Dania FL 33004, USA

Particularly in high latitudes (and on reefs in extreme settings) reef-building by in situ framework

production is strongly influenced by extreme climatic events that can cause coral mass mortality.

Subsequent break- up of coral skeletons and heavy bioerosion remove the framework and can thus

lead to a reef switch-off. Examples of such events are sea-surface-temperature anomalies, frequently

associated with ENSO events, and extreme-wave-energy events frequently associated with tropical

cyclones (hurricanes). For a series of high- latitude coral areas (Florida, South Africa, Red Sea,

Arabian Gulf) in comparison with some tropical reef areas (Indonesia, Cayman, USVI) the effects of

climatic teleconnections in the predicted global warming scenarios is explored. Factors examined for

possible importance for high- latitude reef building processes are: increase in frequency of ENSO and

teleconnected events, latitudinal changes in the tropical cyclone (hurricane) belts. Also warm-water

delivery into the South Atlantic via Agulhas rings and the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation as

well as the possible link between increased SST and emergent diseases is briefly revisited..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Michael J. Risk

School of Geology and Geography,

McMaster Univ. Hamilton ON Canada, L8S 4M1

Despite recent emphasis on the effect of “global change” on reefs, the evidence of relative impacts is

quite clear: the world’s coral reefs have already suffered widespread damage. Managing this decline

will require effective community-based monitoring, coupled with objective criteria by which

discharges from the land may be regulated. The first criterion in MPA location should be distance

from land-based sources.

Virtually every monitoring protocol uses some variant of the line transect method (Risk, 1972), with

video records scored by trained biologists. These efforts are technology- intensive, require

taxonomically-trained personnel, and are inappropriate for Third World settings (where most of the

reefs are). In addition, almost all of them fail to include several critical aspects of reef health, such as

bioerosion. This is a particularly serious oversight, as bioerosion rates increase in lockstep with

coastal eutrophication. We should therefore abandon traditional monitoring, in favour of

bioindicator-based methods that can be used by untrained people. These “early warning” indicators

can then be policy triggers linked to programs to identify and quantify sources of stress.

Community-based monitoring using stomatopods is very effective in Indonesia: village women are

trained to classify and count these organisms as they glean for food at low tide (Erdmann’s work).

Kate Holmes and co-workers, in both the Caribbean and Indo-Pacific, have demonstrated that local

people can quickly be trained to assess extent of bioerosion in coral rubble. The method is quick,

cheap, and can be linked directly to coastal contamination levels. Whatever method the local

community uses, there needs to be a level of change that triggers a policy response.

The major anthropogenic stresses on reefs are sedimentation, sewage, industrial discharge and

fishing. Inappropriate fishing techniques (blast- fishing, cyanide, muro-ami) are a problem worldwide,

are always “illegal”, and hence require effective application of existing policies rather than enactment

of new legislation. In regions where the bulk of incoming sediments are siliciclastic, sediment stress

may be cheaply and quickly assessed by determining insoluble residues of coral samples. In general,

residues exceeding 0.2% signal stress, and this can be the trigger level to involve policy measures.

Reef growth is clearly inhibited at SPM values >10 mg per litre; where these values occur, mitigation

may include watershed reforestation and modification of agricultural practices. Sewage stress will be

detected by bioerosion bioindicators, and the levels assessed via analysis of d 15 N in coral tissue. For

legislative purposes, an increase of 2 per mil over time on any given reef, or between affected and

comparison reefs, can trigger policy intervent ions such as sewage treatment plants. Assessment of the

relative impacts of sediments and sewage costs about $300 per reef.

Although trigger levels for industrial discharge levels have not been worked out, corals themselves

can serve as monitors. Levels of heavy metals and POP’s can be determined over time, via analysis

of coral and gorgonian skeletons. Once water/coral partition coefficients have been determined,

corals can be used to determine safe levels for human habitation..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




JM Roberts, OC Peppe, DJ Mercer, JD Gage, DT Meldrum

Scottish Association for Marine Science

Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory, Oban, Argyll, PA37 1QA, UK

Current estimates of the environmental sensitivity of cold-water corals and their associated biota are

limited by our incomplete understanding of the variability of the cold-water coral reef environment.

The sensitivity of reef biota to sedimentation and resuspension events is largely unknown and the

influence of seasonal phytodetrital deposition has not been studied in situ. Here we describe the use

of a benthic photo lander to monitor this variability by the Sula Ridge reef complex on the mid-Norwegian

continental shelf. The photo lander provides a platform for time- lapse digital and film

cameras to image the seabed while the optical characteristics (light transmission, backscatter and

fluorescence) of the seawater and the current regime are recorded. At a water depth of 280m, the

photo lander recorded a dynamic environment with a tidal current regime and mean estimates of

sediment resuspension 0.5m above the bed of 136µg/l (maximum 771µg/l) over a four day period.

Initial analysis of the seabed photographs shows intense feeding activity of echiuran worms

(probably Bonellia viridis) pointing to rapid bioturbation of the sediment around the reef areas. Only

with longer term monitoring of cold-water coral reef environments in situ can informed inferences

about their environmental sensitivity and eventual management be drawn..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002



Forest Rohwer, Victor Seguritan, Farooq Azam, Nancy Knowlton

Department of Biology, LS317

San Diego State University

San Diego, CA 92182-4614 USA

Tel: 619-594-1336

Fax: 619-594-5676

Coral reefs are the most biodiverse of all marine ecosystems, however very little is known about

prokaryotic diversity in these systems. To address this issue, we sequenced over 1,000 bacterial 16S

rDNAs from three massive coral species (Montastraea franksi, Diploria strigosa, and Porites

astreoides) in Panama and Bermuda. Analysis of only 14 coral samples yielded 430 distinct bacterial

ribotypes. Statistical analyses suggest that additional sequencing would have resulted in a total of

6,000 bacterial ribotypes. Half of the sequences shared <93% identity to previously published 16S

sequences and therefore probably represent novel bacterial genera and species; this degree of novelty

was substantially higher than that observed for other marine samples. Samples from the Panama

corals were more diverse than those from Bermuda, paralleling diversity gradients seen in metazoans.

The coral-bacteria associations were non-random. Different coral species had distinct bacterial

communities, even when physically adjacent, while bacterial communities from the same coral

species separated by time (~1 year) or space (3,000 km) were similar. Analysis of the branching

coral Porites furcata showed that bacterial ribotypes are also structured spatially within colonies.

Therefore, corals and reefs represent landscapes of diverse, ecologically structured prokaryotic

communities..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Eugene Rosenberg

Department of Molecular Microbiology & Biotechnology,

George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Israel 69978

Vibrio shiloi is the aetiological agent of the coral bleaching disease of Oculina paragonica in the

Mediterranean Sea. During the last ten years, 80-90% of the O. patagonica colonies off the coast of

Israel bleached during the summer when sea- water temperatures reached a maximum of 29-31°C.

During the winter, the corals recovered. In controlled aquaria experiments, it was shown that V. shiloi

infection and the resulting bleaching were temperature dependent, occurring only at summer sea-water

temperatures. The first step in the infection process is adhesion of V. shiloi to a ß-galactoside-containing

receptor in the coral mucus. The bacteria then penetrate into the epidermal layer of the

coral and multiply intracellularly reaching ca. 10 9 cm -3 coral tissue. Inside the coral, V. shiloi

differentiates into a viable-but- not-culturable (VBNC) state. The intracellular bacteria produce toxins

which inhibit photosynthesis, bleach and lyse zooxanthellae. One of the toxins is the peptide

PYPVYAPPPVVP, which forms NH3 channels in algal membranes, thereby destroying the pH

gradient across the membrane and blocking photosynthesis.

Temperature plays a key role in regulating the production of V. shiloi virulence factors. When the

bacteria are grown at winter sea-water temperatures (16-20°C), they do not produce (i) the adhesin

required for initial binding to the coral, (ii) anti-algal toxins and (iii) superoxide dismutase (SOD).

An SOD - mutant adhered to corals, penetrated into corals cells, multiplied intracellularly for a short

time and then died, aborting the infection. Laboratory and field experiments indicate that SOD

protects the intracellular V. shiloi from oxidative stress caused by supersaturated concentrations of

oxygens produced by zooxanthellae photosynthesis. During the winter when SOD is not produced by

V. shiloi, the bacteria cannot survive in corals. Thus, a fresh infection cycle is required each spring-summer.

Recent observations suggest that the marine fireworm Hermodice caranculata serves as a

winter reservoir and potential vector for V. shiloi.

The generality of the bacterial hypothesis of coral bleaching will be discussed..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Deborah L. Santavy 1 , Jane M. Hawkridge 2 , Robert L. Quarles

Erich Mueller 2 , Lauri MacLaughlin

1 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,

Gulf Ecology Division, 1 Sabine Island Dr., Gulf Breeze, Florida 32561, USA 2 Mote Marine Laboratory, Center for Tropical Research,

24244 Overseas Highway (US 1), Summerland Key, Fl 33042, USA

Coral cover has significantly declined in the Florida Keys over the last 20 years, the causes of which

remain elusive and ill defined. Coincidently, there has been an increase in coral diseases reported not

only in the Keys but also throughout the wider Caribbean. This trend is most prolific in the Western

Atlantic with many new disease conditions recently reported in the literature and previously

described diseases found affecting different and additional coral species.

This study assessed the distribution and frequency of diseased scleractinian and gorgonian corals

between 1998 and 2000 using radial belt transects incorporating an area of 113m 2 at each station.

The disease surveys were conducted at stations throughout the Florida Keys and the Dry Tortugas,

and only included coral colonies more than 10 cm in size. The total number of coral colonies for

each scleractinian species, gorgonian species, the presence or absence of disease, and disease type

were recorded by pre-qualified disease observers. Preliminary results, presented elsewhere, indicated

that there were differences in disease distribution between reef types and geographic areas, with the

highest prevalence of disease on reefs near Key West when compared with reefs from New Grounds

and the Dry Tortugas. These results suggested a possible link to anthropogenic activities in the Key

West geographic region on back reefs.

Water quality was suspected as a potential factor contributing to the declining health of reefs in the

Key West region. Therefore, water samples and measurements were made at the same time that the

coral disease assessments were conducted. Depth profiles for temperature, salinity, dissolved

oxygen, and pH were taken with a HydroLab @ deployed above the corals. Water samples were

analyzed for total chlorophyll a, dissolved ammonium, dissolved nitrate and nitrite, dissolved nitrate,

soluble reactive phosphorous, total organic phosphorous, total organic nitrogen, dissolved silica, total

organic carbon, C:H:N ratio, total number of bacteria, and total number of viable Enterococci.

Additional water quality monitoring data were available from other programs. Data obtained in close

proximity to our stations and during the same sampling months were used for establishing


The associations between specific diseases-species and water quality parameters were examined

using non-parametric multivariate statistical procedures, including analysis of similarities and

multiple dimensional scaling. The coral and gorgonian diseases and water quality parameters were

mapped using GIS. The distributions of different diseases were associated with different water

quality parameters. The specific relationships between these factors will be presented. These

differences could have implications for future management activities designed to protect this

resource..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




S. R. Scheffers , G. Nieuwland, R. P. M. Bak, F. C. van Duyl

Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research

PO Box 59,1790AB Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands

The coral reefs of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles, are riddled with cavities and crevices, providing a

hard bottom surface area, which exceeds the projected surface area of the reef by 1.5- 8 times. This

cryptic hard substratum surface (HSS) area is for up to 60% covered by sessile filter feeders, which

have a potentially large impact on planktonic organisms and chemistry in ambient water. We

examined changes in bacteria and dissolved inorganic nutrients (DIN, DIP, Silicate) in 2 artificially

closed coral reef cavities (±70 l volume) over a 30- minute time period. Cavity main openings were

closed with a tight woven linen cloth. Closure efficiency was checked after insertion of Fluorescine.

Samples were taken from the middle of the cavity with 60 ml syringes attached to a fixed tube.

Depending on cavity and initial concentrations, bacterial abundance dropped rapidly. After 30

minutes, between 50-60% had gone, which coincides with clearance rates of 1.36x10 12 -3.93x10 12

bacteria .m -2 HSS .d -1 . Higher initial concentrations of bacteria resulted in higher clearance rates.

NOx concentrations increased significantly during the time of enclosure. Efflux rates varied between

1.02- 9.77 mmol . m -2 HSS d -1 . Ammonium concentrations did not significantly change. Silicate

concentrations significantly decreased after enclosure with 241.21- 384.74 mmol . m -2 HSS .d -1 .

Dissolved Inorganic Phosphate (DIP) concentrations showed a tendency to increase with estimated

effluxes of 0.46-6.97 mmol . m -2 HSS .d -1 . Comparison of bacterial disappearance rates and NOx

production rates suggests that additional sources of N than bacteria, were used by the cryptofauna.

The experiments show that coral reef cavities are a major sink for heterotrophic bacteria and silicate

and a source for NOx. The latter points to strong nitrification in cavities in which sponge-symbiotic

cyanobacterial nitrification may play a role..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Christiane K. Schelten

Environment Department, University of York,

York YO10 5DD, UK

This study addressed sediment impacts on reefs of the west coast of St. Lucia, in four different bays.

Two bays had low sedimentation levels and two bays received high sedimentation input from rivers.

In each bay, three to five locations were selected between the head of the bays and their headlands.

Monitoring work carried out since 1995 shows that decreases in coral cover were highest close to the

river mouths. Algal turf was the main component of the algal assemblage on reefs with higher

sedimentation rates, whereas reefs with less sedimentation showed higher cover of macroalgae. The

present study focuses on the impacts of sedimentation on the replenishment of coral communities by

coral larval settlement and examines the survival and growth of settled corals. Settlement rates were

estimated using artificial settlement plate arrays. Additionally, permanent photoquadrats were

established to study mortality, settlement and growth rates of juvenile corals on natural reef substrata.

Observations were repeated twice over a one-year period. The results show that settlement, mortality

and growth rates of juvenile corals were very variable over time. Settlement rates on artificial

substrata were similar between bays. However, within bays, settlement rates were higher at the

headlands (0.4 settlers.225cm - ².100d -1 ± 0.08 SE) than at their heads (0.1 settlers.225cm - ².100d -1 ±

0.03 SE). Settlement rates to natural substrata were also significantly higher at the headlands of the

bays (0.5 settlers.600cm -2 .100d -1 ± 0.07 SE) than at their heads (0.23 settlers.600cm - ².100d -1 ± 0.06

SE). In contrast to findings from artificial substrata, the bays differed significantly in their settlement

rates to natural substrata. Mortality rates of juvenile corals did not differ between bays with different

sedimentation levels, neither did the location in the bay play an important role. Juvenile coral growth

rates were higher on reefs with low sedimentation (0.15cm.100d -1 ± 0.02 SE) than with high

sedimentation (0.09cm.100d -1 ± 0.01 SE). Total mortality rate for all locations for the 1-year study

was 40.7%. and the settlement rate to natural substrata was equivalent to 18.8% of the original coral

number. Comparing mortality rates and settlement rates, it was clear that settlement rates observed

could not compensate for high mortality rates during the study. In summary, this study showed that

sedimentation has a negative effect on the replenishment of coral reefs by reducing settlement and

growth. However, it is difficult to determine the mechanisms that act on juvenile coral survivorship

and growth, since many factors are correlated with each other. Sedimentation decreases macroalgae,

but macroalgae might be a more detrimental threat to juvenile corals than sedimentation, by causing

coral mortality through competing for space and shading them. Herbivorous fish reduce algal cover,

but may damage juvenile corals due to unselective grazing. Additionally, prior to this study, in 1999

Hurricane Lenny impacted coral reefs of the low sedimentation bays more severely than high

sedimentation bays, which caused high coral mortality and enhanced algal growth (especially blue-green

algae) reducing suitable substrata for coral larval settlement and presumably decreasing

juvenile coral survivorship..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




M.H. Schleyer, L. Celliers

Oceanographic Research Institute

P.O. Box 10712, Marine Parade, Durban 4056, South Africa

Southern African coral communities form a continuum from the more typical, accretive reefs in the

tropics of Mozambique to the marginal, southernmost African distribution of this fauna in KwaZulu-Natal.

While the South African reefs are limited in size, they are gaining increasing attention. They

provide a model for the study of corals at latitudinal extremes and in terms of many of the stresses to

which these valuable systems are being globally subjected. Soft coral cover, comprising relatively

few species, exceeds that of scleractinians over much of the southern reefs and the coral communities

attain a biodiversity peak at this latitude (27°S) on the East African coast. Data will be provided in

this regard. The marginal distribution of these coral communities provides an opportunity for

monitoring the effects of climate change and a long-term monitoring site was established for this

purpose. Quadrats of 0.25 m 2 have been photographed annually within fixed transects since 1993

and hourly temperatures have been logged on the reef since 1994. While a consistent increase in sea

temperature of 0.27°C p.a. has been measured on the site over the last nine years, summer maxima

associated with high irradiatio n have caused only limited bleaching. The current temperature

increase appears to reflect a cyclical phenomenon as IGOSS NMC data indicate that it was only

0.01°C p.a. over the last 50 years. A combination of GIS mapping and merging of the quadrats with

subsequent image analysis was developed for the study and has revealed that the coral community

structure is changing and the scleractinian cover is increasing. The technique has also provided

measurements of recruitment, colony growth and mortality. Some published projections on the long-term

effects of climate change indicate that more reefs will become marginal as a result of global

warming. Current monitoring on the South African reefs is being expanded to include oceanographic

measurements, PAR light intensities and aragonite saturation state. It is hoped that the combined

studies on these marginal reefs will elucidate the future of more typical reefs..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002



Dr William Skirving 1 , Dr Alan Strong 2 , Dr Gang Liu 2

1 NOAA/NESDIS and CIRA Colorado State University


There is much talk about how current climate change will and is affecting coral reef ecosystems.

This talk will use of satellite and other data to help describe the state of the art in our understanding

of the relationship between climate and coral bleaching. It will then go on to review recent climatic

change and will describe the current climatic situation and what this means for reefs around the

world..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Struan R. Smith, Graham Webster, Samantha de Putron, Thadddeus Murdoch,

Sheila McKenna, Daniel Hellin, Lauren Grayston, Ann Michelle Stanley

Bermuda Biological Station for Research, Inc.

Ferry Reach, GE 01, Bermuda

Bermuda’s coral reefs are a unique high- latitude ecosystem in the Western Atlantic. Reef monitoring

programmes were initiated in the early 1990’s, using permanent and random quadrat and transect

techniques. For the past ten years coral populations have remained healthy and stable, despite

repeated bleaching events, coral diseases and frequent hurricanes. The extensive offshore reef zones

(8-16 m) are characterized by high coral coverage (20-60%) and low coral species diversity. The

large lagoon system supports extensive shallow patch reefs with low coral coverage (10-20%) but

increased coral diversity due to a proliferation of branching corals (Madracis spp., Oculina diffusa,

Porites porites).

The massive growth forms of the dominant offshore corals (Diploria spp, Montastraea spp. and

Porites astreoides) appear to survive well through frequent hurricanes and winter gales. The low

mortality and injury rates are sufficient to maintain large reproductively-active populations, resulting

in recruitment rates that are fairly consistent over time. Brooding corals such as Porites astreoides

are the most abundant recruits but broadcasting corals, such as Diploria spp., also recruit

successfully. Recruitment may be enhanced by larval retention within the lagoon system due to

physical oceanographic conditions that reduce water mixing with the open ocean in the summer.

These characteristics of Bermuda’s coral populations, adequate recruitment and high adult survival

rates, appear to offset the effects of strong seasonality in water temperature (16-30 o C) and day-length

(10-14 hours) at 32 o N that restrict coral growth rates to half that of Caribbean conspecifics. It

is the ability of Bermuda’s corals to maintain robust population structures that account for successful

reef development at high latitude. It is unclear whether Bermuda’s coral populations can continue to

thrive in an era of climate change where elevated pCO2 levels may compromise already reduced

skeletal growth rates. If Bermuda’s corals can continue to sustain current fecundity and recruitment

rates then reef development may likely continue..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Smithers, S.*, Larcombe, P. #

*School of Tropical Environment Studies and Geography, # Marine Geophysical Laboratory, James Cook University, Townsville, 4811, Australia

Paluma Shoals are a group of nearshore coral reefs located ~50 m seawards of the base of the beach

in Halifax Bay, ~50 km north of Townsville. Paluma Shoals and other coral reefs close to the

mainland coast along the inner Central Great Barrier Reef appear confined to a narrow zone

(representing sediment erosion and/or shore-parallel translation) between an erosional shoreline and

the landward edge of a muddy terrigenous sediment prism located between the 5 and 20 m isobaths.

The landward limit of this prism is controlled by wave- induced sediment resuspension in the shallow

subtidal zone, which limits terrigenous sediment accumulation but generates high and prolonged

turbidity. This sediment prism is believed to have migrated landward across the inner GBR shelf

during the Holocene transgression, and thus its occurrence and movement, and that of the associated

nearshore zone of sediment erosion, appear to be primary controls on the location and timing of reef

initiation and of the environmental conditions experienced during reef development.

We report on the late Holocene growth history of the largest, southernmost shoal, whose reef flat

extends 500 m from seaward to leeward, and 750 m alongshore. Live coral cover on the reef flat is

40-60%, and abundant Goniastrea retiformis microatolls up to 2 m diameter dominate the surface.

Three cores, taken along a shore- normal transect, all terminate with a stiff grey Pleistocene clay at ~

3 m below the reef surface. The stratigraphy, composition and radiometric dates returned from the

cores indicate a young but complex growth history. The cores contain discrete interbedded units of

carbonate detritus and terrigenous muds; the terrigenous units include articulated bivalves in growth

position, indicating that the reef has experienced muddy conditions over much of its history. The

oldest date (1657+/-83 BP, 14 C years uncorrected and uncalibrated) was obtained from a coral clast at

the base of the central core, with second oldest date (1328+/-44 BP) ~ 1m above base. Dates from the

seaward core are younger (1199+/-46 BP at base, to 912+/-61 BP ~ 1 m above base), but the

youngest dates come from the core at the landward edge of the reef (all dates <541+/-90 BP). Based

on the size and likely growth rate of the larger microatolls, and the lack of disturbed and fossil

counterparts, the contemporary reef flat is probably less than 150 years old.

This continuing work offers insights into recent reef initiation and growth in turbid nearshore waters,

and by implication those of the early Holocene marine transgression. The results clearly show that

this reef has developed under an environmental regime speculated by some to be threatening to

nearshore coral reefs..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002



Stoletzki, N., Schierwater, B.

ITZ – Ecology and Evolution, Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover,


The symbiotic association between the caribbean sea anemone Condylactis gigantea and its

zooxanthellae, Symbiodinium sp. was investigated at a molecular level.

Sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal DNA complex was used to analyse genealogical relationships of

zooxanthellae within and between individuals. Despite the fact that dinoflagellates are known to

reproduce asexually (and no mode of sexual reproduction is known for Symbiodinium sp. so far) the

molecular data reveal high genetic diversity of Symbiodinium sp. with genotypes belonging to clade

A and clade B. Only rarely identical sequences could be identified.

Genetic analyses of the symbionts of two distinct host populations, and of bathymetrically

transplanted hosts were performed in order to address mechanisms of adaptation, acclimation, and the

flexibility of the association. Clade belonging showed that reef site and depth correlate with

zooxanthellae strains. This supports the idea that zooxanthellae type may play a role in adaptation to

different environments.

Additionally, physiological adaptations were investigated. Photosynthesis of the zooxanthellae

requires that the animal tissue is transparent, thus both, algae and host are exposed to harmful UV

radiation. Physiological stress responses of the holobiont are indicated by amount and properties of

UV absorbing substances (whose identity is currently examined) that vary with depth.

Whether differences in UV protection are attributable to physiologically different Symbiodinium

genotypes or clades is currently under investigation..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Peter K. Swart, Alina M. Szmant, Jim Porter, Amel Saeid, Jennifer Tougas

Division of Marine Geology and Geophysics,

Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences,

University of Miami,

4600 Rickenbacker Causeway,

Miami 33149

The origin of 13 C variations within coral skeletons is still a matter of considerable debate and in

particular the role that respiratory CO2 plays in controlling the eventual isotopic composition of the

skeleton. In this study the temporal variability of the d 13 C of respired CO2 produced by Montastraea

faveolata was measured over a 12 month period. In these experiments specimens were incubated for

24 hour periods and samples of the incubation water analyzed for the d 13 C of the dissolved inorganic

carbon (DIC) every three to four hours. Incubations were repeated from May 1993 to April 1994 at

approximately monthly interva ls on corals maintained on a platform at 8 m depth near Molasses Reef

in the Florida Keys. Throughout the incubation the amount of oxygen was measured within the

chamber. These results indicate that during daylight, the d 13 C of the DIC becomes isotopically

positive as a result of fixation of carbon during photosynthesis, while at night the d 13 C of the DIC

becomes more negative. The d 13 C of the respired CO2 can be calculated using a simple mass balance

approach, taking into consideration the relevant fractionation factors between the various carbon

bearing species which comprise the DIC. The calculated d 13 C values for the respiratory CO2 range

from -18 ‰ in the late spring to as negative as -23 ‰ in the autumn and are significantly more

negative than that reported by previous workers for coral tissue and zooxanthellae. An explanation

for this discrepancy may be that corals are respiring a significant proportion of isotopically depleted

substances, such as lipids which are known to have values up to 10‰ lighter than other compounds.

The seasonal cycle in the d 13 C of the CO2 suggests that there is variability in either the isotopic

composition of the coral tissue or the type and/or amount of organic material being respired. A

similar pattern and magnitude of change was observed in coral tissue and zooxanthellae samples

collected from a nearby reef at monthly intervals between 1995 and 1996, although the d 13 C of the

tissues have a mean value of -13.25‰ compared to -20.5 for the respired CO2. Alt least part of the

pattern of enrichment during the early summer and depletion during the autumn might b related to

changes in the productivity of the reef, with high productivity causing a decrease in CO2 and

consequent isotopic enrichment not only of the corals but the entire food chain. During the late

summer, enhanced respiration relative to photosynthesis causes an isotopic depletion in the DIC. It

may also be relevant that the timing and amplitude of the patterns in the d 13 C of the respired CO2 and

the tissue are similar to that observed in the skeleton..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002





Thomas, J. D.

National Coral Reef Institute

8000 N. Ocean Dr., Dania, FL 33004 USA

While reports and evidence of large-scale change and decline in coral reefs and associated reef

communities increase, scientists and marine resource managers often view and assess reef

biodiversity through a narrow lens of “spatially obvious” species such as corals, fish, and mollusks

while paying little attention to the multitude of small cryptic invertebrates found on reefs. Often these

larger candidate organisms have long- lived dispersive larvae capable of long distance transport prior

to settlement. In contrast, many of the smaller, more cryptic reef organisms such as amphipod

crustaceans lack dispersive larvae and have restricted distribution patterns that help define subtle and

important differences in biodiversity among reefs. This is best seen in island archipelagos where each

island may have an endemic cryptofaunal form or species while larger, more widely distributed taxa

show little or no variation at the same spatial scale. While numerous surveys and taxonomic lists are

being compiled they are rarely followed with detailed systematic studies capable of explaining fine

scale evolutionary relationships. Such information is crucial in identifying important areas of lineage-driven

hyper diversity that could serve as potential long-term sources of propagules for nearby

impacted reefs. Merely compiling lists and species numbers provide little or no detail in this regard

but are often used in decision- making such as locating marine protected areas. Inventories and lists

provide information on species presence, but not the processes that could have resulted in observed

patterns that could be informative in analyzing evolutionary diverse reef systems. Research that

incorporates evolutionary scenarios and geological process information at a variety of spatial and

temporal scales has been used to identify composite distribution patterns found in reef systems along

plate boundary margins. Therefore, knowledge of geotectonic processes is pertinent to the

interpretation of diversity in reef assemblages. This is evident where once distant and remote reef

systems are docked and amalgamated by multiple collision and subduction events along plate

boundaries. Using amphipod crustaceans from reefs in the South Pacific and Indian Ocean reef

systems proved highly informative in suggesting where similar patterns of what were likely to be

found. Predictive and testable hypotheses blending biological and geological components can provide

plausible explanations of evolutionary diversity and result in levels of detail and discrimination that

most current biodiversity and assessment activities cannot achieve. This combined approach can help

explain examples of widespread paleoendemic fauna, high levels of regional endemism, areas of

composite biodiversity, and ex-situ vs. in-situ evolutionary patterns and processes. Data resulting

from this blending of geological processes and biodiversity patterns can suggest avenues of further

research such as molecular genetics that can further test assumptions about biodiversity pattern in

coral reefs..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Peter Todd

National University of Singapore


Environment induced phenotypic change, or phenotypic plasticity, refers to an organism’s

morphological, physiological and behavioural responses to its biotic and abiotic surroundings. On

contemporary, rapidly changing reefs, phenotypic plasticity may be advantageous to corals that might

not be able to survive through adaptation alone. To test for morphological plasticity in the massive

species Favia speciosa (Dana 1846) and Diploastrea heliopora (Lamark 1816), colony fragments

(clone- mates) were transplanted over two environmental gradients: a depth cline and a nearshore to

offshore gradient in sedimentation rates and total suspended solids (TSS). After seven months all

fragments were collected, cleaned and ten morphometric characters extracted from randomly chosen

corallites. Reaction norms and analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicate that both species experienced

environment- induced changes in small-scale morphology. Highly significant genotype × environment

(G × E) interactions verify that corallite structure is both genetically and environmentally determined,

and that genotypes vary in the level of plasticity expressed. Multivariate analyses identified similar

responses in both species, though trends were more pronounced for Favia speciosa. Light and TSS

emerge as the primary factors influencing morphological change..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002





Tribollet A 1 , Peyrot-Clausade M, Hutchings PA 2

1 Station Marine d’Endoume, Centre d’Océanologie de Marseille,

Chemin de la batterie des Lions 13007 Marseille


2 Australian Museum, 6 College street, Sydney 2010 Australia

Increasingly, it is being shown that coral reefs are under a variety of stresses from both anthropogenic

and natural impacts. These impacts include rising sea temperature leading to bleaching effects,

eutrophication, pollution, over- fishing, sedimentation, increased frequency of cyclones, and plagues

of COTS. Thus, the amount of coral substrate available for colonisation by borers and subsequently

for grazers increases which potentially destroys the equilibrium between reef growth and reef

destruction, leading to physical loss of reefs. This may lead to loss of fisheries resources, economic

consequences from loss of tourism and the destruction of low lying areas previously protected from

storm damage by reefs. To date, few studies have focussed on the impact of factors such as increased

rates of sedimentation on rates and agents of bioerosion, especially the microflora. Thus, this study

concentrated on the role of micro- and macroborers as well as grazing organisms, and how they

varied with different sedimentation regimes.

An experimental study was conducted over a 4 years period using coral blocks cut from recently

killed Porites colonies. Blocks were laid at six sites located along a cross shelf transect (200 km)

from onshore to offshore on the northern Great Barrier Reef. At each site two grids were firmly

attached to the substrate on which replicate blocks were laid, in order to study the intra-site

bioerosion variability as well as the variation between sites. After one and three years of exposure,

the main boring organisms were identified and total bioerosion (including micro- and

macrobioerosion, grazing) and accretion rates were quantified using petrographic sections, scanning

electronic microscopy and image analysis to determine the calcium carbonate balance sheet of the

experimental substrate. Rates of microbioerosion (0.13 kg.m -2 .a -1 to 1.35 kg.m -2 .a -1 ) as well as

grazing rates (0.004 kg.m -2 .a -1 to 0.77 kg.m -2 .a -1 ) increase from inshore sites to the oceanic, and over

time of exposure although not proportionally (by about 3 times). These variations are probably due to

differential rates of sedimentation across the transect, with higher rates of sedimentation occurring

inshore than offshore. The variability in rates of macrobioerosion between sites is small, in contrast

more variation occurs within a site. Rates increase with increasing exposure (0.05 kg.m -2 after one

year to 0.83 kg.m -2 after three years of exposure). Microborers are the principal agents of bioerosion

after one year of exposure (47% to 90%) while after three years of exposure, they play a secondary

role (20% to 47%). After three years, macroborers are the main agent of erosion at the inshore sites

and grazing activity primarily by scarid fish is dominant at the other sites. Accretion rates due to

calcareous algae are negligible in comparison to total bioerosion rates. Thus, total bioerosion rates as

well as net bioerosion rates vary between sites according their distance from the coast, and increase

with increasing time of exposure. In conclusion, many physical and ecological processes interact in

determining rates of bioerosion, including terrigenous inputs. This study highlights the important role

played by microborers in the bioerosion of dead coral Porites, and the relationship between

microborers, macroborers and grazers..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Ulstrup, Karin E., van Oppen, Madeleine J.H.

University of Copenhagen, Botanical Institute, Department of Phycology

Øster Farimagsgade 2D, 1353 Copenhagen K., Denmark

Global warming and increased radiation may have a direct and detrimental effect on the ubiquitous

symbiotic relationship between reef building corals and unicellular algae of the genus Symbiodinium

(zooxanthellae) and often cause coral bleaching. Hence, the extent of coral bleaching may be used as

an indicator for environmental change. However, the adaptive mechanisms of the coral-algal

symbiosis and the complexity of combinations of symbionts and host that are continually discovered

are poorly understood. The patterns in distribution of genetically distinct Symbiodinium strains

harboured by individual coral colonies of the genus Acropora suggest that a selective mechanism

exists to obtain the best functioning unit in the local environment. The community structure of

zooxanthellae in two distinct species of Acropora was examined from different reef habitats as well

as microhabitats within single host colonies. Also, temporal changes in zooxanthellae communities

were followed in a UV-eliminating experiment. The identity of the Symbiodinium strains was

determined using an electrophoretic screening methods (Single Strand Conformational

Polymorphism; SSCP) and the relative abundance of distinct clades of zooxanthellae was determined

using quantitative PCR. Photochemical responses of specific zooxanthellae communities were

estimated with pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) technology. The data suggest that a relationship

exists between symbionts present in the tissue of Acropora and the light regime under which they are

found in the microhabitats of individual corals. However, this relationship appears to occur on a local

geographic scale and is not stable over regional distances in the central Great Barrier Reef region.

The reason for this is unclear. Moreover, the results show that a reduction of UV radiation may erase

this relationship and a possibly adaptive change towards one homogenous symbiont community

occurs. Relative differences in optimum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) of photosystem II (PSII) of distinct

zooxanthellae communities are opposite when UV-light is removed from the ambient light regime of

the corals. Differentiation in relative electron transport rates (ETR) is more significant in corals that

harbour heterogenous zooxanthellae communities than in corals that harbour a homogenous

endosymbiont population. Non-photochemical quenching data from zooxanthellae in distinct light

environments in Acropora valida show that some populations of zooxanthellae have lower heat stress

tolerances than others. This differentiation does not occur in UV free environments..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002



Fleur C van Duyl 1 , Sander Scheffers 1 , Mark Driscoll 2 , Florence IM Thomas 2

1 Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research,

PO BOX 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands 2 University of South Florida,

4202 Fowler Ave, SCA 110, Tampa, Florida 33620-5150, USA

Cryptic habitats such as cavities, holes and crevices make up an important part of the volume of coral

reefs encompassing an internal surface of up to 8 m 2 per projected m 2 reef. Cryptic organisms cover

ca 95% of the hidden hard substratum surface on reefs in Curaçao (Netherlands Antilles). Particularly

filter feeders such as encrusting sponges, which are well represented in cavities, are supposed to take

up a considerable amount of organic matter and mineralize part of it. To quantify the mineralization

in cavities in situ we measured the inorganic nutrient concent rations in-and outside 3 caves in the

fore reef slope at 15 m depth at different mainstream flow velocities. Simultaneously the water

exchange rate of cavities was determined with fluorescent dye. Selected caves had inner volumes of

50-75 l with an inside hard substratum surface area of ca 1m 2 and a sandy bottom. The flux of

inorganic nutrients was determined on basis of the concentration difference in and outside cavities

and the residence time of the water in cavities. Dissolved inorganic phosphate (PO4) and nitrogen

concentrations were enhanced in cavities. Particularly NO3 and NO2 (NOx) were significantly higher

in cavities than outside cavities. Surprisingly NH4 concentrations were usually lower inside than

outside cavities. Concentration differences in NOx between in-and outside of the cave were

negatively related to the exchange rate coefficient. This means that the NOx concentration in caves

increases with increasing residence time of the water. Residence time was usually short, 2-8 min, but

could extent to several hours for short periods of time. The exchange coefficient increased linearly

with the main current velocity and relations differed between caves. This suggested that cavity

characteristics, apart from the main current flow velocity, were important in controlling the

concentration differences inside and outside cavities. The average net efflux rates of NOx from caves

ranged between 2 and 4 mmol.m -2 cave substratum area.d -1 with maximum values of 8 mmol.m -2

cave substratum area.d -1 . Net influx of NH4 was on average 1-2 mmol.m -2 cave substratum area. d -1

with maximum values of 14. Results suggest that coral cavities are net sources of NOx and net sinks

of NH4. There is a net average efflux of DIN from caves ranging between 1 and 1.7 mmol.m -2 cave

substratum area.d -1 . DIP efflux was on average 0.4-0.5 mmol.m -2 cave substratum area.d -1 .

Apparently cavities are significant net exporters of DIN and DIP, suggesting that cryptic habitats on

the reefs of Curaçao can be considered as reef water fertilizers..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




P. van Treeck

Institute of Ecology, Dpt. Hydrobiology

University of Essen

45117 Essen


The importance of bioerosion within dynamics of reef limestone is unquestionable.Especially the

bioerosion potential of classical bioeroders such as sponges, sea urchins, and parrot fish has been

documented profoundly. Other grazers such as acanthurids and pomacentrids were considered to be

rather herbivorous and not efficient bioeroders. Results from a study in the Northern Gulf of Aqaba

(Red Sea) show that especially the guild of browsers can significantly contribute to the erosion of

reef framework. Due to this certain reef zones of the study area exhibit a negative carbonate budget.

Thus, from a functional point of view coral reefs appear as grazer-controlled communities and show

more similarities to savannas or other grazer- induced systems than to rain forests – an often stressed

analogy..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Bernardo Vargas-Ángel, James D. Thomas

National Coral Reef Institute (NCRI)

Nova Southeastern University Oceanographic Center (NSU OC)

8000 N Ocean Drive, Dania Beach, FL 33181 USA

During previous research by NCRI personnel and NSU OC graduate students, aggregations of

staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis) were found along coastal waters off Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

As part of a larger-scale characterization and monitoring program, this study was aimed at mapping

and collecting data on percent cover and demographics of A. cervicornis in the region. Results

presented herein are preliminary, since characterization studies are still underway. Presence of

healthy A. cervicornis ‘thickets” was confirmed and georeferenced in more than a dozen sites, and

quantitative surveys were conducted at selected locations (7 sites) to ascertain the spatial variation in

mean percent cover, algal cover, species richness, density of juveniles, and the density and size of

colonies and fragments. At each site, benthic community surveys were conducted along 4, 50-m

haphazardly-selected transects. Staghorn coral aggregations ranged between 700 and 7000 m 2 , and

mean coral cover varied between 5 and 30%, with A. cervicornis accounting for 87–97% of all

scleractinians. Differences in coral cover among sites were statistically significant. Thickets of A.

cervicornis exhibited higher species richness, topographic complexity, and percent cover than

adjacent areas of comparable depth. Demographic studies revealed that colonies comprised nearly

60% of the A. cervicornis population. Mean density of colonies and fragments ranged between 1.2–

3.2 colonies m 2 , and 0.5–2.3 fragments m 2 respectively. Percent cover was positively associated with

colony density and size. Number of recruits varied between 0–1.0 individuals/m 2 , with a mean of

0.08. Prevalence of disease- like conditions and predation were also studied. Densities of the fire

worm Hermodice carunculata ranged between ~18 and 86 ind ha 1 , and percent damage to A.

cervicornis was close to 0.2%. Incidences of white-band disease or bleaching were not detected. The

flourishing A. cervicornis populations off Fort Lauderdale thrive in a high- latitude environment,

beyond known temperature constraints and in the midst of significant anthropogenic stressors. They

are perhaps the largest and northernmost in the continental U.S.A. This situation provides an

interesting counterpoint to the decline and disease-stricken A. cervicornis populations in seemingly

more favorable conditions further south in the Florida Keys..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




M.J.A. Vermeij, Diekmann O.E., R.P.M. Bak

Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies (University of Miami)/ NOAA

Fisheries, Southeast Science Center

75 Virginia Beach Dr, Miami, FL 33149 USA

The evolutionary and ecological status of six Caribbean Madracis species reveals mechanistic

species that can be used to describe the genus dynamics through evolutionary time. Within a limited

spatio-temporal scale (defined by the duration of the research (1998-2001) and the locations it was

carried out: Bonaire and Curaçao, 9375km 2 ), we investigated patterns observable at present to reveal

processes relevant through time. Three paradigms that are currently used in coral biology were

combined: morphometrics, genetics and ecology. The organization of the genus can be portrayed as a

multidimensional graph which axes represent various paradigms. For Madracis we used the

paradigms: genetics (based on (Diekmann et al. 2001), colony morphology and ecological

characteristics. Ideally, such projection of multiple species characteristics would be performed in an

n-dimensional graph, where n represents the number of characteristics that were studied

simultaneously. “True” species sensu (Veron 1995) are separated at each single axis from the others.

We found that M. mirabilis and M. senaria are indeed distinct from each other and all other Madracis

genetically, ecologically and morphologically. They are therefore “true” species that obtained a

specialist strategy on the reef followed by reproductive isolation (Vermeij et al. A). Although, M.

mirabilis and M. senaria provide excellent evolutionary units for ecological, morphological or

genetical studies, they are useless to describe speciation processes in corals. The remaining four

species show interspecific overlap in morphological, genetic and ecological characteristics and

provide a much better opportunity to study organizational processes in coral evolution. Two

organizational processes were observed: introgressive hybridization and the controlled expression of

genetic polymorphisms. M. pharensis/M. decactis-complex is a genetical polymorphism organized by

habitat heterogeneity at a small spatial scale (Vermeij et al. B). The scale, at which environmental

variation occurs, that causes organization within species gene pools is surprisingly small and was

found between closely, located islands. Secondly, introgressive hybridization between M. formosa

and the M. pharensis/M. decactis complex resulting in a new species: Madracis carmabi (Vermeij et

al. C, Diekmann et al. 2001). The participation of the M. pharensis/M. decactis complex in both

processes clearly illustrates the evolutionary dynamics of these species. In the genus we then have an

example of a group where speciation could potentially occur (M. pharensis/M. decactis complex), but

also where existing species reintegrate due hybridization (M. pharensis/M. decactis complex and M.

formosa). The concurrence of fusions and splits in Madracis gene pools as they are organized

through evolutionary time, supports the presence reticula te evolution in Madracis (sensu Veron

1995). We now see that when the organizational processes are known and multiple paradigms are

combined simultaneously, species become visible. They can not be defined a priori and evolve as

patterns from processes that respond to upper and lower constraints through time.

Diekmann OE, Bak RPM, Stam WT and Olsen JL (2001) Molecular genetic evidence for reticulate speciation in the coral genus

Madracis from a Caribbean fringing reef slope. Mar Biol 139:221-233.

Vermeij MJA, Diekmann OE and Bak RPM. Submitted A. A new species of Scleractinian coral (Cnidaria, Anthozoa), Madracis

carmabi n.sp. from the Southern Caribbean. Bull Mar Sc.

Vermeij MJA, Sandin SA and Samhouri. Submitted B. Morphological variation related to habitat heterogeneity suggests genetic

structure at a small spatial scale in a Caribbean coral species. Am Nat.

Vermeij MJA, Sampayo EM, Broker K and Bak RPM. Submitted C. Variation in planulae release of closely related coral species. Mar

Ecol Prog Ser

Veron JEN (1995) Corals in space and time. Cornell University Press..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Jamie A. Vernacchio, David S. Gilliam

National Coral Reef Institute (NCRI)

Nova Southeastern University Oceanographic Center

8000 North Ocean Drive

Dania Beach FL 33004 USA

Natural and anthropogenic damage to coral reefs, especially those in environmentally sensitive and

densely populated areas like Broward County, Florida, USA, is a growing concern for reef managers

and scientists. The Coral Nursery Project was established as a cooperative effort between local

scientists (NCRI), resource managers (State of Florida and Broward County Department of Planning

and Environmental Protection), resource users (Ocean Watch Foundation Dive Club), and federal

resources managers (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration through the National Fish

and Wildlife Foundation) to utilize corals of opportunity (i.e., overturned, loose, or dislodged corals)

that may otherwise perish, for use in transplantation to damaged coral reef habitat. Transplanting

scleractinian corals to damaged coral reefs has been shown to accelerate the early stages of recovery

after reef habitat has been damaged. Until recently, however, donor corals for coral reef restoration

were only obtained from two sources: those grown in laboratories and those taken from existing reef

surfaces. The process of growing corals in a laboratory can be time consuming and expensive.

Removing attached corals from one reef for transplantation elsewhere may result in no net gain.

Instead, the Coral Nursery Project locates, collects, and transports corals of opportunity, which have

become detached from the reef through various means, to an established nursery ground (artificial

reef). These corals are then tagged, affixed to the substrate, and monitored for growth and

survivorship. Corals from this nursery can provide a source of transplant donors for future restoration

of coral reef habitat. During the first year of the project, over 150 corals of more than 15 species have

been transplanted to the nursery. The survival rate of these colonies has exceeded 95%, a much larger

success rate than what would be expected if these loose corals were left unattached. The results of the

Coral Nursery Project study will provide resource managers information on coral species and colony

size specific transplantation success. Future restoration activities can benefit from the use of the

rescued corals of opportunity. Coral nurseries may become important tools in future coral reef habitat

restoration projects..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002



Les Watling, Peter Auster, Ivar Babb, Carolyn Skinder

Darling Marine Center, University of Maine,

193 Clarks Cove Road, Walpole, Maine, USA 04573

Gorgonians are a conspicuous feature of the deep water fauna when hard substrates are present. The

United States northeast coast (defined as the area from Cape Hatteras to the Gulf of Maine) is home

to about 28 species of gorgonians. Most are found at slope depths (200- 2500 m), but a few can be

found in relatively shallow water (15-165 m) in the Gulf of Maine. In a recent paper, Cairns and

Chapman recorded 15 species of scleractinians from the same region, most from depths greater than

200 m. An Alvin dive in Oceanographer Canyon (south side of Georges Bank) revealed large

numbers of Paramuricea grandis, Anthothela grandiflora, and Thouarella ?n. sp. The P. grandis

were often overgrown by a zoanthid, probably in the genus Amphianthus. Whether overgrown or

not, the Paramuricea skeletons were host to brittle stars, Asteronyx sp. As with Southern Ocean

representatives of Thouarella, each colony of the Thouarella ?n. sp. from Oceanographer Canyon

was host to an unknown species of polynoid polychaete. We have also compiled historical data

going back to early Alvin dives, but including primarily data from cameras tows made by Barbara

Hecker. These historical records show that some canyons, such as Lydonia, have very high diversity

of gorgonians, whereas others, like Oceanographer, seem to have a low number of gorgonian species.

Our work will continue in the Gulf of Maine, with studies on the reproduction and genetics of

Primnoa resaediformis and Paragorgia aborea.

This work was supported by a grant from the NOAA Ocean Exploration initiative and a Mia Tegner

grant from the Marine Biology Conservation Institute..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002





Jody Webster, Eli Silver, Donald Potts, Laura Wallace, Kristen Riker-Coleman, Christina

Gallup, Bruce Applegate, Stacy Jupiter, Nathan Mosusu, Jocelyn Davies, Rebecca Stamski,

Hugh Davies, Oliver Simeon, Suzanne Hattenberger, Kelly Dorgan

Earth Sciences Department

University of California, Santa Cruz

Santa Cruz, California 95064

Collision between the South Bismarck Plate and the northern edge of the Australian Plate has

produced an actively subsiding foreland basin in the western Huon Gulf. A series of drowned coral

reef platforms and pinnacles are preserved on this margin as a result of this rapid subsidence.

Previous data and models suggest that these platforms drowned due to the combined affects of rapid

relative sea- level rise associated with glacial terminations and continual subsidence (up to 5.6

mm/year) over the last 400 ky. To better constrain our understanding of short term subsidence rates,

sea-level change and carbonate platform development in the Huon Gulf, we undertook a

multidisciplinary cruise on the R/V Melville (Aug-Sep 2001). We mapped and sampled nine

platforms and pinnacles using; (1) Seabeam 2000; (2) detailed side-scan mapping (DSL120) and (3)

the ROV Jason for outcrop sampling. To determine the timing of each drowning event and the

paleoenvironmental settings prior to drowning, sampling focused on the tops of each platform. We

present preliminary data concerning the structure and morphology, radiometric ages and composition

of the platforms. Two U-Th ages (348 ka from -1950 m and 60 ka from -240 m) confirm the

platforms get progressively older and deeper NE towards the Markham Fault. Additional dates

should allow us to directly determine the age of the intervening platforms, the timing of drowning

and thus the likely timing of the glacial terminations. Preliminary analysis of coral assemblages and

microfacies data indicate significant differences in paleoenvironmental settings between some of the

platforms. In summary, the Huon Gulf provides an important natural laboratory for understanding

reef drowning and backstepping platform development in response to episodic rapid relative sea- level

rise..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Simon C Wilson

Department of Biology, Warwick University, CV4 7RU, UK

PO Box 2531, CPO 111, Seeb, Sultanate of Oman

In Southern Arabia, coral rich areas can be classified into a range of biotopes: coral communities,

coral carpets (veneers), incipient reefs and true reefs. Their distribution is patchy and primarily

reflects the availability of suitable hard substrates. Coral rich communities in the Arabian Sea and the

Gulf of Oman are largely limited to seven discrete areas of Oman and Yemen. Along with high

nutrient concentrations, low light penetration and biological factors, extreme seawater temperatures

have been identified as one of the major constraints to coral reef development in the region.

Summer seawater temperatures in Southern Arabia are extreme: in the Gulf of Oman the maximum

seawater temperature recorded is 39°C, while in the Arabian sea the minimum temperature recorded

is 16.9°C, indicating that both the upper and lower thermal tolerances occur concomitantly in

contiguous seas. However, these extremes are moderated by the dynamic influence of upwelling. In

the Gulf of Oman, high temperatures are reduced by the very shallow and sharp thermocline that rises

and fall with the daily cycle of thermic winds, whereas in the Arabian Sea, the intensity of upwelling

varies over a cycle of about 2 weeks to give an average seawater temperature of ~20°C over the

summer months. Summer upwelling along the northern coast of the Arabian Sea coast of Oman

provides a mechanism for protection from extreme high temperatures for corals in the northern

Indian Ocean. Further research is required to investigate if this area might act as a refuge during the

predicted extreme bleaching events in future years..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002





J.D. Woodley

Centre for Marine Sciences, University of the West Indies (Mona)

13 South Street W., Dundas, Ontario, L9H 4C3, Canada

13 hurricanes have passed within 40 nautical miles (c. 73 km) of Discovery Bay since 1870, with

median interval of 7 years. The condition of the fore-reef community has oscillated irregularly

between recently smashed and, to varying degrees, recovered. At the former extreme, coral cover was

relatively low and dominated by resistant massive corals: at the other, coral cover was high and

dominated by the fast- growing Acropora species. The latter situation prevailed in 1980, when

hurricane Allen passed about 45 km to the north, generating waves which smashed most Acropora

colonies. In 1988, hurricane Gilbert ran the length of Jamaica, passing 40 km to the south of

Discovery Bay. There had been little recovery from hurricane Allen, partly because only 8 years had

elapsed, but also because the reef communities had begun to suffer other impacts, entering a phase of

degradation. These included white-band disease in A. cervicornis, mass mortality of Diadema

antillarum with consequent excessive growth of macro-algae, and mass coral bleaching.

Gilbert brought high winds onshore which the island mass caused to blow in the same direction for

several hours. They generated huge waves which scoured linear features on the reef, oblique to the

downslope channels, that persisted for months. Large amounts of sediment were transported

downslope; the shallow terrace was swept clean and intermittent Pleistocene hardgrounds were

revealed. Cool water, brought from below the thermocline, mixed with the surface waters and

probably averted a bleaching event.

By 1988, most massive Montastraea annularis were becoming overgrown by macroalgae. Scouring

by hurricane Gilbert largely removed macroalgal growth, but not for long. The fore-reef was quickly

carpeted by the red alga Liagora, although brown and green algae soon dominated again. A few

colonies of A. cervicornis had developed in some areas, but hurricane Gilbert smashed them again.

The slabs and sticks of Acropora rubble created by Allen had become cemented together. Under

Gilbert, much of this was re-mobilized, scrubbed clean and re-distributed. Many gorgonians and

sponges were torn off or broken, and piles of rotting corpses accumulated in channels and sills on the

deep reef slopes.

After hurricane Gilbert, as algal overgrowth resumed, coral cover at 10m depth declined to about 4%.

Subsequently, Diadema has reappeared above 10 m, and coral cover has risen to at least 15%, but the

assemblage is different from that which prevailed in the centuries before hurricane Allen. The

Acropora species are scarce and Montastraea annularis, suffering from algal overgrowth, yellow-blotch

disease and bleaching, is reduced in abundance. The next hurricane will hit an alga-dominated

community in which the commonest corals are the opportunists Porites astreoides, P. porites and

Agaricia agaricites..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002





Wörheide, G., Hooper, J.N.A. and Degnan, B.M.

Geoscience Centre Göttingen, Dept. of Geobiology, Goldschmidtstr. 3,

D-37077 Göttingen, Germany

Phylogeography investigates the geographical distribution of genealogical lineages, including those

at the intraspecific level. While phylogeographic relationships of terrestrial taxa have been quite well

studied during the last years, marine phylogeography is still in its infancies. In the present study we

explore phylogeographic relationships of the widespread calcareous sponge Leucetta ‘chagosensis’,

occurring in shaded habitats of Indo-Pacific coral reefs. It provides a good model system to

investigate marine phylogeographic relationships due to its allegedly limited dispersal capabilities.

Maximum parsimony analysis of 19 ribosomal sequencetypes from 28 locations in the western

Pacific revealed phylogeographic structuring into 4 major clades, corresponding to the

northern/central GBR with Guam and Taiwan, the southern GBR and subtropical regions south to

Brisbane, Vanuatu, and Indonesia. Subsequent nested clade analysis confirmed this structure with a

probability of >95%. A pattern of range expansion from the internal Indonesian clade was inferred at

the total cladogram level, supporting the 'Centre of Origin' hypothesis. Two distinct clades were

found on the GBR, which narrowly overlap geographically in a line approximately from the

Whitsunday Islands to the northern Swain Reefs. At various clade levels, the northern GBR clade

was influenced by past fragmentation and contiguous range expansion events, presumably

during/after sea level low stands in the Pleistocene, after which the northern GBR might have been

recolonised from the Queensland Plateau in the Coral Sea. The southern GBR clade is most closely

related to subtropical L. ‘chagosensis’, and we infer that the southern GBR was recolonized from

there after sea level low stands. Our results have important implications for conservation and

management of the GBR, as they highlight the importance of marginal transition zones in the

generation and maintenance of species rich zones, such as the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage

Area..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Zinke, J., Dullo, W-Chr., Eisenhauer, A.

GEOMAR, Research Center for Marine Geosciences,

Wischhofstrasse 1-3, Geb. 4, 24143 Kiel, Germany

A coral from the lagoon of Ifaty off southwest Madagascar in the Mozambique Channel was

examined. Based on temporal variability of skeletal oxygen isotopes annual mean sea surface

temperatures (SST) are reconstructed for the period from 1658 to 1995. This includes part of the

Little Ice Age (LIA) covering the period between 1658 to 1850. Sr/Ca ratios were measured for

selected windows with monthly resolution (1973 to 1995, 1860 to 1910, 1780-1810, 1690 to 1710) to

validate the SST reconstructions derived from oxygen isotopes. The coral proxy data were validated

against gridded SST data sets.

The coral indicates that during the coolest period of the entire record from 1670 to 1730, annual

mean SST were 0.4°C cooler than the long-term average. Seasonal extremes present in the oxygen

isotopes and the Sr/Ca ratios show that cooling was more pronounced during southern hemisphere

summer (January-March). During the time interval from 1730-1850, annual mean SST were on

average similar to the industrial period from 1850 to the present. This agrees well with observations

from various Southern Ocean subtropical corals.

Interannual variability in the Madagascar coral record was identified in form of a characteristic

period of about 3.9 years most probably due to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycles

appearing in the southern Indian Ocean. The amplitude variations in interannual SST are strongly

enhanced during cool climatic periods (1670 to 1730, 1870-1930). A strong interdecadal period of

about 17 years is prominent throughout the entire record, which is a characteristic period found in

SW Indian Ocean SST anomalies and South African rainfall anomalies. It was also reported in other

long time series from Pacific and Indian Ocean corals situated between 20-30°S and for global SST

anomalies in the Southern Ocean. Interdecadal excursions in the coral record were in the order of 0.3

to 0.5°C. They are very pronounced during the coolest period between 1670 to 1730 and also from

1850 to 1920.

Our results suggest that SST during the Little Ice Age in the SW Indian Ocean show marked

interdecadal regime shifts of warm and cold periods. However, SST during the period between 1670

and 1730 were significantly lower than average SST during the LIA..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Vassil N. Zlatarski

131 Fales Rd., Bristol, RI 02809, USA

Coral reefs in the Golfo de Guacanayabo in southeastern Cuba are unique in many respects—shape,

structure, builders, biodiversity, endemic forms and origin. Observed from the air, they exhibit

complex reticulated contours. These 20- to 25-metre-high reefs have grown vertically in murky,

stagnant waters in a muddy bottom bay. Here, the usual Caribbean reef-building Scleractinia

(Acropora palmata, Montastraea annularis complex, M. cavernosa, Diploria spp.) are not present.

Instead, there exist abundant small branchy colonies of non-reef-building Oculina spp., Cladocora

arbuscula and Porites porites f. divaricata; very delicate A. cervicornis; the strictly endemic

Eusmilia fastigiata f. guacanayabensis; and a rare form of the Hydrozoa Millepora alcicornis f.

delicatula. These small bushy stony corals, together with numerous sponges, combine to form

unusual reefs such that some reef parts appear almost “gelatinous.” It has not been shown that the

Guacanayabo reefs developed on top of older positive structures. Instead, their origin may be

understood as arising from delicate branchy coral colonies that have grown on soft bottom together

with sponges, gradually compensating for the submergence of the sea floor. A survey performed

west of the Golfo de Guacanayabo found incidences of coral branches with sponges and other

invertebrates providing a base for buildups on soft bottom, showing how this unusual construction

can develop in various locales. By studying the Guacanayabo reefs, we can learn how to work more

effectively toward their sustainability and the protection of their unique biodiversity. The

preservation of these unusual reefs requires public education and the putting into place of special

restrictions. The positive experience of the adjacent park, a protected part of the Archipelago

Jardines de la Reina reefs, suggests extending that park eastward to include the Guacanayabo reefs.

The Guacanayabo reefs are not only intriguing in terms of understanding a rare type of “marginal”

reef, but also provide a model for understanding fossil reefs in analogous conditions. The

“Urgonian” sedimentary rocks (Lower Cretaceous) in the Central Fore-Balkan in northern Bulgaria

offer many examples of bioconstructions, varying in dimension, external morphology and internal

architecture, and enclosed in both terrigenous and limestone formations. Some are built not on the

hard substrata, by dendroid and small colonies of scleractinian corals as the primary constructors, and

Hydrozoa, Brachiopoda, Pelecypoda, Gastropoda, Echinodermata, Algae as other builders. The

bioconstructors’ roles vary from isolated coralla and other fossils disseminated in the rocks to fully-constructed

frameworks. According to the origin of the bioconstructions, the y can be classified as

monocentric, polycentric or superficial.

The Guacanayabo reefs and the “Urgonian” examples of fossil bioconstructions demonstrate the

opportunistic and resilient character of some coral-dominated settings..Oral Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Martin Zuschin

Institute of Palaeontology, University of Vienna,

Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna, Austria

Molluscs are quantitatively important and diverse colonizers of subtropical- tropical shallow-water

coral reefs. The palaeoecological and taphonomical informations that can be derived from molluscs

in these coral reef environments, however, is not uniform but strongly depends on life habits of the

respective taxa. Therefore, three case studies (two from the northern Red Sea, one from the

Seychelles) show distinct differences between molluscan life and death assemblages, which are due

to distinct biases in the death assemblage.

Bivalves that lived in close contact to living corals are preferentially overgrown after death and

should provide considerable temporal and ecological information in a potential fossil record as they

will be preserved (mostly in situ) within a rapidly growing reef framework. Some gastropod taxa are

preferentially transported into surrounding soft substrata post-mortem. Here they will be affected by

time-averaging and taphonomic disintegration typically occurring in sediments resulting in the

associated loss of much temporal information. Most gastropod shells, however, are inhabited by

hermit crabs post- mortem, which may strongly alter the fossil gastropod community structure.

Molluscs that colonize dead surfaces preferentially accumulate on rock grounds.

The sedimentary facies surrounding coral reefs are characterized by distinct and highly diverse

mollusc associations which probably represent long-term time-averaged assemblages. Despite the

loss of much temporal information, these mollusc associations accurately reflect the spatial

relationships of the sedimentary facies and a variety of environmental parameters like water energy,

grain size and food supply...Poster Presentation 113

Poster Presentations..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Jennifer S. Ashworth, Rupert F.G. Ormond

University Marine Biological Station

Millport, Isle of Cumbrae, KA28 0EG UK

The scope of changes occurring to reef systems as a result of environmental impacts and change is

beyond the capacity of formal monitoring systems, yet even non-biologically inclined recreational

SCUBA divers tend to take an interest in highly charismatic fauna, such as clownfish, grouper or

shark. An indirect measure of the abundance of a species will be the length of time into a recording

period after which it is first observed; the more abundant a species is within a reef area, the sooner it

will, on average, first be recorded during the course of variably structured dives. This suggests the

use of time of first observation (TFO) of selected charismatic fauna as a recreational diver friendly

monitoring tool, since all SCUBA divers are taught to monitor time during dives for safety reasons.

To test the validity of the relationship between abundance and TFO, and to assess the ability of TFOs

for selected fauna to discriminate between different reef types within the same region, both actual

abundance and TFOs for 11 conspicuous fauna were recorded during 32 dives in 3 adjacent reef areas

within the Sharm El Sheikh region of the Egyptian Red Sea. Across all species there was a highly

significant correlation over 32 dives between TFO and measured abundance, as there was for 10

species analysed individually. Also for all of the 32 dives there was a correlation between TFOs and

measured abundance of the different species as recorded on each single dive. For 7 of the 11 species

used there was no difference in either mean observed abundance or mean TFO between the 3 areas,

but for 1 of the 3 species in which a difference in mean abundance between areas was evident, there

was also a difference in mean TFO. This suggests that with improvements and where adequate data

is available mean TFO may be useful as a means of detecting to detect spatial or temporal differences

in abundance of conspicuous fauna where these exist..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Iliana B. Baums, Michael Hellberg, Margaret W. Miller

Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Division of Marine Biology and

Fisheries, University of Miami

4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, Fl 33149 USA

The corallivorous gastropod Coralliophila abbreviata (Gastropoda: Coralliophilidae) can alter coral

community structure by feeding on scleractinian corals. Declining numbers of important prey species

(Acropora) in the Florida Keys (and throughout the Caribbean) led us to investigate parameters of the

population structure and the feeding physiology of this gastropod. The two major frame-building

Caribbean corals, Acropora palmata and Montastraea spp are some of the preferred prey. Previous

results indicated that compared to snails on Montastraea spp. hosts, snail populations on A. palmata

show a lower infestation rate, larger mean individual size, fewer snails per colony and higher growth

rates. Acropora colonies with snails showed larger areas with visible tissue-damage than

Montastraea spp. colonies. The differences in snail populations could be in part attributed to host

effects: snails transplanted from A. palmata to Montastraea spp. showed a decrease in growth rates

whereas snails transplanted from Montastraea spp. to A. palmata showed equally high growth rates

as the native snails. Since Montastraea spp. tissue provides more carbon per area than A. palmata the

nature of the host effect remains unclear. Host-specific characteristics of snail populations are

comparable across the Caribbean. Taken together, host-specific differences suggested the possibility

of cryptic snail species. Microsatellite markers are being developed to investigate genetic population

structure of Coralliophila abbreviata Caribbean-wide. Preliminary data shows a high abundance of

long (9-75) AC repeats in the Coralliophila abbreviata genome, confirming their potential as

polymorphic markers. The finding of differentiation between snail populations from different hosts

has implications for the protection of threatened A. palmata populations..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4 th – 7 th September, 2002




John C Bythell 1 , Jeremy C Thomason, Karla B Heidelberg, Kenneth P Sebens

1 School of Biological Sciences

Ridley Building

University of Newcastle

Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU UK

The in situ rate of zooplankton capture and it's trophic importance were assessed under natural

conditions in a variety of coral species. Close-up video surveillance was examined from 51 individual

coral colonies of four species feeding under natural conditions at night using far red and infra red

lighting (fig 1). There were significant differences in zooplankton prey capture rates between three

coral species, with Montastraea cavernosa and Meandrina meandrites feeding at approximately 3

and 4 times the rate of Montastraea annularis, respectively. These differences were attributable to

prey encounter rates,

rather than differences

in capture efficiency,

which was virtually

identical between

species. This can be

explained by the much

greater polyp and

tentacle expansion

observed in M.

cavernosa and M.

meandrites compared to

M. annularis (fig 1),

resulting in more

frequent prey encounters. In general, there was also close correlation between the encounter rate and

capture rate of specific zooplankton taxa. There was no significant difference in the frequency of

zooplankton captures by taxonomic group, so any prey specificity by coral species can be explained

by different encounter rates. The organic fraction of zooplankton represents a high quality diet, with

C:N ratios of between 3.8 and 4.6. Preliminary estimates of C and N supply from zooplankton

feeding were: 0.7 -2 .y -1 and 0.17 -2 .y -1 in M. annularis, 2.1 -2 .y -1 and 0.5 -2

.y -1 in M. cavernosa and 3.0 -2 .y -1 and 0.7 -2 .y -1 in M. meandrites. These values

represent 20-80 times the annual total C budget and 112-460 times the N budget calculated

previously for shallow water Acropora palmata. While not all the ingested ration would be

assimilated, the supply of zooplankton clearly represents a substantial part of the overall C and N

budget of these corals.

Figure 1. Whole-colony (A) and close-up (B) video captures of corals feeding

in situ at night. A zooplankter is viewed just before capture (arrow). A =

Montastraea annularis, B = Montastraea cavernosa. Scale bars 1 cm..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Christine Ferrier-Pagès*, Florence Boisson°, Denis Allemand, Eric Tambutté

*Centre Scientifique de Monaco, Avenue Saint Martin,

MC-98000 Monaco, Principality of Monaco

°IAEA, Marine Environment Laboratory, 4 Quai Antoine 1er

MC-98012 Monaco Cedex, Principality of Monaco

Calcification in corals has been a topic of interest for over 100 years but yet the processes involved

are not entirely known. Most of the studies are related to calcium uptake, and few explored the

incorporation of strontium (Sr 2+ ). It is however essential for paleoclimatologists to understand

calcification processes in corals because the ratio of Sr/Ca has been widely used to determine the

temperature of the ancient seas. Experiments were therefore performed to gain a better understanding

on the processes involved in strontium incorporation. For this purpose, we used 85 Sr and a Nal

detector as a non-destructive method. Sr 2+ skeletal incorporation was found to be linear during the 9

days of incubation with natural concentration of Sr 2+ . We found a linear relationship in the rates of

Sr 2+ incorporation vs external Sr 2+ concentration up to 3.4 mM (i.e. a concentration 37.5 times higher

than normal seawater concentration). However, the incorporation of Sr 2+ was also strongly dependent

of the Ca 2+ concentration in seawater as well as on the rate of calcification. The uptake of strontium

indeed decreased with the increase in the calcium concentration in seawater. In addition, uptake of

Sr 2+ was sensitive to verapamil, a calcium channel inhibitor, and showed a maximal half inhibition

(IC50) for a verapamil concentration of 12 ?M, a value close to that observed for calcium uptake. All

these results suggest that care should be taken before optimal interpretation of the Sr/Ca ratios..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4 th – 7 th September, 2002



Adrian Finch, Nicola Allison, Steven Sutton, Matthew Newville

School of Geography & Geosciences,

University of St Andrews, Irvine Building, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9AL, UK

Sr/Ca ratios of some coral skeletons have been successfully linked to local SSTs. However the Sr

concentration of coral aragonite is approximately 7000 ppm and exceeds the thermodynamic

solubility of Sr in aragonite. Preliminary Sr K-edge EXAFS of bulk coral powders indicated that Sr

in some corals is present in two structural environments: as Sr distributed ideally in aragonite and as

Sr clustered in SrCO3 (strontianite) domains (Greegor et al. 1997). The incorporation of Sr as

strontianite is likely to complicate the expected relationship between aragonite Sr/Ca and SST, since

the thermodynamics of a two-phase mixture is different from that of a solid solution. Variations in

the proportion of Sr present as strontianite may also affect the palaeotemperature equation, leading

to significant uncertainties in the prediction of SSTs from coral aragonite.

We have investigated the co-ordination of Sr in a range of coral skeletons including Porites lobata,

Pavona gigantea, Pavona clavus and Montastrea annularis using Sr K-edge Extended Absorption X-ray

Fine Structure (EXAFS). We compared these with aragonite, strontianite and mechanically mixed

standards. We performed bulk analyses and compared the data with equivalent microEXAFS

analyses on small (~400 µm 3 ) analytical volumes using a microfocussed x-ray beam. As a result of

the architecture of the coral skeleton, the crystals within the microanalytical volume are not randomly

oriented, and the microanalytical x-ray absorption spectra show orientational dependence. However,

refinement of bulk and microanalytical data provided indistinguishable interatomic distances and

thermal vibration parameters in the third shell (indicative of Sr speciation).

The Sr K-edge EXAFS of all the coral samples refine, within error, to an ideally substituted Sr in

aragonite, in contrast to previous studies, in which significant strontianite was reported. Some

samples from that study were also analyzed here. Strontianite may be less widely distributed in corals

than previously thought.

R.B. Greegor et al., Strontianite in coral skeletal aragonite, Science 275 (1997) 1452..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002



Jan Helge Fosså 1 , Pål B. Mortensen 2 , Dag. M. Furevik 1 , J. Alvsvaag 1 , I. Svellingen 1

1 Institute of Marine Research (IMR), P.O. Box 1870 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen, Norway 2 Present address: Marine Environmental Sciences Division, Bedford Institute of

Oceanography, PO Box 1006, 1 Challenger Drive, Dartmouth, NS B2Y 4A2, Canada


The deep-water coral Lophelia pertusa builds large reefs, which are very sensitive to fishing

activities with bottom trawl. It is estimated that 30-50 % of the Lophelia reefs in Norwegian waters

has been damaged by trawling, and the impact is both on areal extent and quality. It is shown that

there is a considerable overlap between the distribution of corals and impacted reefs and the trawl

fields on the shelf. In 1999 the Norwegian Fisheries authorities decided upon regulations to protect

coral reefs in Norway by enforcement of the Fisheries Act. Since 1998 the Institute of Marine

Research has carried out a mapping program of the distribution and the status of the deep-water reefs

in Norwegian waters. This paper presents updated results from the mapping activities and describes

the principles behind the regulation of the fisheries in coral areas..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4 th – 7 th September, 2002




JD Gage, JM Roberts, Leanne Hepburn, PA Lamont

Scottish Association for Marine Science

Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory, Oban, Argyll, PA37 1QA, UK

A very large number of invertebrate and fish species ha ve been recorded from samples of the living

and dead framework of cold-water corals. However, understanding of sensitivities of the cold-water

coral ecosystem are limited by incomplete understanding of the composition of this associated

biodiversity at different sites and whether or not these species are obligatory or facultative associates

with cold-water coral. The present work analysed nine box core samples obtained in 2000 from the

Darwin Mounds at ca 950 m depth in the northern Rockall Trough. Samples were taken from either a

mound, or the unique associated ‘tail’ areas (discriminated by their characteristic acoustic signature).

It was not possible to include in the analysis samples from mounds where living coral was present in

the core, but our analysis clearly shows the enhanced benthic biodiversity present with dead coral

rubble. A total 290 macrobenthic species among 1775 individuals were identified, this indicating

considerably greater species diversity compared to those box cores (from either ‘mound’ or ‘tail’) not

containing coral rubble and a previously obtained sample from the background sediment. Yet very

many species were common to all samples, and only 20 of the present species were included in the

total of 886 species listed by Rogers (1998) as living on or in Lophelia pertusa reefs. We conclude

that very few species may be restricted to the cold-water coral habitat. Rather it seems that the vast

majority of species possess a generic requirement for one or more of the mix of sub-habitats provided

by coral rubble mixed with sediment, and will certainly include species known from both hard

surfaces and soft muddy sediment..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002



Marcos Gektidis 1 , Klaus Vogel 2 , André Freiwald 3

1,2 Geologisch Paläontologisches Institut, J.W. Goethe Universität, Senckenberganlage 32-34,

60054 Frankfurt am Main, Germany 3 Institute for Paleontology, Erlangen University, Loewenichstr. 28, 91054 Erlangen Germany

This study concentrates on the traces that microboring organisms leave in cold water carbonates. For

this purpose the carbonate skeletons of Balanus balanus and Balanus crenatus were investigated

along a bathymetrical gradient at Tromsø (Norway, 69 0 N) and Spitzbergen (Norway, 76 0 N).

Specimens were taken from 0m, 16m, 23m, and 44m waterdepth at Tromsø and 55m, 72m and 85m

waterdepth at Spitzbergen.

The substrates were impregnated with a high- viscosous resin. The carbonate was then removed and

the resulting three dimensional resin-cast analysed under the SEM. Results show a depth-dependent

distribution pattern of microendolithic traces, very much like results obtained from experiments in

tropical reef environments. Only that trace communities colonise much narrower zones here than

they do in tropical waters. The concept of trace communities is described in detail by Vogel et al.

2000. In short it states, that different trace communities exist for certain water depths, depending on

the availiability of light. Simplyfied these are the cyanobacterial dominated Euphotic Zone I, the

algal dominated Euphotic Zone II, the algal and fungal dominated Dysphotic Zone and the fungal

dominated Aphotic Zone. (Please note, that above stated organisms are the assumed producers of the

traces identified here).

The following zones were identified in our localities: The Euphotic Zone I is restricted to 0m. The

Euphotic Zone II extends from 0m to 16m. The Dysphotic Zone starts at 23m and extends to 72m.

From there on only traces of fungal microendoliths are found, which is characteristic for the Aphotic

Zone. A total of 26 ichnotaxa was identified in approx. 100 samples.

Literature cited:

VOGEL, K., GEKTIDIS, M., GOLUBIC, S., KIENE, W. E., RADTKE, R..(2000): Studies on microbial

bioerosion at Lee Stocking Island (Bahamas) and One Tree Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) and

their meaning for the reconstruction of fossil reef history.- Lethaia, 33: 190-204, Oslo 2000..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4 th – 7 th September, 2002




Marianne Gilbert, Donald L. Kramer

McGill University, Canada

Department of Biology, McGill University,1205 Ave. Docteur-Penfield,

Montreal, Canada, H3A 1B1

We studied moray eels as potentially important predators that are often underestimated or neglected

in studies of coral reef fish due to their cryptic and nocturnal habits. We aimed to determine their

diversity, abundance, biomass, microhabitat use and activity patterns on reefs in Barbados. We used

a modified underwater visual census (UVC) during day and night in order to better detect moray eels

in different habitats. Seven species were present in the study area, 5 of which were seen frequently.

Gymnothorax moringa, G. miliaris and Enchelycore nigricans were the most abundant species.

There were significant differences in the numbers visible during day and night censuses. G. miliaris

was seen most frequently during the day and all others were seen exclusively or in higher numbers at

night. G. moringa appears to make up most of the moray biomass. We propose an index to better

estimate the abundance of cryptic fauna based on repeated runs of the same transect. This study

suggests that morays are more abundant than previously reported and that the use of night transects,

repeated runs and other modifications to traditional UVCs increase the detection of these cryptic fish.

This could have important implications for studies trying to determine predator abundance and

biomass on reefs. Because G. moringa is readily trapped and fairly site-attached, marine reserves

may develop considerably higher biomass of predatory morays than fished areas..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Eberhard Gischler 1 , Shakir H. Al-Hazeem 2

1 Geologisch-Paläontologisches Institut, Johann Wolfgang Goethe -Universität,

Senckenberganlage 32, D-60054 Frankfurt am Main, Germany 2 Kuwait Institute of Scientific Research, Mariculture and Fisheries Department, P.O. Box 1638,

Salmiya 22017, Kuwait

The coral reefs of Kuwait occur in a marginal setting between 28°-29° north, and are under the

influence of clastic input by rivers (Shatt Al- Arab) and by wind. Arid conditions prevail with some

100 mm of rain per year. Water temperatures fluctuate highly between 13-34°C. Salinity is elevated

above normal marine values and ranges from 38.5-42.5‰. A total of 29 reef-building species of

Scleractinian corals have been described from the waters of Kuwait. The largest and best developed

coral reefs of the country fringe three offshore sand islands named Kubbar, Qaro, and Um A-Maradem.

Small patch reefs occur at the southern coast of the country (e.g., Carpenter et al. 1997,

Downing 1985).

During this pilot study, we investigated a giant colony of Porites lutea at Qaro, which is 6 m in

diameter and 5 m high. The top of the colony is in 2 m of water and mostly dead. We took three

horizontal cores from the living sides of the colony with lengths of 0.8 m, 1.1 m, and 1.6 m. We

measured growth-rates on radiographies and we are in the process of measuring stable isotopes of

oxygen and carbon along one of the cores. The goal of the project is to get a record of environmental

change for the northern Arabian Gulf for the past few decades. The impact of the 1990 Gulf War on

the reefs including massive oil spills is of special interest. First results show that growth-rates

average 1 cm per year, however, there is strong variation. From the radiographies alone, no impact

from the Gulf War oil spills are visible in that the 1990 growth band would show abnormal patterns.

Results from the geochemical (isotope) analyses of one core are in progress and will be presented on

the conference.


Carpenter, K.E., Harrison, P.L., Hodgson, G., Al-Saffar, A.H. & Al- Hazeem, S.H. (1997): The corals

and coral reefs fishes of Kuwait.- 199 p., Kuwait Inst. Sci. Res. (Al-Marzouk Printing).

Downing, N. (1985): Coral reef communities in an extreme environment: the northwestern Arabian

Gulf.- Proc. 5th Int. Coral Reef Symp. Tahiti, 6: 343-348..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4 th – 7 th September, 2002




E.A. Glynn, T.P. Quinn, D.P. Fahy, R.E. Spieler

National Coral Reef Institute,

Nova Southeastern University Oceanographic Center

8000 North Ocean Drive, Dania Beach, FL USA 33004

Eighty core plugs containing living tissue (coral transplants) of two species of scleractinian coral

Meandrina meandrites (n=40) and Montastrea cavernosa (n=40) were transplanted to forty Reef

Ball TM modules between March and June, 2001. The cores were obtained from forty individual coral

colonies, on an adjacent natural reef, using a hydraulic drill fitted with a four- inch core barrel. Two

cores were sampled from each of the forty donor colonies. All donor core holes were filled with pre-fabricated,

numbered concrete plugs to prevent the detrimental effects of bioeroders. Core hole sites

and transplant corals, as well as control corals of comparable size (to both the large donor colonies

and the small transplant corals), were monitored for growth and survivorship. Coral skeletal growth

has been defined as an increase in surface area or linear radius and has been measured quarterly using

photographic techniques. The large donor corals and comparable controls were photographed using a

Nikonos V camera with 20mm lens and a 0.75m 2 PVC framer marked in 10cm increments. The core

hole sites, coral plug transplants and comparable controls were photographed with a 28mm lens and

close up kit. SigmaScan Pro4 image analysis software (Jandel Scientific Corporation) was used for

the photographic analysis. This monitoring method is suitable for continuous monitoring and causes

no apparent harm to the coral colony.

After nine months of sampling, 100% of the M. cavernosa and 71% of the M. meandrites transplants

maintained their original tissue surface area or showed evidence of an increase in surface area. The

remaining 29% of the M. meandrites transplants have shown varying degrees of partial tissue


The donor colonies have experienced 100% colony survival. The core hole sites have not regenerated

tissue over the concrete plugs. There has been little tissue die back from the plug sites and so

regeneration remains possible. Although it is too early in the study to draw firm conclusions, the

species specific differences in transplant growth and mortality may be an important consideration in

future coral reef restoration efforts..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002





Renaud Grover, Jean-François Maguer,

Stéphanie Reynaud-Vaganay, Christine Ferrier-Pagès

Centre Scientifique de Monaco, Av. Saint Martin, MC-98000 Monaco

15 NH4Cl was used to measure the uptake rates of ammonium by the scle ractinian coral Stylophora

pistillata depending on its feeding regimes (highly fed, slightly fed and starved) and ammonium

concentration in seawater (0.2, 1 and 5 µM). Nubbins were prepared from three parent colonies and

incubated under the different feeding regimes during 4 weeks. They were then incubated 12 h in

seawater enriched with a known concentration of 5 NH4Cl. At the end of the incubation, zooxanthellae

were separated from the animal cells so that uptake rates could be measured in each fraction

separately. Results obtained showed that the algal fraction was enriched with 15 N at up to 10 times

the rate of the host, suggesting that the zooxanthellae are the primary site of assimilation. Uptake

rates in the algal fraction varied according to the nitrogen concentration in seawater. They were ca.

20 times lower at 0.2 than at 1 or 5 µM 15 NH4 + enrichment (2 - 30 vs 120 - 510 ng N h -1 cm -2 ), for

both fed and starved nubbins. These rates were also affected by the feeding history of the host, since

they were significantly lower for fed than for starved nubbins (ANOVA, p < 0.005), at both high and

low ammonium concentrations. According to the nitrogen content of the zooxanthellae, an external

concentration of ammonium equal to 0.6 µM can sustain the growth of the zooxanthellae population..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4 th – 7 th September, 2002



Jason M. Hall-Spencer

University Marine Biological Station

Millport, Isle of Cumbrae, KA28 0EG, UK

Surveys over the past five years have revealed extensive coral habitats (scleractinians and

gorgonians) in deep waters, below the photic zone. Off Europe, reefs constructed by cold-water

corals such as Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata and Solenosmilia variabilis attract commercial

fish such as monkfish (Lophius spp.), redfish (Sebastes spp.) and roundnose grenadier

(Coryphaenoides rupestris). Video surveys and in situ measurements are revealing the structural and

ecological complexity of these reefs all along the NE Atlantic continental shelf break area, but these

surveys have also shown widespread damage due to deep-sea trawling. Similarly, the complex

habitats created by gorgonians (to 10 m in height) off the US and Canada have supported handline

and longline fisheries for cod and halibut for centuries but have been damaged extensively by deep-sea

trawling over the past decade.

Habitat destruction and fish stock collapses have prompted the establishment of deep-water Marine

Protected Areas off Tasmania and Norway but most countries (including Canada and members of the

EU) have done nothing. It has been argued that these deep-water habitats occur too far offshore for

us to be able to manage their conservation effectively. However, we now have the technology to

protect fragile deep-water corals and the long-lived fish that they attract.

In the wake of hostilities between the high seas fishing fleets of Canada and Spain a satellite-based

vessel- monitoring scheme was introduced. Now ‘black boxes’ are fitted to all vessels greater than 24

m in length and operating more than 12 miles offshore from Canada, Iceland, Greenland, Russia,

Norway, the Faroes and EU member states. This talk will draw attention to the international extent

of trawling damage to cold-water coral habitats and then focus on how the vessel- monitoring scheme

works. Satellite tracking offers an excellent means with which to protect deep-water coral provinces

whilst helping fishermen sustain fisheries and avoid damage to their nets and catches.

This research was supported by The Ro yal Society..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002





H. A. Halter, B. Riegl

National Coral Reef Institute,

Nova Southeastern University Oceanographic Center

8000 North Ocean Drive, Dania Beach, FL 33004-3078 USA

In Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA, three reef lines parallel the coast. The goal of this study was to

differentiate the early stages of bioaccretion/bioerosion by measuring net weight changes of 40 tiles

made of coral placed on the first and second reef lines. The study also aimed at identifying small-scale

bioaccreters and bioeroders. Twenty tiles were placed on the first reef at 4 m and on the second

reef at 6 m depth where they were left for 4 months. Tiles were attached to a PVC-pipe frame in such

a way that both tops and bottoms were exposed. After 4 months, all tiles gained weight and there was

a significant difference in net weight change between the two locations (p < 0.05). Quantification of

bioeroders/accreters was done by point-counts (5 mm 2 ). Tops, bottoms, and overall pooled values

were evaluated. Most common bioaccreters were coralline algae (41.4% on 1 st reef, 15.6% on 2 nd

reef, p < 0.001), bryozoa (15.3% on 1 st reef, 19.6% on 2 nd reef) and serpulids (10.9% on 1 st reef,

14.9% on 2 nd reef). On tile tops, crustose corallines were the dominant bioaccreter (61.8% on 1 st reef,

30.6% on 2 nd reef), while on the underside bryozoa (30.6% on 1 st reef, 36% on 2 nd reef) and serpulids

(21.9% on 1 st reef, 29.7% on 2 nd reef) were dominant. Bioeroders were rare, the most common being

boring polychaetes (0.14% on 1 st reef, 0.19% on 2 nd reef). Clionid sponges were found only on tiles

from 2 nd reef (0.09%), while boring bivalves were found only on tiles from 1 st reef (0.75%). There

was no correlation (R 2 = 0.12) between the percentage cover of calcareous organisms and net weight

gain. This suggests that weight gain is caused by layering of fauna, which is not adequately expressed

by point-counting only the surficial organisms. The location of tiles on the different reefs, i.e. depth,

had a significant effect on net weight change and percent cover of the main colonizer, crustose

coralline algae..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4 th – 7 th September, 2002




Stephan Höhne, Eberhard Gischler

Geologisch-Paläontologisches Institut, Johann Wolfgang Goethe -Universität,

Senckenberganlage 32, D-60054 Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Eighteen cores from the scleractinian corals Montastraea faveolata, Siderastrea siderea, and

Solenastrea bournoni, collected in a variety of different environments and depths in the modern reefs

of Belize, are currently being studied regarding variations in growth-rates, and stable isotopes of

carbon and oxygen. The goal of this project is (1) to evaluate the influence of a variety of

environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, water depth, and turbidity on coral growth, and

(2) to acquire a historical climate record for this major reef area in the tropical Atlantic Ocean.

Results of the investigation of a core of M. faveolata from the Belize barrier reef, which has a record

from AD 1907-2000, show that growth-rates were more or less constant around 10 mm/year from

1900 to 1960 and then decreased to 7-8 mm/year in the late 1990ies. Oxygen isotopes (d 18/16 O)

exhibit a decreasing trend from —3.8‰ PDB to —4.0‰ PDB which would correspond to an

increase in temperature of ambient seawater of 1°C during the past 100 years. Carbon isotopes

(d 13/12 C) show a decreasing trend from around 0.0‰ PDB at the beginning of the past century to —

1.0‰ PDB in the 1990ies, which could be attributed to the increase of anthropogenic input of CO2

into the atmosphere by the burning of fossil fuel. There are no statistically significant correlations

between average annual growth-rates and isotopic compositions of C and O and available climate

data sets (COADS) in the core investigated. Time series analyses of average annual growth rates and

C and O isotopes reveal cycles of 6 and 21 years, however, much more data will be needed to relate

such cycles to climatic and/or oceanic circulation cycles.

First results from analysis of a core of M. faveolata from the restricted interior lagoon of the isolated

carbonate platform Turneffe Islands exhibit growth-rates that fluctuate around 1 mm/year from AD

1820-1930. From AD 1930-2000 growth-rates decrease to 3 mm/year, which is probably a

consequence of the fact that the top of the colony came close to sea level. Oxygen isotope values

fluctuate along the core, and reach highest values around the year 1860 (—3.6‰ PDB) and lowest

values in the late 1980ies to early 1990ies (—4.2 ‰ PDB). This difference would correspond to a

temperature increase of 3°C. Carbon isotope values fluctuate between values of 0.0‰ to —2.0‰

PDB, and there appears to be no global signal involved as compared to the core from the barrier reef.

Growth-rates and carbon isotopes fluctuate more or less parallel from AD 1820-1930, which might

be a consequence of the interrelationship of growth and photosymbiotic activity..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002





Bert W. Hoeksma 1 , Karl Kleemann 2

1 National Museum of Natural History / Naturalis, P.O. Box 9517,

2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands

2 Institute for Palaeontology, University of Vienna, Althanstr. 14,

A-1090 Vienna, Austria

New observations on endosymbionts in mushroom corals at South Sulawesi and Bali resulted in eight

new coral host records of the mytilid bivalve Fungiacava eilatensis Goreau et al, 1968, bringing the

total to 14. The host corals were observed in various habitats, most frequently on sandy substrates.

The largest numbers of parasitic bivalves (> 10 individuals) were found in large attached colonies of


The mytilid Fungiacava eilatensis is only known to occur in mushroom corals. In a review,

Hoeksema & Achituv (1993) listed six species of fungiid ho st corals from various localities,

belonging to five subgenera in Fungia Lamarck, 1801: F. (Cycloseris) fragilis (Alcock, 1893), F.

(C.) tenuis Dana, 1846, F. (Fungia) fungites (Linneaus, 1758), F. (Lobactis) scutaria Lamarck, 1801,

F. (Verrillofungia) repanda Dana, 1846, and F. (Wellsofungia) granulosa Klunzinger, 1879.

In 1994 and 2001, additional specimens were collected at the Spermonde Archipelago, South

Sulawesi (Indonesia) during surveys on endosymbionts in Fungiidae. Fungiacava eilatensis not only

appeared to be more common than expected but also to occur in three additional host genera (i.e.,

Halomitra Dana, 1846, Sandalolitha Quelch, 1884, and Podabacia Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849)

and one additional subgenus, Fungia (Pleuractis) Verrill, 1864. The eight newly recorded host

species are Fungia (Cycloseris) costulata Ortmann, 1889, F. (Pleuractis) moluccensis Van der Horst,

1919, F. (P.) paumotensis Stutchbury, 1833, Halomitra pileus (Linnaeus, 1758), Sandalolitha

dentata Quelch, 1884, S. robusta (Quelch, 1886), Podabacia crustacea (Pallas, 1766), and P.

motuporensis Veron, 1990. For descriptions of the host coral species, see Hoeksema (1989, 1993).

During a recent survey at Bali specimens of F. eilatensis were also observed in Podabacia crustacea,

P. motuporensis, Sandalolitha dentata and S. robusta. At South Sulawesi, most of the endoparasitic

bivalves were found at lower reef slopes and reef bases, especially in specimens of Fungia fragilis, F.

costulata and F. moluccensis on sandy bottoms. Among these host corals, individuals of F.

moluccensis appeared the most frequently infested. Corals of Sandalolitha and Podabacia, which

become large in adult stage, usually contained the largest numbers of the mytilid parasite, particularly

Podabacia species with over 10 bivalves per coral. With regard to habitat preference of F. eilatensis,

there is no clear preference in distance offshore, since the animals were found on reefs near river

mouths (2 km offshore) and on barrier reefs that are most remote from the river outlets (36 km

offshore).With the new records from South Sulawesi and Bali taken into account, the total number of

host species infested by Fungiacava eilatensis has become 14. Since these species belong to several

genera and subgenera, we conclude that although the host specificity of this bivalve is limited to only

one scleractinian family, the Fungiidae, the total number of host species is quite large for a single

parasitic species..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4 th – 7 th September, 2002




S. M. Hoke*, S. B. Colley , J. S. Feingold*

*National Coral Reef Institute, Nova Southeastern University Oceanographic Center,

8000 North Ocean Drive, Dania Beach, FL, USA 33004

Rosentiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami,

4600 Rickenbacker Cswy., Miami, FL 33149

This study involves the determination of the seasonality, lunar periodicity, and modality of the

reproductive cycle of Dichocoenia stokesi. A total of 88 D. stokesi colonies were sampled along the

east coast of south Florida, USA, at the Dania Beach Second Reef, near the city of Fort Lauderdale.

Samples were collected at a mean depth of 10m from Sept. 30, 1999 to Sept. 25, 2000 at

approximately new and full moons. Histological analysis indicates this species is a broadcast

spawner, and that the study population is predominantly gonochoric with a small percentage of

hermaphrodites. Gametes begin to appear in June. One yearly breeding season is apparent, most

likely culminating in at least two spawning episodes around the full moon: one each in September

and October as evinced by mature spermatozoa in tissues. The Dichocoenia stokesi reproductive

pattern is similar to those of other previously reported Caribbean broadcasters in that gametogenesis

begins during seawater warming in May and June. A single breeding season culminating with one or

more spawning events during the warmest months of the year also emulates this trend. Locally (in

the Florida Keys), this species has been affected by the disease Plague Type II, which shows a

preference for larger colonies. Regression analysis correlating colony size and initial fecundity

estimates will be presented with regards to potential disease effects on the population ecology..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Houlbrèque Fanny, Eric Tambutté, Christine Ferrier-Pagès

Centre Scientifique de Monaco, Av. Saint Martin, MC-98000 Monaco

This work investigated the effect of zooplankton and light availability on the tissue composition as

well as on the rates of photosynthesis and calcification of the zooxanthellate coral Stylophora

pistillata (Esper, 1797). Coral colonies were cultivated under three lights levels (80, 200, 300 µmoles

m -2 s -1 ) and two feeding regimes (fed one or four times per week for “control” and “fed” corals

respectively). Corals were fed both natural plankton and Artemia salina. The rates of dark and light

calcification as well as the rates of photosynthesis were measured after two, five and nine weeks of

incubation. After five weeks of incubation, fed corals, at all light levels, displayed 4 to 7 times higher

chlorophyll a concentrations (7 – 21 µg cm -2 ) than control corals. The amount of protein was also

significantly higher in fed (2.11 – 2.50 mg cm -2 ) than in control corals (1.08 – 1.52 mg cm -2 ). Rates

of photosynthesis in fed corals were 2 to 10 times higher (1.24 ± 0.75 µmol O2 h -1 cm -2 ) than those

measured in control corals (0.20 ± 0.08 µmol O2 h -1 cm -2 ).

For the three sampling period, dark calcification rates were significantly lower than the rates of light

calcification, independent of the trophic status. This confirms the previous results showing an effect

of light (and therefore photosynthesis) on the calcification process. For the first time, we showed a

strong effect of feeding on the rates of both dark and light calcification. Fed corals experienced

calcification rates 50 to 75 % higher (60 ± 20 and 200 ± 40 nmol Ca 2+ cm -2 h -1 for dark and light

calcification respectively) compared to control corals (30 ± 9 and 124 ± 23 nmol Ca 2+ cm -2 h -1 ). We

therefore suggest that feeding increases calcification without affecting the light-enhancement process..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4 th – 7 th September, 2002




O Langmead, CRC Sheppard

Department of Biological Sciences,

University of Warwick

Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK

Effects of climate change on coral communities remain largely unknown, though it may be a major

contemporary threat to coral reefs. Following the global mortality event of 1998, concern for the

causes of reef degradation have broadened from agents operating at local scales to global effects:

climate change, and warming events inducing large-scale coral bleaching in particular. At present no

comprehensive system is available for predicting effects of global impacts manifest at local scales,

and currently community and population responses are ge neralised. We addressed this problem by

applying a previously developed coral community model to predict resilience properties and

vulnerability of corals to climate change. A spatial (CA) model was applied to this problem as reef

system complexity can be reduced to the simple behaviour of its components. There is a wealth of

information on the biology of individual coral species and their environmental responses, but

interactions generating complexity and responses to climatic influences are less well understood at a

community level.

The study design was two-fold: 1) community resilience was investigated by applying single

warming events to the coral community model and 2) responses to predicted future climate were

assessed by running simulations in combination with SST predictions for the next 100 years (derived

from a global climate model, HadCM3). Susceptibility to bleaching during warming events was

parameterised using individual species thermal tolerances extracted from reports of warming events

in 1987, 1995 and 1998 in the Caribbean. Assumptions were made that corals will not acclimate or

adapt within the temporal scale of predicted events.

The modelled community demonstrated resilience to mild events, but events of increasing severity

required >16 years for recovery. A shift in community structure was apparent immediately following

such events, with large increases in algal abundance. After a 7 year lag, Agaricia spp. increased in

abundance. Full recovery of Montastrea annularis populations took >40 years. This illustrates

differential resilience of species populations to warming events; individual susceptibility to bleaching

was mediated by life history strategy investment. Two distinct community responses to the sequence

of predicted warming events were detected. Between 0-40 years the community composition changed

from persistent, large, slow growing species to small, fecund fast growing species. After 40 years

algae dominated the community, constituting a phase shift. Population responses, quantified as

changes in population size structure of colonies, were categorised into four types, these are discussed

within the context of individual life histories. It is concluded that the future is likely to herald

declines in some of the main reef-building species of Caribbean coral reefs, such as Montastrea

annularis. Populations of most coral species could be composed primarily of small colonies in as

little as 30 years. This has serious implications to diversity of corals and other reef organisms,

including commercially important species, and is likely to be accompanied by decreased rates of reef

accretion that could influence coastal erosion in some places. These predictions are likely to be

exacerbated by other features of climate change such as changes in aragonite saturation level and sea

level rise..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Lecchini David

Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes – UMR CNRS 8046

Université de Perpignan

66860 Perpignan cedex – France

Many coral reef fish produce pelagic larvae that develop in the ocean from days to weeks prior to

returning to the benthos, a complex life cycle common in the marine environment. Settlement by

these larvae onto the reef habitat is a critical step in the life cycle of coral reef fish. During this step,

fish larvae go through a selection of suitable habitats according to the refuge they can provide, and to

their co-existence with conspecifics as well as other species. But how can these larvae recognise

sensorially, at night, their location of settlement, and in particular how do they detect the presence of

conspecifics? We tested in experimental tanks, the role of 4 sensory aspects of fish larvae (vision,

smell, hearing and vibration) in the recognition of conspecifics and of suitable habitats. Larvae are

captured with crest nets and are then introduced into experimental tanks, which allow testing of each

sensory aspect separately. We carried out various types of experiments on 22 coral reef fish species:

(i) sensory recognition of conspecifics and (ii) of habitat, and (iii) competition between the

recognition of conspecifics and of habitat, (iv) between conspecifics of Moorea and of Rangiroa (two

island of French Polynesia), and (v) between the various sensory aspects used by larvae for the

recognition of habitat and (vi) of conspecifics. The results are variable according to studied species

and attraction factors. Some species use all the sensory aspects (except hearing) in the recognition of

habitat or of conspecifics (e.g. Ctenochaetus striatus, Acanthurus triostegus), others use only smell

(e.g. Parupeneus multifasciatus, Rhinecanthus aculeatus) or vision (Lutjanus fulvus), and finally

some use no sensory aspect (e.g. Apogon novenfasciatus, Abudefduf sexfasciatus). Smell is the

sensory aspect used in priority by fish larvae in the recognition of habitat and of conspecifics. And

these larvae are attracted more by conspecifics than by habitat (regardless of the sensory aspect

tested). On the other hand, no difference is observed in the recognition of conspecifics of Moorea or

of Rangiroa. These experiences in experimental tanks have been validated in situ for the species

Chromis viridis. These results demonstrate that many coral reef fish larvae could in practice use

sensorial cues for effective habitat selection during their settlement stage, and have the ability to

discriminate species-specific sensorial cues. The use of sensorial cues is put in relation to the greater

or lesser importance of the factors of habitat and conspecifics in the settlement strategy of the species

concerned..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4 th – 7 th September, 2002





Mezzomonaco L., Goffredo S., Zaccanti F.

Department of Evolutionary and Experimental Biology, University of Bologna,

via F. Selmi 3, I-40126 Bologna, Italy

Histological studies performed on samples of Balanophyllia europaea have shown that it is a

simultaneous hermaphrodite with no physical separation between male and female gametogenesis

and a brooder species. We also observed that when the gonads reach full maturity encounters may

occur between gametes of the opposite sex produced by the same individual, an indicatio n of possible

self- fertilization. A gene-enzyme systems analysis has been undertaken on polyps collected at

Calafuria (Leghorn, eastern Ligurian sea) through cellulose acetate electrophoresis. We assayed

eighteen enzymes using three buffer systems, but resolution was good for only 10 of them (PGI,

PGM, PGD, HK, ME, MPI I, MPI ll, AK, SOD, LDH). Population genotypic frequencies for the ten

loci scored differed significantly from Hardy-Weinberg’s equilibrium, showing a marked deficiency

of heterozygotes. Preliminary studies on the existing genetic relationship between adult polyps and

brooded offspring were performed on 6 homozygous adults with 2-15 young per adult. The offspring

were identical to their parents. We have not up to now examined offspring of heterozygous adults.

On the whole, we have identified an unusual breeding system in B. Europaea in which cross-fertilization

is rare; the data thus fare collected does not, however, let us to determine which among

the different reproductive modes, i.e., self- fertilization, parthenogenesis, and asexual reproduction, is

the prevailing breeding system in this species. Studies in progress will contribute to the

understanding of the selected reproductive strategy in B. europaea..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002





Ryan P. Moyer, Bernhard Riegl

National Coral Reef Institute

Nova Southeastern University Oceanographic Center

8000 N. Ocean Drive

Dania Beach, FL. 33019

Typical Caribbean reef communities of variable composition and density exist on four parallel ridges,

at varying depths along the Broward County (FL, USA) coast. Two of these ridges, at 7-13m and

15-30m depth, are drowned early Holocene coral reefs of 5 ky and 7 ky uncorrected radiocarbon age,

respectively. Previous work has shown that the reef communities overlying these reef-ridges can be

detected and mapped using acoustic remote sensing and has suggested that different benthic

assemblages may exist between each of the reef ridges. In this study, in situ community data was

taken for each reef-ridge using traditional 50m line- intercept transects. These data were analyzed and

clustered using multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) and compared with similarly clustered data

obtained from an acoustic survey of the same area. The in situ community data show four distinct

benthic communities, each corresponding to a single reef-ridge. This clustering agrees well with the

acoustic data which, when using principle components analysis (PCA), similarly show a unique

habitat type on each of the four reef-ridges. The reef-ridge community closest to shore (5-7m depth)

showed 38% live cover, and was dominated by Alcyonaceans (15% total cover). The second reef-ridge

(7-13m depth) was dominated equally by Macroalgae and ecrusting zooanthids, with each

group representing 15% of the total cover. Total live cover on the second reef-ridge community was

about 49%. The third reef-ridge community from shore (13-16m depth) had about 60% living cover

and was dominated by Macroalgae, which accounted for 30% of total cover. On the fourth and

deepest (15-30m) reef-ridge community, Alcyonaceans were the dominant fauna (20% total cover),

however, sponges were nearly as abundant (14% total cover). Total living cover on the deepest reef-ridge

community was 42%. Total Scleractinian cover was generally low on all reef ridges (4% mean

cover for all reef-ridge communities), with the first reef-ridge having the highest total scleractinian

cover (6%) and the second reef-ridge having the lowest (3% total cover). This total data set suggests

a depth-dependant zonation pattern that does not occur across a single-reef ridge, but rather on a

larger spatial scale across the entire reef-ridge system of Broward County..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4 th – 7 th September, 2002




Olga Pantos, Rory Cooney, John Bythell, Martin Le Tissier

University of Newcastle, Department of Marine Sciences and Coastal Management,

Ridley Building, Claremont Road,

Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK

Since the mid-1970’s when the first coral disease was classified in the Caribbean, the level of interest

and work carried out in this field has risen. Since their discovery and classification, attempts have

been made to identify the cause of diseases found affecting coral reefs around the world. Different

methods have been used to identify microbial communities association with disease but it is still not

clear whether those found are causal agents, or whether they are secondary invaders. Microbes

associated with diseased corals have been investigated using microscopy, culturing and inoculation

experiments but these methods have not proved successful in every case. A disease similar to White

Plague disease, which was reported and described by Dustan in 1977, was identified on several reefs

off the coast of Barbados and St Croix in the Caribbean. Patchy areas of clear white skeleton were

found on colonies of Montastreae anullaris where areas of tissue had recently sloughed off. There is

no obvious starting point for the tissue loss. The surrounding tissues appear healthy with no signs of

surface tissue degradation. Histological studies have shown that the tissue remains intact and still

contains zooxanthellae up to the skeletal interface although the lower tissue layers have been found to

be absent. A defined line exists between the tissue and the bare skeleton with tissue remnants still

present on the skeleton. There is no obvious microbial biomass present at this interface, similar to

White Plague and White Band Disease. With the use of modern molecular techniques, the microbial

ecology of the diseased and healthy tissue of M. annularis colonies collected from St Croix and

Barbados have been identified. Sequence data of the bacterial community from diseased and healthy

tissue showed a change in the bacterial group diversity. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation was used

to identify bacteria present within the coral tissue. Results showed that bacteria were not found in the

healthy control tissue samples or in the tissue adjacent to the bare skeleton but were found on the

remnant tissue patches that were found on the bare skeleton. Although these diseased corals share

symptoms similar to both types of White Band Disease and Plague, we suggest that this disease is

unique to those previously described as no similar microbes were identified and some differences in

pathology exist..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Peirano A.1 , Morri C.2 , Bianchi C.N.1 , Aguirre J. 3 , Antonioli F.4 , Calzetta G. 5 ,

Carobene L.2 , Mastronuzzi G.6 , Orrù P. 7

1 ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ambiente Marino, POBox 224, 19100 La Spezia, Italy

2 DipTeRis, Università di Genova, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genova, Italy 3 Estratigrafía y Paleontología, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain

4 ENEA, Dipartimento Ambiente, Via Anguillarese 301, S.Maria di Galeria, 00060 Roma, Italy 5 Studio Eco-X, Via del Corso, 19038 Sarzana (La Spezia), Italy 6 Dipartimento di Geologia e Geofisica, Via E. Orabona 4, 70125 Bari, Italy

7 DiSTer, Università di Cagliari, Via Trentino 51, 09127 Cagliari, Italy

Sclerochronology was applied to recent, Holocene and Pleistocene samples of Cladocora caespitosa.

Late Pliocene samples were recrystallised and thus unsuitable for sclerochronology. Quaternary

samples showed a clear, alternating banding pattern as in the living coral, confirming a marked

seasonality of past climate. The computed mean annual growth rates ranged from 2.1 to 6.9 mm ·

year -1 , with highest growth rates during the warmer phase (isotope stage 5e) of the first climate cycle.

It is hypothesised that the largest fossil banks of C. caespitosa grew in a coastal environment with

considerable alluvial inputs and warmer temperatures than today..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4 th – 7 th September, 2002





Christine Perrin

Laboratoire de Paléontologie, 8, rue Buffon,

Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, 75005 Paris, France

The last decade has seen an increasing interest for the detailed study of reef architecture and internal

structure. Mapping of spatial distribution of reef-builders within individual sedimentary bodies has

shown the high variety of three-dimensional frameworks and the existence of a continuous spectrum

from scattered potential reef-builders to true dense frameworks. Characterization of reef frameworks

and reef-building capacity of fossil assemblages also allow the relative importance of

bioaccumulation rate and reef- growth in carbonate production to be quantitatively estimated.

The Late Miocene carbonate complex of Mellila-Nador, which evolved from a bioclastic carbonate

ramp to a reef-rimmed carbonate platform, show a very gradational development of coral frameworks

in the prograding and aggrading units of the upper carbonate sequences. Individual sedimentary

bodies containing coral-dominated assemblages were carefully mapped in the field and sampled.

Particular attention was paid to organisms with preserved growth position. These individual

sedimentary bodies include: prograding non reef-building coralgal sigmoids, which have been

previously described as coral reefs, fringing coral reefs, and metric coral patches alternating with

oolites and stromatolites in the upper carbonate unit.

Prograding non reef-building coralgal sigmoids typically show a basal thin layer mainly composed by

serpulids occurring either in growth position or as fragments, followed upwards by well-bedded

Halimeda facies. This is ovelain by branching Porites rudstones and packstones, which form the

main volume of the sigmoid. Scattered colonies of branching and massive Porites are found most

frequently near the top and the seaward margin of the sigmoid where they occur with branching and

encrusting coralline algae, but never consitute a reef- framework. In addition, mapping revealed that

the proportions of Porites and coralline algae in growth position within individual sigmoids tend to

increase upward in the overall sequence. By constrast, the overlying prograding fringing reefs display

well-developped coral framework dominated by large colonies of branching Porites.

Although the sedimentary and biological components and the general geometry of the bioclastic

sigmoids and the overlying fringing reefs remain very similar, their internal architecture, which

depends on the reef-building capacity of their coralgal communities, strongly differs suggesting

different bioaccumulation / growth rates for these bodies..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Juniawan Priyono

World Wide Fund for Nature Indonesia Programme – Sahul Bioregion, Papua, Indonesia

Jl. Angkasa Indah No. 10 PO Box 1245 Jayapura 99113, Indonesia

The Teluk Cendrawasih Marine National Park (TCMNP) is located in the southwest quarter of

Cendrawasih Bay on the north of Papua, and lies within the coordinates 1°43' - 3°22' S and 134°06' -

135°10' E. The park covering 1.453.500 ha extends from just east of Kwatisore Peninsula in the

south, to just above Rumberpon Island in the north and includes approximately 500 km of mainland

coastline and reefs. TCMNP also includes the 18 islands of the Kepulauan Auri island chain. The

Teluk Cendrawasih area was first proposed as a marine reserve in 1982. Its status was later

recognized as a Marine National Park by Decree of Forest Ministry No. 472/Kpts-II/1993 in

September 2 nd , 1993.

The park holds large potential on marine tourism due to its highly diverse of marine natural

resources. Outdoor activities such as diving, snorkelling, underwater photography, and fishing are the

most common in the area. This potential should be well managed, planned and design, through

appropriate authority to guarantee the vision and mission of nature conservation. Tourism should be

design to improve benefit for local people. Main objective of the management of the park is to

support sustainable natural resource exploration by local people and to conserve the marine

biodiversity. The best way to explore the area is from a well-equipped boat. Additionally the tourist

can go a shore for jungle/bird watching safari or to visit the local cultural communities. The ideal

time for a visit to the area is about 10 days.

The TCMNP's schleractinian corals show a high diversity with 67 genera and sub- genera and 145

species represented. Coral colonies, such as Porites lutea, P. cylindrica, and Acropora palifera are

occasionally dominant on the reef crest and upper reef slope. The fish fauna of the TCMNP shows a

high diversity including estuarine, mangrove, coral reef, and schooling species. The common

important families include lethrinids, lutjanids, serranids, carrangids, and reef/shoal-associated

species such as Scomberomorus and Katsuwonus. There are diverse molluscs fauna of the 196

species so far identified, contain of: 153 species of gastropod mollusc (36 families and 58 genera), 40

species of bivalve mollusc (18 families and 30 genera), and 3 cephalopod molluscs (2 families and 2

genera). Hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) and Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) are

frequently encountered swimming or resting on the reefs and nest on the mainland coastline. Olive

ridley (Lepidochelys olivecea) and Leatherback turtles visit to the area occasionally..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4 th – 7 th September, 2002





Radetic’ J., Goffredo S., Zaccanti F.

Department of Evolutionary and Experimental Biology,

University of Bologna, via F. Selmi 3, I-40126 Bologna, Italy

Balanophyllia pruvoti is a common azooxanthellate scleractinian coral living in the Mediterranean

Sea and along the Atlantic coast from Portugal to southwestern of England. It lives in shaded habitats

at depths ranging from shallow water to a depth of more than 100 meters. We are currently studying

the annual cycle of the sexual reproduction in this coral in Calafuria (Leghorn, Tuscany, Italy), the

same locality where we studied the reproductive biology of the Mediterranean congeneric species B.

europaea, a zooxanthellate coral living in shallow water in open habitats. B. pruvoti is a gonochoric

species with a 1:1 sex ratio and very high population density. On the contrary, B. europaea is a

simultaneous hermaphrodite with very low population density. We hypothesize that the presence of

opposite sexual conditions in these congeneric species could be related to their different modes of

environmental colonization. In the case of B. pruvoti, the adaptive sexual condition could be

gonochorism because, in conditions of high population density, it allows for reproductive success

with low energy cost for the individual. On the contrary, although energetically more expensive for

the individual, in conditions of low population density, the adaptive sexual condition could be

hermaphroditism in B. europaea because it maximizes the rate of fertilization..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002





Radford, B. , K. Anthony, J. Delaney , T. Done , L. Marsh, B. Willis

Department of Marine Biology, James Cook University

Townsville, Qld 4810, Australia

In recent years there has been much concern over reduction of biodiversity and degradation of coral

reefs due to sedimentation, turbidity and associated factors (e.g. decreased light levels). However,

many coral reefs prosper in naturally high sediment regimes where suggested thresholds for

sedimentation/turbidity stress are frequently exceeded. These conflicting observations raise

important questions as to the role of abiotic environmental factors on coral community structure,

species distribution and biodiversity. In an effort to answer these questions, we examine the

relationship between a suite of physical and spatial factors (including reef location, slope, aspect and

depth; sediment type and wave exposure) and the distribution of 100 coral species along inshore-offshore

gradients on the Great Barrier Reef and on reefs of NW Australia. GIS techniques were

used to combine these data sets over a range of spatial scales and multivariate statistical techniques

were employed to group species in relation to their occurrence along gradients of the physical

variables. Although some species groups were ubiquitous, a number of groups showed characteristic

relationships along gradients of water depth and sediment regime. Species-environment associations

were consistent across the continent, strongly suggesting that physical regime in particular sediment

regime and depth our key forcing factor shaping the cross-shelf structure of coral assemblages.

These results have important implications applications for habitat classification and reef zoning..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4 th – 7 th September, 2002



Ralph Rayner

Fugro GEOS

Swindon SN25 5AL

The islands of the Chagos Archipelago have been much in the news over the past two years following

the court ruling that the original polulation of the region, removed when Diego Garcia became a US

military base in the 1970’s, should be permitted to return home.

This poster will present a historical perspective on the inhabitation of Chagos, and a photographic

tour of the villages of the archipelago. This tour will be illustrated with photographs taken shortly

after the islanders were removed, and some twenty years later, when the buildings have fallen into

ruin..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




S. Reynaud 1 , A. Juillet-Leclerc 2 , and J.-P. Gattuso 3

1 Centre Scientifique de Monaco, Avenue Saint Martin, MC-98000, Principality of Monaco

2 Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, Laboratoire mixte CNRS-CEA, F-91180

Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France

3 Observatoire Océanologique, Laboratoire d'Océanographie, CNRS-UPMC, BP 28, F–06234

Villefranche -sur-mer Cedex, France

The coral cultures were carried out in order to support the great laws, commonly admitted by

geochemists, linking stable isotopes and environmental parameters. Since in such laboratory

experiments, we were able to change only one parameter at a time, it was possible to investigate

specifically the effect of this single factor on the coral skeletal isotopic composition. Thus, the

skeletal 18 O/16 O and 13 C/12 C isotopic ratio were tested respectively against SST and light. Although

usually the mass spectrometer measured both carbon and oxygen isotopes, we only considered the

effect of temperature on ? 18 O or the influence of light on ? 13 C. Then, highlighted by in situ results,

we unearthed the laboratory measurements and we reconsidered the influence of temperature and

light upon respectively carbon and oxygen isotopic composition.

As it was expected, Acropora results showed a highly significant linear relationship confirming the

skeletal oxygen isotopic composition dependence versus the seawater temperature. Curiously, carbon

isotopic ratio exhibits also a significant correlation with temperature. On the other hand, almost all

the long time oxygen and carbon isotopic series published, show a strong co- variation. Moreover this

signal, which may be extracted by a mathematical treatment, follows the long-term sea surface

fluctuations. Oxygen and carbon co-variation can be explained by a kinetic process, which modulates

oxygen and carbon isotopic disequilibrium. The carbon response to different light intensities was

more difficult to explain. As for other in situ experiments, the isotopic consequence of light and

photosynthetic activity was not associated with a clear isotopic increase. In opposite, an increase of

oxygen ratio appeared significant. Except in area where seasonal temperature excursion exceeds 4°C,

the slope calculated for oxygen calibrations against temperature, based on seasonal samples, are

lower that the same value derived from interannual samples.

In the field, the oxygen ratio increased according to light intensity, which one increases temperature.

On the other hand, this elevation of temperature induces a decrease of the oxygen ratio. Therefore,

the light effect is partly masked by temperature consequences. The process governing this

mechanism is not yet totally understood..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4 th – 7 th September, 2002



Sophie Richier 1 , Pierre -Laurent Merle 1 , Paola Furla 1 , Francois Sola 1 , Denis Allemand 1,2

1 UMR UNSA-INRA 1112, Faculte de Science, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, BP71, F-06108

Nice Cedex 02, France

2 Centre Scientifique de Monaco, Avenue St-Martin, MC-98000 Monaco, Monaco

Symbiotic Cnidarians, as well as photosynthetic organisms, are daily submitted to O2 variations due

to the photosynthetic activity of the endosymbiotic Dinoflagellates. Tissues of those symbiotic

system go through an anoxia state in dark period (0.82 % O2) to hyperoxia (60 % O2) during the day-time,

two conditions which can likely induce an oxidative stress. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) has

been characterized as one of the first enzyme occurring in the anti-oxidant defense. Previous results

have demonstrated a high SOD diversity in the symbiotic cnidarians, which is typical to

photosynthetic organisms. In the present study, we analyzed the oxidative stress state of the

Cnidarian and Dinoflagellate cells (using biomarkers such as lipid peroxidation and protein

carbonylation) and the variation of isozyme SOD activities. Measurements have been perfo rmed

during the nychtemeral cycle and during environnemental stress such as elevated temperature, UV,

pO2, pCO2 conditions. Experiments have been performed comparing symbiotic Cnidarians (the sea

anemone, Anemonia viridis and the hermatypic coral, Stylophora pistillata) with the azooxanthella

sea anemone (Actinia equina). The results show a high resistance of the symbiotic organism to both

natural anoxia/hyperoxia transition and environmental parameter variations. In control conditions

(defined as the day-time period), the animal cells (ectodermal and endodermal cells) and the

zooxanthellae present specific characteristics in protein or lipid degradation. However, no variation

within the same compartment is observed during the light/dark transition or during any of the

environnemental stress. Analyze of isozymes on native polyacrylamide gels confirms the stability of

SOD activities during natural and induced stress. The azooxanthelate species studied, Actinia equina,

is however sensitive to the environmental parameter variations such as an increase in hyperoxia and

temperature. Those results show a high adaptation of the symbiotic models to environmental stress

compared to an asymbiotic one without hyperoxia adaptation system. This adaptation could be

explained by over-expression and diversity of SOD in both partners of the symbiosis..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002





Lesley A Runnalls, Max L Coleman

Postgraduate Research Institute for Sedimentology,

University of Reading, UK

Rates of growth of corals are affected by environmental parameters such as water temperature, depth

and light intensity. The natural reef environment is also disturbed by human influences such as

anthropogenic pollutants which in Barbados are released close to the reefs. Here we describe a new

method to assess how the pollution effects have influenced the coral communities off the west coast

of Barbados. We have evaluated the relative impact of both anthropogenic pollutants and natural

stresses. Sclerochronology documents framework and skeletal growth rate and records pollution

history (recorded as reduced growth) for a suite of sampled Montastrea annularis coral cores. X-radiography

shows annual growth band patterns of the corals extending back over several decades

and shows significantly lower growth rate in polluted sites. Results using Laser Ablation Inductively-Coupled

Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), on the whole sample (aragonite, organic, trapped

sediment etc.) has shown contrasting concentrations of the trace elements (Cu, Sn, Zn, and Pb) within

the corals at different locations. Deepwater corals 7km apart record element levels for Pb

2ppm/20ppm, and Sn 10ppm/220ppm indicative of flow of pollution and current direction. A climatic

event, the 1995/96 hurricane is indicated by anomalous values for Sn and Cu for all sites..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4 th – 7 th September, 2002




Christine H.L. Schönberg

Carl Von Ossietzky University Oldenburg

Department of Zoosystematics and Morphology

FB7 – Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences

PF 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg, Germany

Present address:

Max Planck Institut für marine Mikrobiologie

Microsensor Research Group, Celsiusstr. 1

D-28359 Bremen, Germany

A bioeroding sponge was found on a sabellariid worm reef in Florida, USA. It was identified to be the

clionid Pione lampa (Laubenfels, 1950), which is better known as a fast-groing, strong eroder on

Caribbean coral reefs. The sponge contained numerous gemmules, which were attached to erosion

chamber walls. They were subspherical to lentil- shaped and had an aspicular, unstructured, smooth and

rigid coat. It enclosed dense cell material and various spicule types. Gemmules are dormant structures

likely to ensure survival under adverse conditions such as smothering, exposure to air and high

temperatures. Gemmules from this site might occasionally be freed and scattered, since the Florida reef

can suffer severe damage during periods of heavy wave activity such as that created during hurricane

season. Bioerosion activity of the sponge increases the chance to free gemmules, as the sponge not only

etches into calcareous particles cemented into the matrix produced by the worms, but also into the

matrix itself. This ability enables the sponge to utilise the worm reef as substrate.

Within the Clionidae, Cliona annulifera and three species of the genus Pione are the only species

known to produce typical gemmules. Possible reasons are 1. reproduction of bioeroding sponges is

understudied and asexual bodies may have been overlooked in other species, and 2. clionid

gemmules are an adaptation to survive life in risky environments. Sponges of the genus Pione are

comparatively successful in environments, in which they are close to their physical limits or in

potentially unstable or mobile substrates..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Charles Sheppard

Dept Biological Sciences, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL, UK

A spreadsheet with associated macros was constructed to generate SST curves (monthly data) for any

location for 230 years (1871-2099). SST input data are the Hadley Centre’s HadISST (1871-1999)

and HadCM3 (1950-2099). Other data sets can be substituted. Techniques including standardisation

of residuals adjusted forecast SSTs to historical SSTs in terms of mean trends and annual

fluctuations. Curves are also generated showing the probability that any month or year will reach the

critical temperatures of 1998 (or other temperature, if required). Only lats and longs of any location

are needed to generate these curves, for any reefal site.

Indian Ocean patterns were explored. Corals there were worst affected in 1998, with > 90% dying to

40 m depth in many locations. Critical temperatures differ by >6 o C across the region; corals in the

Arabian Gulf for example experience temperatures every year which were fatal to the same species in

oceanic atolls. Patterns along three latitudinal transects and one sub-region are plotted: (1) east

Africa, (2) Seychelles, ‘Shoals of Capricorn’, Mascarenes, (3) Lakshadweep, Maldives, Chagos, with

Sri Lanka and Cocos Keeling, and (4) the sub-region of Arabia. Two consistent ‘terminal points’ are

selected to allow for comparison between and within transects: the probability of 0.1 recurrence for

all months, and the probability of 0.5 recurrence for the warmest month at each location. Both

correspond roughly to a certainty of the critical SST being reached each year: in the all- months

approach there are 12 ‘throws of the 0.1 dice’ each year; for the latter, months either side of the

warmest add smaller probabilities to the total.

In each transect or group, curves of latitude with time to terminal point are highly significant.

Highest latitude sites (N and S) reach their terminal points after 40-80 years, and sites central in each

after only 25-35 years. Curves are not symmetrical about the equator in transects 1-3; sites between

5-20 o South reach terminal points soonest. The Arabian group have a similar curve, with sites of

highest and lowest latitudes (temperature controlled both by high latitude and Arabian Sea upwelling)

reaching this point after 50-80 years, with central sites reaching it as soon as 2010.

Adaptation by corals to warming is examined. An optimist’s view is that raising critical temperature

at the most precarious sites by only 1 o C prolongs the time to terminal point by >30 years. The

pessimist’s view, however, is that the critical temperature for a site does not need to be reached every

single year, and that temperatures started rising 35 years ago yet corals did no t adapt sufficiently to

survive 1998..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4 th – 7 th September, 2002




Michael Stachowitsch, Martin Zuschin

Institute of Ecology and Conservation Biology, University of Vienna,

Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna, Austria

The aggregated biomass of sublittoral soft-bottom epifaunas can show interesting parallels to coral-dominated

communities. In particular, the build-up and destruction of bioherms is a general process

that is not limited to reef corals. In the Northern Adriatic Sea, for example, the biomass is strongly

concentrated on benthic islands (isolated and small-sized rockgrounds and shellgrounds embedded in

or lying on the sediment). As in coral reefs, the “background fauna“ consists of low biomass deposit-feeders

and predators. Moreover, the sessile fauna of the bioherms is exclusively represented by

suspension feeders. Serpulids are strongly dominant, followed by ascidians, sponges, anemones and

bivalves. The associated vagile organisms are also mostly made up by suspension feeders. The brittle

star Ophiothrix quinquemaculata and the sea cucumber Ocnus planci are the two dominant forms;

crustaceans and echinoids are of subordinate importance.

The bioherms grow on clayey-silty soft-bottoms with very high sedimentation rates of up to

5mm/year and the supply of benthic substrates is clearly a limiting factor for their development. They

are interpreted to form in response to the abundant food supply provided by the extreme high pelagic

productivity in the Northern Adriatic Sea. Thus, in contrast to coral reefs, the biomass is adapted to a

nutrient-rich environment. On this flat sediment bottom, important advantages for the organisms

concentrated in these complex build-ups include access to unexploited and more oxygen-rich water


In the past few decades, oxygen crises, marine snow events and benthic fisheries have severely

altered the bioherm-dominated community, reducing total biomass and changing species

composition. A key perturbation is hypoxic or anoxic conditions, which typically affect the lower,

subpycnocline layer..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002





Paul F. Stampfl

Department of Geography /TCD Centre for the Environment

Museum Building, Trinity College

University of Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland

Much of the uncertainty in describing and predicting environmental change and its implications on

sustainable management of coral reefs and associated ecosystems stem from a lack of adequate tools

and methodologies for the integration of data associated with the spatial and temporal pattern of

naturally occurring ecosystem variations and human activities.

This research project looks to address these issues through the development and application of a

raster based impact evaluation model. The impact model is based on the creation of a GIS database

and the integration of GIS based data processing and spatial analysis methods with state of the art

Multi Criteria Evaluation (MCE) techniques. Applied to the Florida Keys the model is used to

spatially analyse and map the level of pressure imposed on coral reef sys tems within the Florida Keys

National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS)..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4 th – 7 th September, 2002




Ben Stobart, Raymond Buckley, Larry LeClair, Kristian Teleki, Nigel Downing,

David Souter, Martin Callow

Cambridge Coastal Research Unit

Department of Geography

University of Cambridge

Cambridge, CD2 3EN


The 1998 El Niño event caused extensive bleaching and severe damage to coral reefs in the Indian

Ocean. Following this event the Aldabra Marine Programme (AMP) set up eleven permanent

monitoring sites to follow reef recovery at Aldabra Atoll, southern Seychelles. Sites were surveyed

using permanently marked video transects in November 1999 and February 2001 and 2002. In

February 2002 further permanent monitoring sites were also established at Assomption, Astove and

St. Piere East of Aldabra. Comparison of coral cover data collected by the Cambridge Southern

Seychelles Atoll Research Programme just after the bleaching, with data collected by AMP, indicates

that the event caused at least 22% mortality of corals in shallow (10m) water, but that mortality in

deeper water (20m) was negligible in spite of very severe bleaching in 1998. At St. Piere, an island

approximately 450 kilometres ENE of Aldabra, bleaching led to in excess of 50% mortality. Percent

live coral cover at sites around Aldabra ranges between 3-28% in shallow water and 0.2-36% in deep

water. Coral cover is greatest on the sheltered north western tip of the atoll and decreases steadily

towards the more exposed south eastern coastline. Coral cover at islands east of Aldabra ranges

between 12-32% in shallow water and 17-30% in deep water. Live coral cover at Aldabra has not

increased significantly between 1999 and 2001, though the percentage figures are tending to rise

from year to year suggesting recovery. Coral recruitment is high at Aldabra, colonies <5cm diameter

ranged from 1-13 per metre square in 2001 and 1-14 in 2002. St. Piere and Assumption islands also

have high recruitment but levels at Astove are low at only 1% in both shallow and deep water.

There are good indicators that reef recovery is underway at Aldabra Atoll and healthy recruitment

should accelerate the process in the next few years. Aldabra Atoll is a UNESCO world heritage site

and has recently been identified as a marine biodiversity hotspot. Reefs around Aldabra are as free

from anthropogenic disturbance as one could hope to find, study of their recovery will therefore

provide a benchmark for measuring changes and recovery of impacted reef systems. The AMP is

committed to the long term monitoring of reefs at Aldabra Atoll and other locations in the Seychelles..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002



M.J.A. Vermeij, R.P.M. Bak

Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies (University of Miami)/ NOAA

Fisheries, Southeast Science Center

75 Virginia Beach Dr, Miami, FL 33149 USA

To understand variation between coral species we studied six closely related Madracis

morphospecies, whose taxonomical status is uncertain at present for their interaction between

environmental factors and species life-history strategies (e.g. reproductive isolation, distributional

patterns, morphological variability and ecological characteristics). Population structure and depth

distribution prove to be species specific. The distribution of colonies relates to the light they receive

at a small spatial scale (<10cm) and three different ecological strategies towards light exist affecting

both morphology and distribution. Depth can be a useless proxy for light in species whose light

strategy is not determined first. We studied gametogenesis on a monthly basis and coral larvae

(planulae) release on a daily basis. All species are hermaphroditic brooders and sho w similar patterns

in gamete development. Temporal reproductive isolation is absent in the genus and all species show

gamete- maturation in relation with increasing seawater temperature. Based on the absence of

planulae in thousands of fertile polyps (histological analyses), we hypothesize that the term

“brooding” does not apply for Madracis species and propose the term “quick-releasing” as its

alternative. Madracis senaria differs from all other species because it (mass) released planulae

according to a lunar cycle, whereas all other species release planulae gradually and in a non

organized pattern. Our data defines M. mirabilis and M. senaria as “true” species, since they differ in

ecological characteristics and morphology from all other species. M. formosa relates to M. decactis

through hybridization resulting in a new species: M. carmabi. The new species shares morphological

characteristics with M. decactis (10 septs) and M. formosa (branching morphology) as well as

intermediate ecological characteristics (depth distribution). The status of two species remains

unclear: that between the genetic similar species M. pharensis and M. decactis. Encrusting colonies

are (sigmoidally) increasing with the increasing availability of vertical surface. Maximum likelihood

analysis indicates that a polymorphism model describes the observed relation best. We show that

underlying genetic variation for colony morphology responds to habitat complexity at a small spatial

scale (i.e. reef). Only M. mirabilis and M. senaria represent discrete evolutionary units to study coral

ecology, morphology or genetics. Since they do not relate to other species, they are useless to

describe speciation processes. The other four morphospecies show interspecific overlap in

morphological, genetic and ecological characteristics. Therefore they provide a much better

opportunity to study organizational processes in coral evolution. We found indications of two of such

organizational processes in Madracis: introgressive hybridization (M. carmabi) and the controlled

expression of genetic polymorphisms (M. pharensis/M. decactis-complex). The evolutionary status of

coral morphospecies can therefore not be determined a priori because of differences in their

ecological and evolutionary dynamics.


Diekmann OE, Bak RPM, Stam WT and Olsen JL (2001) Molecular genetic evidence for reticulate

speciation in the coral genus Madracis from a Caribbean fringing reef slope. Mar Biol 139:221-233.Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4 th – 7 th September, 2002



Helge Peter Vogt

24 Doddington Grove, London SE17 3TT, UK

Coral reefs are a valuable natural resource and an important source of revenue particularly for small

island nations. In Mauritius, the reefs and the extensive lagoons of the various islands provide fishing

grounds which form the livelihood of many fishermen. Tourists enjoy the beauty of the reefs and

international tourism provides a major contribution to the country’s economy. This article

summarises the main economic values of coral reefs in Mauritius, and quantifies the benefits in

monetary terms wherever possible. The major reef fishing grounds surround the islands of Mauritius

(300 km 2 ), Rodrigues (240 km 2 ), Cargados Carajos (190 km 2 ), Agalega and smaller islands. In 1997,

about 2,400 artisanal fishermen from the main island of Mauritius account for 1,246 t or about 10 %

of the total fish catches in Mauritius. The financial value of these catches was estimated at € 4.5

million. Bad weather and closed season allowances worth a total of € 870,000 provided an additional

source of income to registered fishermen. The overall economic importance of reef fishery on the

main island is low if compared to other sectors of the economy such as tourism or sugar cane

production. However, in Rodrigues reef fishery constitutes a major part of the economy of the island

and provides the livelihood to about 2,000 registered fishermen and their families, approximately one

third of the island’s population. In Mauritius, international tourism has developed into a major

economic force. In 2000, about 915,200 arrivals were registered in Mauritius and tourism generated €

605 million as gross receipts. Every year, approximately 50,000 tourists and Mauritians enjoy Scuba

diving in the reefs which is estimated to earn Scuba dive tour operators about € 4,180,000/year. The

quantifiable economic value of reefs in Mauritius based on artisanal fishery in Mauritius (main island

only) including bad weather allowance and SCUBA diving by tourists amounts to € 9,550,000/year.

This means that the coral reefs in Mauritius generate € 10,977 of income per square kilometre every

year. The true total economic benefits of reefs in Mauritius are considerably higher if (1) costs for

tourist travel, accommodation, food, (2) reef fishery off other Mauritian islands and (3) the value of

coral reefs for the protection of the shoreline would be included in an evaluation..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




Colette Wabnitz, Edmund Green, Michelle Taylor

UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre

219 C Huntingdon Road, Cambridge, CB1 3QB

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Flora and Fauna (CITES) attempts

to assess the trade in species, listed in Appendix II of the Convention, which are believed to be

vulnerable to exploitation but not yet at risk of extinction. All species of hard coral and giant clams

are listed under Appendix II of CITES and parties to CITES are then obliged to produce annual

reports specifying the qua ntity of trade that has taken place in each listed species. The magnitude

and taxonomic composition of the international trade can then be calculated.

By contrast no marine ornamental fish or invertebrates, other than clams or corals, are listed under

CITES. Therefore existing calculations of 15-30 million fish from approximately 1000 species

(Wood, 2001) are based on extremely limited quantitative data, indicating these figures should be

used with caution. The trade in individual species of fish and invertebrates, other than corals and

clams, is unknown. Since April 2000 the UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC)

and the Marine Aquarium Council (MAC) have been collaborating with members of trade

associations (e.g. AKKII, OFI and OATA) to establish a Global Marine Aquarium Database

(GMAD) as a freely available source of information on the global aquarium industry. Our common

objective is to centralise, standardise and provide fast and easy access to information on the aquarium


The core data in GMAD are the sales records of wholesale import and export companies,


· Species traded (fish, corals, invertebrates)

· Quantity traded (numbers)

· Country of export

· Country of import

· Date (year)

As of June 2002 a total of 43 wholesale export and import companies including many industry

leaders, and 4 national management authorities, have provided their data to GMAD.

To date, surprisingly little information has been compiled about the marine ornamental market in

Europe, especially when compared to the wealth of information available about their trade in the

USA. Thus, since early 2002, efforts have been concentrated on ‘mapping’ the aquarium industry in

Europe by developing a detailed list of wholesalers for individual countries. Data collection will

continue throughout the summer. Topics discussed will cover:

· principal species in trade

· trade links between European markets

· trade links between European and international markets

· how the marine ornamental trade differs between European countries.Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4 th – 7 th September, 2002




B.K. Walker, R.E. Dodge

Nova Southeastern University Oceanographic Center,

National Coral Reef Institute

8000 North Ocean Drive, Dania Beach, FL 33004-3078 USA

Two bathymetric surveys were recently conducted in Southeast Florida (Broward County) using

remote sensing devices: Laser Airborne Depth Sounder (LADS) and Multibeam sonar. The two

surveys were at four- meter resolution and encompassed an area defined by approximately 28 km in

the N-S direction along the coast (from northern Dade County, along the Broward County coastline,

North to Pompano) and from the shore eastward 7-9 km. Depths ranged from 0 to approximately 240

m. The georeferenced xyz data was merged, gridded, and sun-shaded at 45° angle and azimuth, and

draped with a NOAA NAPP 1:24,000 georeferenced air photograph mosaic for coastal reference.

The model was zoomed and tipped to desired orientations and processed into three-dimensional

perspectives. Multiple view options were useful for identifying benthic features including coral reefs

and associated habitats.

These three-dimensional perspectives, resultant maps, and reef profiles derived from the multibeam

SONAR and LADS surveys were used as a basis in GIS to detect probable Holocene reef

morphology formed during different Quaternary sea levels resulting from the meltwater pulses

estimated by Bard et al. (1996). The deepest assumed reef is visible at approximately 85m depth and

seems to have initiated shortly after the end of the first meltwater pulse (Meltwater Pulse 1A)

(~13,000 yr BP). This reef may have “given up” (drowned) during the initiation of the second

meltwater pulse (Meltwater Pulse 1B) (~11,000 yr BP) or may have occurred as sheet growth

upslope during the rapid sea- level rise. The base of another reef-consistent morphological structure

occurs in approximately 45 meters depth. This correlates to sea- level height at the end of the second

meltwater pulse (1B) (~10,500 yr BP). In more shallow water, a clear Holocene reef is present

cresting in approximately 16-20m depth. This is a substantial Acropora palmata structure originally

formed in shallow water (Lighty et al., 1978). A. palmata growth ceased here about 7000 yrs BP ( 14 C

date) (Lighty et al., 1978). Presently, this reef sustains a low density Scleractinian community

interspersed between high densities of octocorals and sponges. More shallow reefs, some containing

an A. palmata framework are present westward. All of these reefs may be a result of backstepping

during the Holocene rising sea levels. This work demonstrates the utility of remote sensing for

identifying features of potential importance in determining Holocene sea level rise history.

Further productive work on this topic may involve subbottom profiling to characterize the sand-draped

Holocene reef morphology as well as in situ coring for determining stratigraphy and

timelines..Poster Presentation

Abstracts Volume

International Society for Reef Studies

European Meeting – Cambridge, 4-7 th September, 2002




1 Moyra E.J. Wilson, 2 Stephen W. Lokier

1 Department of Geological Sciences, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE 2 Badley Ashton and Associates Ltd., Winceby House, Winceby, Horncastle, Lincolnshire, LN9


In active tectonic areas of humid equatorial regions near-shore, shallow-water environments are

commonly sites of near-continuous siliciclastic influx and/or punctuated volcaniclastic input.

Despite significant clastic influence, considerable Neogene carbonate successions developed in SE

Asia adjacent to major deltas or volcanic arcs, and are comparable to modern mixed carbonate-clastic

deposits in the region. Research into delta- front patch reefs from Borneo and fore-arc carbonate

platform development from Java is described and used to evaluate the effects of clastic influx on

regional carbonate development, local changes in carbonate producing biota and sequence

development. Regional carbonate development in areas of high clastic input was influenced by the

presence of antecedent highs, changes in amounts or rates of clastic input, delta lobe switching or

variations in volcanic activity, energy regimes and relative sea level change. A variety of carbonate

producing organisms, including larger benthic foraminifera, some corals, coralline algae,

echinoderms and molluscs could tolerate near-continuous clastic influx approximately equal to their

own production rates. These organisms adopted various 'strategies' for coping with clastic input,

including a degree of mobility, morphologies adapted to unstable-substrate inhabitation, shedding

sediment or low- light levels. Locally carbonate production was also affected by energy regimes,

clastic grain sizes and associated nutrient input. Clastic input influenced the inhabitable depth range

for photoautotrophs, the zonation of light dependant assemblages, and the morphology and sequence

development of mixed carbonate-clastic successions. This study provides data on the dynamic

interactions during mixed carbonate-clastic sedimentation and, when combined with information

from comparable modern environments, allows better understanding of the effects of clastic influx on

carbonate production..Author Index.Author Index

First Author indicated in bold



Abelson, A. 12

Aguirre, J. 138

Al-Hazeem, S.H. 124

Allemand, D. 80, 118, 145

Allison, N. 7, 119

Allison, W.R. 8

Al-Moghrabi, S.M. 29

Al-Rousan, S.A. 29

Alsvaag, J. 120

Antonioli, F. 138

Antony, K. 142

Applegate, B. 105

Ashworth, J.S. 72, 115

Auster, P. 104

Azam, F. 84

Azem, A. 19


Babb, I. 104

Baird, J.H. 41

Bak, R.P.M. 9, 62, 71, 87,

102, 152

Baker, A.C. 10

Baldelli, G. 14

Banks, K. 37

Barnes, D. 65

Baums, I.B. 116

Ben-Haim, Y. 11

Ben-Tzvi, O. 12

Benzoni, F. 13

Berkelemans, R. 23

Bernardini, G. 14

Berndt, C. 59

Bianchi, C.N. 13, 14, 138

Blohm, D. 55

Boisson, F. 118

Bothner, M. 30

Braithwaite, C.J.R. 15

Breitbart, M. 54

Brodie, J. 16

Brooke, S.D. 17

Brown, E. 30

Brown, K. 48

Buckley, R. 151

Bythell, J.C. 20, 26, 117, 137


Callow, M. 151

Calzetta, G. 138

Carobene, L. 138

Carter, B. 57

Celliers, L. 89

Chadwick-Furman, N.E. 35

Chapman, N. 18

Choresh, O. 19

Chou, L.M. 41

Cochran, S. 30

Colantoni, P. 14

Coleman, M.L. 146

Colley, S.B. 131

Cooney, R.P. 20, 137

Corain, L. 68

Cote, I.M. 48

Cowan, V. 34


Dalmasso, H. 15

Davies, H. 105

Davies, J. 105

De Putron, S. 21

De’Ath, G. 16

Degnan, B.M. 108

Delaney, J. 142

DeVantier, L.M. 22

Devlin, M. 16

Diekmann, O.E. 102

Dodge, R.E. 155

Done, T. 23, 142

Dorgan, K. 105

Douglas, A.E. 3

Dove, S. 24

Downing, N. 151

Driscoll, M. 99

Dubinsky, Z. 35

Dulbahri 76

Dullo, W.-Chr. 109

Dulvy, N.K. 25, 67

Dunn, S.R. 26

Dunstan, P.K. 50


Eisenhauer, A. 109

Eisinger, M. 27

Esteban, N. 34


Fabricius, K. 1

Fahy, D.P. 125

Fallon, S. 65

Feingold, J.S. 28, 131

Felis, T. 29

Ferrier-Pages, C. 118, 126, 132

Field, M.E. 30.Author Index

First Author indicated in bold


Finch, A. 7, 119

Fine, M. 31

Fisher, L.E. 37

Flot, J-F. 32

Fossa, J.H. 120

Freiwald, A. 122

Furevik, D.M. 120

Furla, P. 80, 145


Gagan, M.K. 69

Gage, J.D. 83, 121

Gallup, C. 105

Galzin, R. 33

Garaway, C. 34

Gattuso, J-P. 144

Gektidis, M. 35, 122

George, J.D. 36

Gilbert, M. 123

Gilliam, D.S. 37, 103

Gischler, E. 70, 124, 129

Glynn, E.A. 125

Glynn, P.W. 10

Goffredo, S. 35, 38, 135, 141

Goh, B.P.L 41

Grayston, L. 91

Green, E. 40, 154

Grover, R. 126

Guest, J.R. 41


Hall-Spencer, J.M. 42, 127

Halter, H.A. 128

Hart, D.E. 43

Hattenberger, S. 105

Hawkridge, J.M. 86

Hayes, M.L. 44

Heidelberg, K.B. 117

Heiss, G. 45

Hellberg, M. 116

Hellin, D. 91

Hendy, E. 65

Hepburn, L. 121

Hodgson, G. 45

Hoegh-Guldberg, O. 46, 50

Hoeksema, B.W. 53, 130

Hohne, S. 129

Hoke, S.M. 131

Hooper, J.N.A. 108

Houlbreque, F. 132

Hueerkamp, C. 47

Hutchings, P.A. 97

Hutchinson, D.J. 48


Jackson, J.B.C. 2

Jacobs, J.R. 49

John, D.M. 36

Johnson, C.R. 50

Jokiel, P. 30

Jones, R. 23

Juillet-Leclerc, A. 144

Jupiter, S. 105


Keller, B.D. 51

Kenter, J. 78

Khalaf, M.A. 55

Klaus, R. 52

Kleeman, K. 53, 130

Kline, D. 54

Knowlton, N. 54, 84

Kochzius, M. 55

Koenig, C. 17

Kramarsky-Winter, E. 56

Kramer, D.L. 123

Kuhnert, H. 29


Labas, Y. 64

Lamont, P.A. 121

Langmead, O. 133

Larcombe, P. 57, 92

Le Goff-Vitry, M. 39

Le Tissier, M.D.A. 20, 26, 137

Lecchini, D. 33, 134

LeClair, L. 151

Ledesma, G.L. 58

Liebeler, J. 45

Lindberg, B. 59

Liu, G. 90

Lokier, S.W. 156

Lough, J.M. 65, 69

Loya, Y. 12, 19, 31, 56

Lukyanov, K. 64

Lukyanov, S. 64

Lundberg, J. 70


Macdonald, I.A. 60

Macintyre, I.G. 61

MacLaughlin, L. 86

Maguer, J-F. 126

Maier, C. 62

Mallela, J. 63

Marsh, L. 142

Mastronuzzi, G. 138

Mattioli, G. 38.Author Index

First Author indicated in bold


Matz, M.V. 64

Mazzoli, C. 68

McClanahan, T.R. 10

McCorry, D. 22

McCulloch, M. 65

McKenna, S. 91

McLean, R. 66

Meldrum, D.T. 83

Mercer, D.J. 83

Merle, P-L. 80,145

Mezzomonaco, L. 135

Mienert, J. 59

Miller, M.W. 116

Mitchell, R.E. 25, 67

Montaggioni, L.F. 15

Montagna, P. 68

Moore, C. 18

Morri, C. 13, 14, 138

Mortensen, P.B. 120

Mosusu, N. 105

Moyer, R.P. 136

Mueller, E. 86

Muller, A. 69

Multer, H.G. 70

Murdoch, T. 91


Newville, M. 119

Nieuwland, G. 9, 87

Nugues, M.M. 71


Ogston, A. 30

Oliver, J. 40

Ormond, R.F.G. 72, 115

Orru, P. 138


Pantos, O. 20, 137

Paster, M. 27

Patzold, J. 29, 62

Peppe, O.C. 83

Perrin, C. 73, 139

Perry, C. 74

Peyrot-Clausade, M. 97

Pichon, M. 14

Pierano, A. 138

Polunin, N.V.C. 25, 67, 75

Porter, J. 94

Potts, D.C. 49, 105

Priyono, J. 76, 140

Purdy, E.G. 77

Purkis, S. 78


Quarles, R.L. 86

Quinn, T.P. 125


Radetic, J. 141

Radford, B. 142

Raines, P. 58

Ravillious, C. 40

Rayner, R. 143

Reinecke, G.B. 79

Reynaud, S. 144

Reynaud-Vaganay, S. 126

Richier, S. 80, 145

Riegl, B. 81, 128, 136

Riker-Coleman, K. 105

Risk, M.J. 42, 82

Roberts, J.M. 121

Roberts, J.M. 83

Rogers, A. 39

Rohwer, F. 54, 84

Rosenberg, E. 11, 85

Runnalls, L. 146


Saied, A. 94

Santavy, D.L. 86

Scheffers, S.R. 87, 99

Schelten, C.K. 88

Schierwater, B. 93

Schleyer, M.H. 89

Schonberg, C.H.L. 147

Schuhmacher, H. 27, 79

Sebens, K.P. 117

Seguritan, V. 84

Sheppard, C.R.C. 133, 148

Shinn, E.A. 70

Silenzi, S. 68

Silver, E. 105

Simeon, O. 105

Simmons, K.R. 70

Skinder, C. 104

Skirving, W. 90

Smith, D.C. 73

Smith, S.R. 91

Smithers, S. 92

Sola, F. 80, 145

Solandt, J-L. 58

Soller, R. 55

Souter, D. 151

Spalding, M. 40

Spieler, R.E. 125

Stachowitsch, M. 149

Stampfl, P.F. 150.Author Index

First Author indicated in bold


Stamski, R. 105

Stanley, A.M. 91

Starger, C.J. 10

Stobart, B. 151

Stoletzki, N. 93

Storlazzi, C. 30

Strong, A. 90

Sutton, S. 119

Svellingen, I. 120

Swart, P.K. 94

Szmant, A.M 94


Tambutte, E. 118, 132

Taylor, M. 154

Teleki, K. 151

Thomas, F.I.M. 99

Thomas, J.D. 95, 101

Thomason, J.C. 26, 117

Thornton, S.L. 37

Todd, P. 96

Tougas, J. 94

Tribollet, A. 97

Tsuchiya, M 32

Tudhope, A.W. 4

Turner, J. 52


Ulstrup, K.E. 98


Van Der Geest, M. 71

Van Duyl, F.C 87, 99

Van Oppen, M.J.H. 98

Van Treeck, P. 27, 100

Vargas-Angel, B. 101

Velterop, R.J. 72

Vermeij, M.J.A. 102, 152

Vernacchio, J.A. 103

Vignola, M.J. 44

Vogel, K. 122

Vogt, H.P. 153


Wabnitz, C. 154

Walker, B.K. 155

Wallace, L. 105

Waska, H. 71

Watling, L. 104

Webster, G. 91

Webster, J. 105

Wefer, G. 29

Weil, E. 47

Whetton, P. 23

Williams, I. 75

Willis, B. 142

Wilson, M.E.J. 156

Wilson, S.C. 106

Winterer, E.L. 77

Woodley, J.D. 107

Wooldridge, S. 23

Worheide, G. 108

Wyndham, T. 65


Young, C.M. 17


Zaccanti, F. 38, 135, 141

Zinke, J. 109

Zlatarski, V.N. 110

Zuschin, M. 111, 149...PROGRAMME AT-A-GLANCE

Wednesday 4 th September

1200 onwards Registration

1300 Lunch

1415 Meeting Opening

1430 Plenary 1 - Fabricus

1530 Coffee

1600 Scientific Sessions (Mariginal Reefs/Disease)

1830 Drinks Reception

1900 Dinner

2030 After-Dinner Talk

Thursday 5 th September

0830 Plenary 2 - Jackson

0930 Scientific Sessions (Reef Dynamics/Marginal Reefs)

1050 Coffee

1130 Scientific Sessions (Reef Dynamics/Marginal Reefs)

1250 Lunch

1400 Scientific Sessions (Reef Dynamics/Marginal Reefs)

1520 Tea

1600 Scientific Sessions (Reef Dynamics/Bioerosion)

1820 Poster Session and Drinks Reception

1930 Dinner

2030 After-Dinner Talk

Friday 6 th September

0830 Plenary 3 - Douglas

0930 Scientific Sessions (Environmental Stress/Reef Geology)

1050 Coffee

1130 Scientific Sessions (Environmental Stress/Reef Geology)

1310 Lunch

1400 Scientific Sessions (Management/Molecular Biology)

1520 Tea

1600 Scientific Sessions (Management/Molecular Biology)

1830 ISRS General Meeting

1930 Conference Dinner

Saturday7 th September

0830 Plenary 4 - Tudhope

0930 Scientific Sessions (Palaeoclimatology/Cold Water Corals)

1050 Coffee

1130 Scientific Sessions (Palaeoclimatology/Cold Water Corals)

1300 Lunch