9ICRS Plenary Addresses

PLENARY ADDRESSES

1

ROLE OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS IN CORAL

REEF PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT.

Alcala, Angel C.* *Silliman University–Angelo King

Center for Research and Environmental Management,

Marine Laboratory, Bantayan, 6200 Dumaguete City,

Philippines. Email: suakcrem@fil.net

Coral reefs are now under severe stress from both natural and

human-induced environmental changes causing considerable

damage. Many of the human activities directly or indirectly

impacting coral reefs are driven by socio-economic factors.

Foremost among these factors is poverty. In developing

countries the need for sources of subsistence living, of

livelihood, and of income through tourism and exploitation of

economically important species is great. As a result, coral reefs

have been mined, blasted, poisoned, overfished or otherwise

subjected to misuse and abuse. There must be a way to utilize

socio-economic values of and benefits from coral reefs as

incentive for their protection and sustainable management. To

do this, successful approaches to conservation such as

establishment of marine protected areas, community-based

coastal resource management and integrated coastal zone

management as well as other useful management tools should

be applied to current efforts at coral reef conservation. Indeed,

experience has shown that such approaches may be our last

option to stop the degradation of coral reefs and coral reef

resources heavily impacted by man.

ECOMORPHOLOGY OF REEF FISHES:

TRANSCENDING BARRIERS IN SPACE AND TIME

Bellwood, David R.*. *Dept Of Marine Biology, James

Cook University, Townsville, Qld. 4811, Australia. Email:

david.bellwood@jcu.edu.au

Coral reefs support a staggering diversity of species and

forms. This grabs our attention but challenges our attempts to

describe the system or the biology of the component species.

We now have a workable taxonomic description for most reef

fishes and corals. Quantitative and experimental studies have

added to this knowledge to provide a picture of the factors

shaping local populations. The challenge now is to look

beyond individual species and reefs to patterns and processes

operating at larger scales. Recent descriptions of congruent

global biogeographic patterns in reef fishes and corals point to

processes that operate beyond species and population levels,

and highlight the need to consider reefs systems in a global

context. Furthermore, observations of the abilities of

individuals emphasises the critical importance of

understanding the function or role of individuals in reef

systems. Ecomorphology provides a basis for evaluating

individual abilities which transcends space and time, a method

based on a description of abilities alone. I will provide

examples from reef fishes which describe how this approach

may help us to understand the significance of abilities in

shaping assemblages and in describing the roles of reef fish

among habitats, between oceans and back through time to the

reef fish assemblages of the Eocene, Jurassic and Triassic. This

approach offers a common language as relevant to marine

parks managers as to palaeontologists where abilities, not

names or numbers, are important.

CORAL REEF CONSERVATION IN PALAU: A

SUCCESS STORY

Idechong, Noah* Palau

No abstract

HOMAGE TO STYLOPHORA PISTILLATA: AN

IMPORTANT CORAL IN CORAL REEF RESEARCH.

Loya Y., Department of Zoology, The George S. Wise

Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv

69978, Israel. Email: yosiloya@post.tau.ac.il

Stylophora pistillata (Esper 1797), one of the most

important hermatypic species on a global scale, has been used

for many years as a key species for coral research in many

fields, including Coral Biology, Ecology, Physiology,

Biochemistry, Geochemistry, Immunology, Evolution,

Paleoecology, Biogeography and others. This paper highlights

some of the major contributions made in coral reef research

using S. pistillata as a model species, from the community

level to the cellular and molecular levels. Studies concerning

regional variations at the population level include population

structure and dynamics, life history strategy, growth and

regulation of populations, regeneration, competitive networks

and reproductive strategy. The accumulated information has

served studies contributing to coral reef conservation and

restoration strategies. Major contributions have been made to

our knowledge of the physiology of corals, especially in

advancing our understanding of the symbiotic relationship

between the coral host and its symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae),

such as environmental effects (biotic and/or abiotic factors) on

photosynthesis, respiration and calcification mechanisms,

energy budgets (autotrophy vs. heterotrophy), carbon

partitioning and utilization, adaptive mechanisms of algal

regulation and causes and effects of coral bleaching. Other

studies concerning symbiotic relationships between the coral

host and animals associated with it (sponges, other cnidarians,

molluscs, crustaceans, worms echinoderms and fish) discuss

obligatory, mutualistic or parasitic relationships affecting the

life history of the coral and its symbiotic organisms. Seminal

studies have been performed on marine pollution effects (crude

oil, sewage and phosphates) at the

CORAL REEFS OF INDONESIA: PAST, PRESENT AND

FUTURE

Nontji, Anugerah., Indonesian Institute of Science,

Jakarta. Email:aanontji@indosat.net.id

The geographic setting of Indonesia, situated in the tropics

between Asia and Australia, and between the Pacific and the

Indian Ocean, has made this archipelago an ideal place for

coral reefs to grow. Coral reefs are found along the coast of

many of the islands in various formations e.g. fringing reefs,

barrier reefs, and atolls. Coral reefs have been long known to

provide various uses for the coastal community, such as for

food, building materials, trades, etc. Recent development has

confronted the reefs to an increasing threat because of the

detrimental impact of human activities, such as from

destructive fishing techniques (dynamiting, poisoning, etc),

over exploitation of resources, pollution, etc. The total area of

coral reefs in Indonesia is estimated roughly about 85,700 km 2 .

Recent surveys indicated that only about 6 % of the Indonesian

reefs is still in excellent condition, and the rest are in various

stages of destruction. There is a strong need to rehabilitate and

manage the coral reefs in proper way so as to maintain their

sustainability. A Coral Reef Rehabilitation and Management

Program (COREMAP) was launched in 1998, to respond to

this issue. This multi-sectoral program is planned for 15 years

(until 2013) and will be executed in ten provinces in Indonesia.

The first phase (1998-2001) however, will be executed in four

provinces (Riau, South Sulawesi, Papua, and Nusa Tenggara

Timur) and financially supported by the World Bank, Asia

Development Bank, and AusAID..9ICRS Plenary Addresses

2

CORAL REEFS AND CORAL REEF STUDIES IN

JAPAN

Omori M.*. *Department of Aquatic Biosciences, Tokyo

University of Fisheries, 4-5-7 Konan, Minato-ku, Tokyo

108-8477, Japan Email: makomori@tokyo-u-fish.ac.jp

Japan has a long history of coral reef research. Japan was

even a leading nation in the world in this research at one time.

In June 1934, the Japanese Society for the Promotion of

Scientific Research established the Palao Tropical Biological

Station in Koror Island, Palau, which was then governed by the

Japanese Mandate of the League of Nations. The war

unfortunately stopped all studies there in 1943. In spite of the

short life span of the station, the research activities by Prof. S.

Hatai and 29 young Japanese scientists contributed

significantly to studies on coral reefs. The return of the

Ryukyu Archipelago to Japan in 1972 allowed researchers

access to coral reefs once again. The University of Ryukyus

began research at the Sesoko Marine Science Center. The

Akajima Marine Science Laboratory, which is a small non-governmental

research station, was established at Akajima

Island in 1988. Scientific research on coral reefs is being

conducted at various institutions in Japan today. Japanese

Coral Reef Society was established in 1997, and is actively

promoting exchange of information and public awareness

through research, training, and publications. The coral reefs in

the Ryukyu Archipelago will be shown by video.

AGENDA 21, INTERNATIONAL CORAL REEF

INITIATIVE AND THE NEW MILLENIUM:

PROGRESS AND PROSPECTS FOR CORAL REEFS

Salvat, B.* *EPHE, ESA CNRS 8046, Université de

Perpignan, France. Email : bsalvat@univ-perp.fr

1929 (Sir Maurice Yonge), the first International Coral Reef

Symposium - ICRS - in India, 1969 , and the launching of the

International Society for Reef Studies- ISRS - in 1980 (David

Stoddart) and the International Coral Reef Initiative - ICRI - in

1995 (USA)… these are landmarks of the increasing interest

in, and concern for, coral reefs. An analysis of what has been

done and why is presented in the general context of political,

economic and social evolution over these last decades :

research for improved knowledge and management of

resources; activities at local, national, regional and global

levels; and creation and activities of international organisations

(governmental and nongovernmental) and large international

conferences. Several decades ago, the major concern focussed

on the question of what are coral reefs and how they function.

The main concern today is how to manage human activities

affecting coral reef ecosystems. The present situation -global

view of the reef ecosystem and the effects of global economic

expansion - raises the challenge of what action must be

undertaken at the beginning of the new millenium. Can we

predict what will happen and how to react at different levels

and in different fields of activities with the willingness to

preserve coral reefs for the benefit of mankind ?

RETICULATE EVOLUTION: THE ALTERNATIVE

PARADIGM.

Veron J.E.N.*. *AIMS, PMB 3, Townsville MC 4810,

Australia. Email:

For most marine organisms, ocean currents are the vehicles

of larval dispersal and are therefore the pathways of genetic

connectivity. These paths repeatedly and continuously change

over time, creating changes to the distribution ranges and

genetic compositions of species. Geographic space and

evolutionary time interact: species break apart, then re-form

into different units. For corals, this creates ‘reticulate’ patterns

in both geographic space and evolutionary time. In geographic

space, species are typically distinct in any single region but

loose their identity as definable units over very great distances.

When these patterns are envisaged in evolutionary time,

species have no time or place of origin and there are no

distinctions between geographic (sympatric) and non-geographic

(allopatric) concepts of origination. Differences

between species and subspecies taxonomic levels and between

species and ‘hybrids’ are arbitrary and/or unrecognisable.

Importantly, reticulate evolution is driven by environmental

parameters, not biological competition. Rates of evolution and

extinction (which occurs through fusions as well as

terminations of lineages) are similar over long geological

intervals. Reticulate evolution gives the overall impression of

punctuated equilibria, as is frequently observed in fossil

records.

JOURNEY TO CENTRE OF THE CENTRE: ORIGINS

OF HIGH MARINE FAUNAL DIVERSITY IN

CENTRAL INDONESIA FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF

AN ACROPOROLOGIST.

Wallace, Carden C. Museum of Tropical Queensland,

Townsville, Australia 4810. Email: carden@mtq.qld.gov.au

The reef coral mega-genus Acropora has been shown to have

had its likely origins in Africa or Europe, far from the current

“centre of diversity” of marine life, and its own location of

greatest diversity, in the Wallacea region of Indonesia. How

did this genus come to reach its current diversity focus? The

most likely explanation involves historical tectonic and

eustatic events, including partitioning of the old Tethys

Seaway during the events of the Miocene period, as well as

extinctions of a broader Pacific fauna during the more recent

eustatic periods of the Plio-Pleistocene. The continuous

presence of an open passageway through Wallacea, even

during eustatic periods, through to the present day, has ensured

that this area has retained its deepwater fauna as well as being

open to settlement by shallow water Pacific species. The

relevance of these events is collaborated by a morphological

phylogeny of the genus: a revision of these ideas, using genetic

characters, is not far behind.9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A1: Large Scale Ecology

Session A1: Large Scale Ecology of Coral Reefs: Linking Biogeography, Meta

Communities and Local Ecological Dynamics

3

SCALING THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE

CORALLINE ALGAE HYDROLITHON ONKODES TO

THE CALCIFICATION OF TWO REEFS USING IN

SITU AND REMOTE SENSING DATA.

Andréfouët Serge * , Claude Payri, J.R.M Chisholm, J.

Jaubert, H. Ripley. *University of South Florida, Dept. of

Marine Science, 140 7 th Ave. South, Saint Petersburg, Fl.

33701, USA. Email: serge@carbon.marine.usf.edu

Hydrolithon onkodes is the dominant coralline algae on the

reef flats of atoll rims in the Tuamotu archipelago and can

occupy as much as 80% of the reef surface. Conversely, on

barrier reefs in the Society islands, H. onkodes is scarce,

accounting for less than 3% percent of the total cover.

Calcification on the reef flats of Rangiroa Atoll (Tuamotu) and

Moorea Island (Society) is estimated to average 7 kg

CaCO3.m -2 .y -1 . Acquisition of multispectral (10 bands between

425-785 nm) remote sensing data using a Compact Airborne

Spectrometer Imager in 1998, enabled the distribution of H.

onkodes on these reefs to be mapped on scales of several km 2

at a spatial resolution of 1 m 2 . The oceanic margins of the atoll

reef flats were dominated by H. onkodes, interspersed with

patchy communities of encrusting corals and turfs. At Moorea,

it was necessary to combine airborne data with ground surveys

in order to map the density of algae, as this could not be

determined directly from airborne data. Considering that H.

onkodes produces 8.5-11 g CaCO3.m -2 .d -1 , its contribution to

reef flat calcification on both reefs can be compared. However,

some precautions are necessary when comparing these

contributions to the total calcification measured along entire

reefs. We discuss the hypotheses necessary to perform such

comparisons and the limits of this multi-scale exercise.

THE LENGTH OF THE LARVAL PHASE IN CORALS:

NEW INSIGHTS INTO PATTERNS OF

CONNECTIVITY.

Baird A.*. *School of Marine Biology & Aquaculture,

James Cook University, Townsville Q. 4811, Australia.

Email: andrewbaird@ozemail.com.au

One of the major goals in marine ecology is to establish the

degree of connectivity between local populations. To test the

likelihood of localised recruitment and whether or not the

geographical range of corals is influenced by dispersal ability I

compared the larval longevity of five species of acroporid

corals of contrasting distributions. Pronounced differences

were apparent among species in the capacity to delay

metamorphosis. The larvae of Acropora valida remained

competent for 90 days, compared to 60 days for A. millepora

& A. gemmifera and 14 days for A. pulchra. Furthermore, the

larvae of wide spread species settled more rapidly with peak

settlement in A. valida & A. humilis occurring on day 4

compared to day 7 for A. millepora & A. gemmifera and day

10 for A. pulchra. Successful colonization of remote locations

seems therefore to depend on both larval longevity and on

rapid settlement to enable populations to become established.

GENETIC POPULATION STRUCTURE OF A SOFT

CORAL WITH SEXUAL AND ASEXUAL MODE OF

REPRODUCTION.

Bastidas* C., Uthicke S., Fabricius K., Benzie J.A.H.

*Australian Institute of Marine Science PMB No. 3

Townsville QLD 4810 and James Cook University

Townsville QLD 4811, AUSTRALIA. Email:

c.bastidas@aims.gov.au

Many anthozoans combine sexual and asexual reproductive

modes, with dispersal between reefs being achieved by sexual

propagules, whereas asexual division of colonies is suggested

as an important mechanism to gain space in the reef. This

study aimed to investigate the relative importance of sexual

and asexual reproduction, and gene flow, between 12 reef

populations of Sinularia flexibilis (Octocorallia, Alcyoniidae)

along the Great Barrier Reef (maximum of 1300 km apart).

This widely distributed Indo-Pacific species is a gamete

broadcaster that can achieve large aggregations in near shore

reefs in the GBR. The results of electrophoretic analyses of 9

polymorphic allozymes indicated that genotypic frequencies

for each population did not differ significantly from those

expected from Hardy-Weinberg predictions. This demonstrates

a dominant role of sexual reproduction in these populations,

i.e. clones do not extend considerably beyond the minimum

spatial sampling scale in the study (5 m). However, significant

genetic differentiation between some populations (FST),

indicates that gene flow is restricted between some reefs and

even sites within a reef. Nevertheless, there was no

relationship between geographic separation and genetic

differentiation. Analysis comparing groups of populations

showed no significant differentiation on a north-south gradient

or across the shelf (in relation to distance to the coast) in the

GBR.

LARVAL COMPETENCE PERIODS INFLUENCE IN

CORAL CONNECTIVITY AND SETTLEMENT: A

MODELLING APPROACH.

Blanco-Martín, Bernardo*. *School of Marine Biology and

Aquaculture, James Cook University, Townsville QLD.

4811, Australia. Email: Bernardo.Blanco-Martin@

jcu.edu.au

Coral ecology, recovery from disturbance, biogeography and

evolution are to a certain extent determined by the dispersive

larval phase connecting their populations on different reefs.

Various factors have been identified as driving dispersal,

including the spatial properties of reefs, hydrodynamics and

larval biology. Larval competence curves describe the relative

amount of larvae available for settling at different times from

release. A study of their influence in the connectivity and

settlement in coral populations using a spatially realistic model

is presented presented. A G.I.S. coverage of the Great Barrier

Reef was employed to create an spatial representation of the

Capricorn Bunker Group in a Cellular Automata Model. The

models were run using five different larval competence curves

(three brooders Stylophora pistillata, Pocillorpora damicornis

and Seriatopora hystrix and two spawners Acropora valida

and Acropora millepora) and two different current sets

(random and south trend). The larval outputs and inputs for the

whole system and six selected reefs were investigated. The

earlier peak in the curves presented by the brooders is

translated in a larger number of larvae settling per larvae

produced in all current conditions. The longer tail in the curves

for spawners allows them to have a higher connectivity under

random currents but not under southern flow in this reef

system. Individual reefs and coral species present very

different behaviors, particularly in their connectivity..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A1: Large Scale Ecology

4

RARITY IN COMMUNITIES OF CORAL REEF

FISHES.

Caley J.R.*, Geoffrey P. Jones, and Philip L. Munday.

*School of Marine Biology and Aquaculture, James Cook

University, Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia.

Patterns of rarity in biological communities reflect the

interactions of processes operating on local ecological scales

and regional and biogeographic scales. A species may be rare

either in terms of its numerical abundance or its geographic

range. Its status as rare or common has important implications

for local ecological interactions and for conservation and

management issues. The study of rarity in terrestrial species

has developed rapidly in the past two decades. In comparison,

issues of rarity for marine species are poorly understood. Here

we report on analyses of rarity in coral reef fish communities.

Our analyses confirm that some patterns of rarity in these

communities are consistent with patterns previously identified

for terrestrial species while inconsistent with others. These

analyses have also highlighted the generally poor availability

of data for marine organisms with which to do such analyses.

TURBIDITY AND SEDIMENTATION EFFECTS ON

LARGE-SCALE PATTERNS OF OCTOCORAL

BIODIVERSITY.

Fabricius K.* and Glenn De’ath. *CRC for the Great

Barrier Reef World Heritage Area, Australian Institute of

Marine Science, PMB No. 3, Townsville MC, Qld 4810,

Australia. Email: k.fabricius@aims.gov.au

Patterns of octocoral biodiversity were determined from

extensive reef surveys along and across the whole GBR.

Species inventories and estimates of octocoral abundances

were assessed on 361 sites (161 reefs), each covering 1000 to

4000 m 2 between 0 and 18 m depth. Mid-shelf reefs north of

Latitude 16_ are the centre of octocoral biodiversity on the

GBR. Overlapping distribution ranges of near-shore and off-shore

taxa maximise richness on mid-shelf reefs. Taxonomic

richness decreases with increasing latitude, and is low and

relatively even across the shelf south of 21__lat. Richness is

strongly affected by water clarity, and to some extent by

sediment deposits: at any given position across and along the

shelf, the generic richness is greatest in areas of low turbidity

and high sediment deposits. Percent cover of hard corals and

octocorals are poorly explained by physical and spatial

variables. There are two major management implications of

these findings: (1) Turbidity and sedimentation, which increase

with run-off from disturbed soils, affect the generic richness of

octocorals. The reefs with highest octocoral richness are < 20

km off the coasts, and thus well within the range of terrestrial

run-off, indicating potential loss of diversity through

expanding land use. (2) Taxonomic composition is more

strongly related to environmental conditions than are total hard

and soft coral cover; taxonomic inventories are thus better

indicators of human impacts than is assessment of total cover.

THE ROLE OF ENDEMISM IN CORAL SPECIES

DIVERSITY.

Douglas Fenner.* *Australian Institute of Marine Science,

Townsville, Australia. Email: d.fenner@aims.gov.au

Endemic species have been proposed to contribute to high-diversity

coral communities. Endemic species are those with

restricted biogeographic distributions. However, in lists of

endemic corals in areas such as Indonesia, most of the endemic

species listed were described quite recently. A list of all

Acropora species described in the past 30 years shows that

most were known from one area when first described, but are

now known from several areas. In this report, new records of

coral species are given for the Philippines, Indonesia, and

Australia, some of which were previously considered endemic

to another country. Additional newly published records

indicate very low numbers of endemic species, such as only

two endemic corals now known from the Philippines,

representing only about 0.5% of the coral species known there.

A comparison of different areas around the globe indicates that

the number of endemic coral species in most areas is about 0-6

species, and that the number of endemic species does not vary

with the total species diversity in an area, over a range of two

orders of magnitude of total species diversity. Thus,

endemism does not contribute to the high coral species

diversity seen on some coral reefs.

SOURCE/SINK POPULATION STRUCTURE OF

CORAL REEF FISH: THE IMPORTANCE OF PATCH

QUALITY VERSUS PATCH LOCATION AND

IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGEMENT.

Figueira W.F.*. *Duke University Marine Lab, 135 Duke

Marine Lab Rd., Beaufort, NC 28516. Email:

wff@duke.edu

Populations of fish on individual patches of coral reef are

typically thought of as open sub-populations, dynamically

coupled via larval dispersal to a larger network of patches. In

such systems, successful management using spatial closures

requires identification of areas that contribute

disproportionately to the overall metapopulation. The coral

reef literature generally considers the spatial location of a

patch to be most important, with the term “source” applied to

upstream patches due to their ability to seed downstream

(“sink”) patches with larval recruits. There is, however,

considerable evidence that factors of habitat quality within a

patch can significantly impact the demographic rates of

resident fish. In this study I use a spatially explicit computer

simulation model of a generalized reef fish to evaluate how

patch contribution to the metapopulation is affected by these

two patch characteristics: 1) relative location; and, 2)

demographic rates. Previous modeling suggests that

understanding the relative contribution of both factors can be

central to designing successful reserves, and that uninformed

placement of reserves has the potential to negatively affect the

population by displacing fishing effort onto source areas.

Conditions such as the magnitude and direction of currents,

spatial geometry of the metapopulation, and relative

differences in demography that may cause one or the other

patch characteristic to dominate are discussed with special

attention paid to the extent of local recruitment..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A1: Large Scale Ecology

5

POPULATION DYNAMICS OF REEF FISHES AT

LARGE SCALES: USING COMPUTER SIMULATIONS

TO MAKE LARGE-SCALE INFERENCES FROM

SMALL-SCALE DATA.

Forrester G.E.*, Richard R. Vance and Mark A. Steele.

*Dept. of Biological Sciences, University of Rhode Island,

Kingston, RI 02881-0816, USA. Email address:

gforrester@uri.edu

Field demographic data collected from fish occupying small

patch reefs (a few m 2 in area) were used to parameterize a

model that describes fish abundance on a collection of several

hundred such patches of reef (which we call a

mesopopulation). Small-scale spatial density dependence

causes the relationship between settlement and mesopopulation

abundance to become nonlinear. Under many conditions

simulated, however, the nonlinearity is very slight, suggesting

that abundance measured at large scales in the field will often

be strongly correlated with settlement rates. Overall, though,

the model establishes that density dependent interactions on

small patches of reef strongly influence population dynamics

at larger spatial scales. In all cases considered, demographic

rates that are density dependent on individual reefs also prove

density dependent on the scale of the entire reef array, and

demographic rates that are independent of density at small

scales remain so at large scales. Furthermore, observed

mesopopulation-level demographic rate functions strongly

resemble approximations generated by “scaling up” the rate

functions that apply to individual reefs. Changes in between-reef

migration rate alter the magnitude but not the qualitative

nature of these mesopopulation properties.

SPATIAL PATTERNS IN THE AGE STRUCTURE,

DEMOGRAPHY AND ABUNDANCE OF A CORAL

REEF FISH, Acanthurus triostegus.

Halford, A. R.* and Meekan, M. G. *The Australian

Institute of Marine Science, P.O. Box 264, Dampier, WA,

6713, Australia. Email: a.halford@aims.gov.au

Few studies have examined spatial patterns in the

demography of coral reef fishes at scales from 10’s to 100’s of

km. Information that is currently available is either derived

from a single locality or from localities spread across large

spatial scales (>100km). In the latter case, such studies focus

on species that are the targets of fisheries and as a result,

demographic parameters are confounded by differences in

fishing effort among localities. Here, we examine variation in

the demography, age structure and abundance of a common

surgeonfish at localities spread 200km along the length of

Ningaloo Reef, WA. As this species is not fished, demographic

patterns can be compared without confounding effects of

fishing effort. Abundances were estimated using underwater

visual census while collections of adult fish provided otoliths

for age analysis. Abundances, age structures and growth and

mortality rates were compared among localities. In addition,

we attempted to identify peaks in age structures corresponding

to successful year-classes and examined the spatial coherency

of these events.

LOCAL AND REGIONAL PATTERNS IN THE

COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF CORALS.

Hughes, T.P*., H.V. Cornell, M.J. Caley, R.H. Karlson,

C.C. Wallace, J. Wolstenholme. *Department of Marine

Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811,

Australia. Email: terry.hughes@jcu.edu.au

Community ecologists now recognize that to understand

patterns of biodiversity, there is an urgent need to synthesize

large-scale phenomena with local processes. This demands a

multi-scale or hierarchical approach. We have begun a multi-scale

study of the composition and relative abundances of

corals along the pacific diversity gradient, from indonesia to

french polynesia. Our goals are to examine how local diversity

responds to variation in the size of the regional species pool,

and to quantify the relative variation in community

composition at different scales (ie. Among adjaSchleyer cent

zones, sites, islands and regions). So far, we have sampled 52

sites on 14 islands within four regions (png, the solomon

islands, samoa, and french polynesia), a total of 1,560 x 10m

transects. Most variation in diversity and community structure

occurs at the smallest and largest scales - among depth zones

(the reef flat, crest and slope) and among geographic regions -compared

to adjacent sites and islands that are much more

homogeneous. Surveys of juvenile corals reveal major

differences in the underlying dynamics of different regions.

For example, over half of the coral recruits in png and the

solomon islands belong to genera that are absent entirely in

samoa and french polynesia. Widespread species typically vary

in abundance among regions by an order of magnitude or

more, highlighting the need to quantify biogeographical

patterns using ecological as well as taxonomic data.

BENTHIC HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS OF REEF

FISHES IN THE FLORIDA KEYS: COUPLING OF

HABITATS AND FISH DISTRIBUTIONS VIA GIS

TECHNOLOGY.

Jeffrey, C.F.G.*, C. Pattengill-Semmens, K. Buja, J.D.

Christensen, M. Coyne, M. E. Monaco, and S. Gittings.

*National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,

National Ocean Service, 1305 East-West Highway, SSMC-IV,

N/SCI-1 Room 9222, Silver Spring MD, 20910. Email:

chris.jeffrey@noaa.gov

The spatial trends in the distribution of fish assemblages

within the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary were

examined as part of a collaboration between the Biogeography

Program and Marine Sanctuaries Division of the National

Ocean Service and the Reef Environmental Education

Foundation (REEF). The objectives were to map and model

the abundance and large-scale distribution patterns of reef

fishes among benthic habitats, examine correlations between

habitat diversity and fish community structure, and test

hypotheses of non-uniform fish distribution patterns among

benthic habitats. The Shannon-Weaver Diversity function, _pi

ln pi, where pi is the proportion of each benthic habitat, was

calculated from digitized (Arc View GIS) habitat data. GIS

maps showing the distribution patterns and benthic habitat

associations of fishes were developed from presence-absence

fish data. Fish species richness was non-uniform among

benthic habitats. Fish distribution and abundance varied among

benthic habitats, and fish-habitat associations differed among

several reef fish taxa. Probability maps and spatially-explicit

GIS prediction models of fish-habitat associations across large

spatial scales show that benthic habitat may determine reef fish

assemblage structure and large-scale patterns of reef fish

distribution..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A1: Large Scale Ecology

6

CHANGES IN FISH AND CORAL COMMUNITIES

ACROSS AN OCEANOGRAPHIC BOUNDARY IN THE

GULF OF ADEN.

Kemp, Jeremy*. *Department of Biology, University of

York, York YO1 5DD, UK. Email: jmk100@york.ac.uk

The seas of the Arabian peninsula are characterised by high

levels of endemism in coral reef associated taxa such as

shorefishes, and by highly varied ecological communities in

the shallow sublittoral. These patterns have been attributed in

part to the presence of one of the worlds five great coastal

upwellings, occurring seasonally along the Arabian Sea coast

of the peninsula. A study of fish and coral communities on the

Gulf of Aden coast of the Republic of Yemen, at the western

boundary of the upwelling, reveals that this boundary

coincides with changes in fish assemblages and coral

communities, and with a hybrid zone in angelfish. This

supports the hypothesis that the upwelling is of central

importance to the marine biogeography of Arabia.

CONCEPTUAL CHALLENGES OF HURRICANE

ECOLOGY.

Kerr, Alexander M.*. *Osborn Memorial Laboratories,

Yale University, PO Box 208106, New Haven CT 06520-

8106 USA. Email: alexander.kerr@yale.edu

Cyclones, typhoons, and hurricanes are ecologically

instantaneous terawatt events and the most acute form of

disturbance to coral reefs likely to be observed in a human

lifetime. Still, they can occur over twice a year on some

western pacific reefs. Early empirical studies of cyclone effects

assisted in shifting the focus from equilibrium-based models of

community structure to those incorporating stochastic events.

Conclusions from most later studies, though, have been

speculative or, when qualitatively robust, rather obvious. This

history has had two results: 1) continued ignorance about how

cyclones affect variation in community structure at all but the

smallest spatial and temporal scales and 2) a widely held belief

that cyclones are unimportant ecologically because they are

infrequently observed and their effects are locally

unpredictable. The latter impression is based on a surprisingly

limited sample of opportunistic and geographically biased

studies. Still, the few large-scale observations to date suggest

increasing predictability with increasing scale. Moreover, a

considerable body of theory from fluid mechanics exists to

guide hypothesis testing. Here, i demonstrate a mean-field

approach based on linear wave theory for studying the

ecological effects of cyclone waves at local to global scales.

Shallow-water significant wave characteristics are produced

for any given reef, incorporating the effects of shoaling and

refraction on deepwater waves estimated from archived

meteorological data. I find an unanticipated wave climate that

may be useful for isolating the long-term effects of cyclones

on coral-reef community structure.

MULTI-SCALE VARIATION IN THE SIZE

STRUCTURE OF CORALS IN THE WESTERN-CENTRAL

PACIFIC.

Kospartov, Marie C. * and Terence P. Hughes. *Dept.

Marine Biology, James Cook University, Townsville,

Queensland 4811, Australia. Email:

Marie.Kospartov@jcu.edu.au

The size structure of a population is a product of its rates of

recruitment, growth, mortality, and in the case of modular

organisms, partial mortality, fission and fusion. Spatial

variation in the size structure of populations of a taxon can

therefore indicate the spatial scales at which the rates of these

demographic processes differ. We examined spatial variation

in the size structure of five coral taxa, at scales ranging from

tens of metres to thousands of kilometres. For each taxon

(Galaxea fascicularis, Montastrea curta, Pocillopora

meandrina, P. verrucosa and massive Porites spp.), variation

was greatest between depths, with populations on reef crests

having a greater proportion of small colonies and smaller

maximum sizes than reef slope populations. Regional-scale

differences (between Papua New Guinea, east Australia and

French Polynesia) also accounted for substantial amounts of

variation in size structure, whilst there was very little variation

among neighbouring sites or reefs nested within regions.

Demographic modelling indicates that these patterns are

created by modest differences in rates of recruitment and

survival. The results of this study suggest that small-scale

variation in demographic processes often exceed differences

among regions, but both can have an important influence on

population dynamics.

COLONY SIZE FREQUENCIES, MORTALITY, AND

RECRUITMENT OF ACROPORA PALMATA AND

MONTASTRAEA ANNULARIS, ANDROS ISLAND,

BAHAMAS.

Kramer, Patricia R.*, Kramer, P.A., Ginsburg, R.N.

*Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science,

University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway,

Miami, FL, 33149. Email: pkramer@rsmas.miami.edu

The population dynamics of two reef building corals,

Acropora palmata (n=2052) and Montastraea annularis

complex (n=1445) were investigated at 60 sites along the semi-isolated,

extensive (>150km) reef system of Andros Island,

Bahamas. Aerial photographs and Landsat TM imagery were

used to stratify and map reef distribution and select appropriate

spatial scales (150km and <10km) to compare the variability of

population parameters. Population data analyzed included

colony size frequencies, the amount of partial mortality (recent

and old), and the number of coral recruits. On shallow reefs

Acropora palmata comprised 65% of the adult population, 9%

of the recruits, and averaged 120-140 cm in diameter. On deep

fore reefs, M. annularis complex comprised 70% of adults, 6%

of recruits and averaged 40-50 cm. Average old mortality for

A. palmata was 38%, 27% for M. annularis and for both

species, mortality increased with size up to the mode of the

population. The variation of these parameters between local

populations is influenced by local and large-scale processes

such as wave energy, presence of coastal creeks, grazing

pressure, habitat availability and macroalgal competition.

Consequences of two recent disturbance events (bleaching and

disease) that resulted in significantly depressed local

populations are discussed. We hypothesize the Andros system

is fairly isolated from other large populations, but is well

connected between local populations..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A1: Large Scale Ecology

7

SPATIAL VARIATION IN ADULT DEMOGRAPHY

AND REEF FISH POPULATION DYNAMICS: A

SIMULATION STUDY.

Kritzer J.P.*, C.R. Davies. *CRC Reef Research Centre,

James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia.

Email: Jacob.Kritzer@jcu.edu.au

An important debate in the history of reef fish ecology has

focused on the relative importance of recruitment intensity and

its modification by post-settlement events in structuring

populations. The role of adult populations in generating

recruitment events, and therefore in structuring future states,

has been largely overlooked. This study explored the

implications of spatial variation in adult demography for

population dynamics by simulation of hypothetical reef fish

metapopulations. We considered the baseline case of a

metapopulation with homogeneous demographic traits, then

introduced progressively larger subpopulations with lower

mortality or higher asymptotic sizes based upon empirical data

for a tropical lutjanid. Exact results varied with underlying

assumptions, but in general relatively small areas with lower

mortality or larger body sizes had a pronounced effect on the

stability of the system. However, the magnitude of the effect

was strongly reliant upon the degree of stochasticity in the

reproduction function, R. For example, the frequency with

which the overall population collapsed was negligible under

more static conditions (C.V. of R = 0.5) irrespective of spatial

structure. Yet, under greater stochasticity (C.V. of R = 0.8),

the baseline population collapsed in, on average, 44% of

simulation years in contrast with 19% when 25% of reefs

enabled fish to grow 10% larger.

THE PERCEPTION OF TROPHIC STRUCTURE OF

REEF FISH ASSEMBLAGES AT DIFFERENT SCALES.

Kulbicki, Michel*, Ferraris, Jocelyne. *IRD - BP. A5 -Noumea

- New Caledonia. Email: kulbicki@noumea.ird.nc

The trophic structure of reef fish assemblages is dependant

of local and large scale factors. Among local factors one may

cite reef type, substrate, coral or algae cover and among large

scale factors are island type, island size and biogeographical

region. The question is to know what dictates similarities or

differences among reef fish assemblages. In the present study

the species composition and the trophic structure of several

reef types submitted to a range of factors were analysed. Reefs

were selected from a very large data set (FISHEYE data bank).

As a first step different reef types (fringing and inner barrier

reefs) were selected within the same area (New Caledonia) and

their fish assemblages considered for similarities in species

composition and trophic structure. Then fish assemblages of

inner barrier reefs from different island types (high island and

atolls), island sizes (small, medium and large) and

biogeographical regions (West and Central Pacific) were

considered. Linear analyses (nested MANOVAs) were

performed to test if trophic structure changed within reef type,

within island or within region. Multiple factorial analysis were

then made to compare simultaneously the grouping of these

fish assemblages according to species composition and trophic

structure. The aim was to detect which factors were the most

significant in structuring these assemblages. In particular, we

wanted to test if there was a convergence in the factors

determining species composition and trophic structure. For

each reef the same number of transects was selected, based on

the relationship between species number and sampling effort.

LINKING BIOTIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL

INFLUENCES ON REEF COMMUNITIES AT

DIFFERENT SPATIAL SCALES IN BELIZE.

McField, Melanie D.* *Department of Marine Science,

Univ. of South Florida, 140 Seventh Ave South, St.

Petersburg, FL, 33701, USA, Email:

melanie@marine.usf.edu

A stratified, random (haphazard) video-based monitoring

scheme has been established at 17 windward fore-reef sites

throughout Belize's 250 km barrier reef and three off-shelf

atolls. The sites were chosen to provide the greatest

geographical coverage and to represent the widest possible

assortment of ranked environmental influences on community

structure on various spatial scales. Sites were classified by five

different environmental and management-linked influences

(fishing pressure, scuba diving pressure, proximate coastal

development, fluvial influence and wave exposure).

Multivariate analysis techniques, including non-metric multi-dimensional

scaling (MDS) plots, were then used to discern

the relative importance of various environmental influences on

reef community structure by determining the optimal set of

environmental influences which “best explain” the biotic

community structure. These comparisons can be made on sub-sets

of sites with varying spatial resolution, determining which

spatial scale is most relevant to particular environmental

influences. Understanding the interaction of different

environmental and biotic influences on varying spatial and

temporal scales represents a challenge to reef managers with

limited jurisdictional authority and illustrates the need for

more regional coordination of management efforts.

MODELING THE RECOVERY PROCESS AFTER

MASS BLEACHING.

Muko, Soyoka*, Kazuhiko Sakai, and Yoh Iwasa.

*Department of Biology, Kyushu University, JAPAN.

Email: muko@bio-math10. biology.kyushu-u.ac.jp

In coral communities, the composition of morphological

types is very different in each habitat. In Okinawa, Japan,

"branching Acropora spp." dominated the protected site, whilst

"tabular Acropora spp." were abundant at the exposed site

before mass bleaching occurred in 1998. The study of recovery

process provides us an opportunity to understand the

demographic processes, i.e., larval settlement, growth, and

death, which form the observed patterns. We formulate a

simple model incorporated the space-limited recruitment and

growth for the dynamics of coverage of the two morphotypes.

The result shows that recovery process after catastrophic event

has three phases. [1] In the beginning, the relative abundance

of the two types is controlled by the ratio of larval settlement.

[2] When vacant space becomes occupied, both settlement of

larvae and growth of settled colonies affect the dynamics of

coverage. [3] After free space is depleted, both larval

settlement and growth become very small. Now the slow

process of colony death comes to have an influence and causes

the final convergence to the equilibrium composition. The

dominance of table-like corals at the exposed site is often

regarded as the morphological adaptation for the severe wave

action. However the same pattern can be explained by larger

recruitment rate of table-like corals, if the total amount of

recruitment is large. In order to distinguish the two hypothesis,

we are investigating the demographic processes of the two

morphotypes at three different sites in Sesoko Island,

Okinawa..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A1: Large Scale Ecology

8

SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL SCALING OF PROCESSES

ON CORAL REEFS.

Mumby, Peter J* *Centre for Tropical Coastal

Management Studies, Ridley Building, The University,

Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK. Email:

p.j.mumby@ncl.ac.uk

Coral reefs are hugely complex environments governed by

physical and biological processes which act over a wide range

of spatial and temporal scales. Attempts to model reef

processes, such as productivity or larval connectivity, are

hindered by this complexity because the scales at which many

processes occur are poorly understood, and it is neither

computationally tractable nor biologically realistic to simulate

many processes, acting at different scales, in the same model.

Consider, for example, the problem of modelling

metapopulation dynamics of corals among reefs. A spatial

model of larval transport may need to represent mesoscale

oceanic circulation of 100s km whereas the processes

determining larval settlement space (e.g. herbivory, exposure)

may act at scales of 0.001 km - 1 km. Clearly, metre-scale

processes cannot be incorporated easily into a model that

represents millions of metres. However, a better understanding

of the scale-dependency of physical and biological processes

will not only improve the modelling of such processes, but it

may provide a hierarchical framework in which multiple

models can be nested according to scale. Here, I discuss how

geostatistics, cartographic models, field survey, and remote

sensing might be integrated to create a hierarchical model of

reef structure and associated physical environments.

A FUNCTIONAL-GROUP APPROACH TO THE

DIVERSITY OF CORALS ON MULTIPLE SCALES.

Murdoch, Thaddeus J. T.* and Richard B. Aronson.

*Dauphin Island Sea Lab, 101 Bienville Blvd., Dauphin

Island, AL 36528, USA. Email: tmurdoch@disl.org

Phylogenetic classifications do not reflect the ecological

functions of benthic marine organisms. An alternative is to

classify benthic organisms by adaptive strategy. This approach

has been successfully used by plant ecologists in addressing

issues of biodiversity and ecosystem function. Coral reefs are

exposed to environmental processes that covary over a wide

range of spatial and temporal scales. Coral taxa that share

morphologies and reproductive strategies should respond to the

physical and biotic environment in similar, predictable ways.

Two studies in the Western Atlantic demonstrate how

functional groups of corals differ in distribution and adaptive

strategy. First, in a survey of the Florida reef tract, we

detected high variability in coral cover from reef to reef, but

very low variability between sites within each reef. Only one

functional group was responsible for this pattern. The

differences in distribution were a direct result of differences in

morphology and reproductive mode. Second, the recent

demise of Acropora cervicornis in Belize from white-band

disease indicates that not all corals respond to environmental

change in the same manner. When A. cervicornis was

eliminated, only one functional group increased

opportunistically in abundance in response to the relaxation of

competition. These results can be used to predict what coral

reefs of the Caribbean will look like in the next millenium.

THE INTEGRATED GROWTH RESPONSE OF CORAL

REEFS TO MONSOON FORCING: MORPHOMETRIC

ANALYSIS OF REEFS IN MALDIVES.

Naseer, Abdulla* and Bruce G Hatcher, *Dept of Biology,

Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4J1,

Canada, Email: anaseer@is2.dal.ca

Reefs of Maldives display asymmetric geomorphologies in

their arrangement on the atoll rims and within atoll lagoons. In

this study we seek empirical relationships among patterns of

coral reef growth, morphology and environmental forcing in

Maldives. Reefs on the oceanward rims of atolls have wider

and more continuous reef flats than those lining the rims facing

the sea between lines of atolls. These characteristics reflect

broad-scale spatial variation in time-averaged, physical-biological

control of reef growth, but have not been quantified.

We hypothesize that monsoon forcing interacts with

antecedent reef platform arrangements to produce

characteristic growth configurations and predictable reef

morphologies. The hypothesis is tested by the classification of

LANDSAT-7 ETM+ imagery to measure hundreds of reefs

along the N-S and E-W axis of the archipelago, and to

calculate morphometric indices (e.g. ratio of reef flat to lagoon

area). Well-defined gradients in monsoon forcing (i.e. swell

and wind wave fields, surface currents, upwelling and

precipitation) and antecedent platform structure are quantified

along the same dimensions, and related to the morphometrics

with multivariate techniques. Preliminary results determine the

scales of similarity between asymmetries in reef

geomorphology and monsoon forcing. The relationships can be

used to infer patterns of reef development during the

Quaternary, and to predict reef growth responses to global

climate change in a sensitive atoll nation.

THE BENTHIC COMMUNITIES OF THE GREAT

BARRIER REEF: A LANSCAPE ECOLOGY

APPROACH.

Ninio R. * *Australian Institute Of Marine Science, Pmb

3, Townsville, Qld 4810 Australia.

R.NINIO@AIMS.GOV.AU

At a large spatial scale, the Great Barrier Reef is a mosaic of

patches formed by clusters of reefs with comparable histories

of disturbance. Within each patch, reefs display similar

temporal trends in cover of hard coral, soft coral and algae.

The overall dynamics of this ‘patchwork mosaic’ will depend

on the size and frequency of disturbance and resultant rates of

recovery. We use data collected by the Australian Institute of

Marine Science as part of the Long Term Monitoring Program

to examine the effects of three different types of disturbance

(cyclones and storms, Crown of Thorns Starfish and bleaching

of hard corals) and the composition of benthic communities on

the dynamics of this mosaic. We investigate the spatial scales

at which each of these disturbances operates and how

community composition influences the outcomes of these

disturbance events..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A1: Large Scale Ecology

9

PERSISTENCE IN CARIBBEAN CORAL

COMMUNITIES OVER BROAD SPATIAL AND

TEMPORAL SCALES.

Pandolfi, John M.*. *Department of Paleobiology, National

Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution,

Washington D.C. 20560-0121, USA. Email:

pandolfi.john@nmnh.si.edu

The degree to which coral reef communities are largely open,

with com-position depending upon the regional species pool,

or are partially closed, with limited species membership, is a

key component in understanding their ecological dynamics. I

examined the structure of Pleistocene Caribbean coral

communities using a hierarchical sampling design at broad

spatial and temporal scales. Significant differences in the

composition of coral communities from the leeward reef crest

among three islands (San Andrés, Curaçao, and Barbados)

during the last interglacial, 125 ka (thousand years) ago, were

driven by variability in the relative abundance of the same 4 or

5 abundant taxa. At Barbados, coral composition remained

constant from 220-125 ka, but differed during the 104 ka reef-building

episode. However, the 104-ka community was closer

in composition to older coral communities from Barbados than

it was to communities from San Andrés or Curaçao.

Remarkably, separate analyses on the composition of the rare

taxa (data compiled using 1 hr searches) and those of the

common taxa (data compiled using 40-m transects) gave

highly concordant results, suggesting the composition of the

rare taxa is correlated with that of the common, structurally

dominant corals. These Pleistocene data point to a high degree

of order in coral communities over broad spatial and temporal

scales and support the importance of local influences in

determining reef coral community structure.

ECOLOGICAL VERSUS EVOLUTIONARY LIMITS TO

DIVERSITY: SPECIES PACKING ON CORAL REEFS.

Roberts, Callum M.* *Environment Department,

University of York, York, YO10 5DD, UK. Email:

cr10@york.ac.uk

Studies of coral reef diversity in the 1970s and 1980s

focussed on mechanisms promoting co-existence of species

within habitats. Much of this research examined ecological

constraints on species packing, such as the degree to which

species were specialized in resource use. While such studies

were conducted in many parts of the world, one interesting

pattern that most overlooked was the considerable regional

variation in species richness throughout the tropics. Some

regions have much larger species pools than others, offering

fertile material with which to explore constraints to species’

coexistence. I explore differences in species-packing (within-habitat,

or alpha diversity) among reefs in the Caribbean (Saba,

Bonaire, Belize), Red Sea (Egypt) and Pacific Ocean (Palau).

These reefs differed widely in the size of their species’ pools

(gamma diversity). At each site, fish were censused from the

same habitat (outer slope at 15m deep), by the same observer

using the same method (stationary point counts). Alpha

diversity increased linearly with the size of the species pool

suggesting that, on outer slope habitats, levels of species

packing increase directly with the number of species present.

Evolution and biogeography trump local ecological effects.

These results contrast markedly with findings in the literature

that similar-sized patch reefs in the Caribbean and on the Great

Barrier Reef had similar levels of species packing despite

widely different species’ pools. Possible reasons for these

differences will be explored.

LARGE SCALE ECOLOGY AND IMPROVED REEF

MANAGEMENT

Sale, Peter F.* *Great Lakes Institute for Environmental

Research & Dept. of Biological Sciences, University of

Windsor, Windsor ON Canada N9B3P4. Email:

sale@uwindsor.ca

There is growing awareness that coral reef communities may

be interconnected at quite large spatial scales, and that their

management should take account of this fact. Their inter-connection

arises both from transport of nutrients and

pollutants, and from that of propagules, however, the

propagules of many taxa are proving to be far more than

passive particles and this complicates the story. Current

ecological research onrecruitment dynamics of fish, and to a

lesser extent, corals, is beginning to provide evidence of the

correct spatial scale at which to view coral reefs as inter-connected

by larval dispersal. New techniques are being

proposed that may facilitate estimates of the extent of this

inter-connection. I will briefly review what is known about the

large scale ecology of coral reef community dynamics, and

then outline an approach to bring studies of recruitment

dynamics into the baseline-building process when

implementing sustainable management at regional scales.

Examples from the Caribbean and from the Great Barrier Reef

will be considered.

SPATIAL VARIATION AND PATTERNS IN BENTHIC

COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN THE FLORIDA KEYS

Swanson, D.W. M. Chiappone and S.L. Miller*. *The

National Undersea Research Center, University of North

Carolina at Wilmington, 515 Caribbean Drive, Key Largo,

Florida, 33037, USA. Email: dwswanson@hotmail.com

To better understand how communities are structured at

multiple spatial scales in the Florida Keys National Marine

Sanctuary (FKNMS), a two-stage stratified, random sampling

design was initiated in 1999. Design features include sampling

multiple sites within no-take zones or reserves and reference

areas, and comparison of sites within and among benthic

habitat types, and among regions. One-hundred and four sites

were surveyed, spanning over 200 km. The number of sites

sampled within each habitat type was optimized based the

existing benthic habitat map of the FKNMS, and pilot studies

that used sample design statistics to assess spatial variation in

measured parameters. Rapid assessment surveys included

measurements of cover and species richness of sessile marine

organisms, stony coral (adult and juvenile) and octocoral

abundance, and stony coral size and condition. Significant

regional, habitat, and reef differences were apparent. For

example, scleractinian coral and octocoral abundance, species

richness of cnidarians and sponges, and the frequency of algal

overgrowth of live coral tissue causing lesions varied

significantly among regional sectors within the 8-12 m habitat

type. Juvenile coral density and coral cover, however, were

similar among regions. Many reserves differed significantly

from reference areas, due mostly to bias in original siting of

the reserves. Data from the program establish a baseline to

monitor community structure at multiple spatial scales..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A1: Large Scale Ecology

10

SPATIAL VARIATION IN CORAL BIODIVERSITY AT

INTERMEDIATE SCALES: EXAMPLES FROM

OCEANIC ISLANDS.

Spalding, Mark D.*. *Cambridge Coastal Research Unit,

Department of Geography, Downing St, Cambridge, UK

Email: mark.spalding@wcmc.org.uk

Patterns of biodiversity on coral reefs are increasingly well

understood at the fine resolution of the reef profile. At the

other extreme, increasing amounts of information are

becoming available describing biodiversity patterns, at global

and regional levels. Between these two extremes, an

understanding of patterns in reef diversity is more limited. In

this paper the existing knowledge of spatial variation over

scales of 1 to 100km is examined in more detail. New data are

presented for coralline and high-island reef systems in the

central Indian Ocean which show considerable variation in

spatial patterns of reef fish communities between different reef

systems. Communities in the Chagos Archipelago show

considerable homogeneity between locations and between

atolls, by contrast the low island reefs of the southern

Seychelles show considerable variation both across and

between atolls and other reef structures. Fringing reefs in the

high islands of the northern Seychelles reveal event greater

spatial variation in reef fish community structures. A

theoretical framework to explain these patterns is presented.

Finally the implications of these patterns for the design of

protected areas systems are considered

THE CORAL REEFS OF BALI, BEFORE THE 1998-

BLEACHING EVENT: A PHASE SHIFT CAUSED BY

EUTROPHICATION OR REGIONAL UPWELLING.

van Woesik, Robert*. *Department of Chemistry, Biology

and Marine Science, The University of the Ryukyus,

Senbaru 1, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan. Email:

b984138@sci.u-ryukyu.ac.jp

There was a major change to the coral reefs of southeastern

Bali, Indonesia, between September 1992 and September

1997. The coral reefs changed from being dominated by corals

to being dominated by macroalgae, sponges and other filter

feeders. In 1992, the upper reef slopes of Sanur and Nusa Dua

supported >30% coral cover and a high coral diversity. The

average diameter of Acropora spp. and Seriatopora spp.

colonies, the dominant corals in terms of abundance, was 17 to

42 cm. The same reefs in 1997 supported 2-3 cm colonies and

approximately 15% coral cover, dominated largely by

encrusting Montipora, Porites spp., faviids, macroalgae,

sponges and zoanthids. Such a change immediately evokes a

response of 'local eutrophication'. Although local

eutrophication is not discounted as a contributing factor, a

regional upwelling may have exacerbated the effect through

the provision of nutrients. Evidence of a regional upwelling

was found along the southeast coast of Bali at the time of the

survey using SEAWIFS satellite imagery and proxy cues in

Porites samples (i.e., elevated Ba/Ca ratios). This upwelling

and regional phase shift occurred one year prior to, and

possibly not independent of, the 1998 ENSO.

THE EFFECT OF EL NINO ON THE DISTRIBUTION

OF REEF-ASSOCIATED LABRID FISHES IN THE

EASTERN PACIFIC OCEAN.

Victor, Benjamin* Gerard Wellington, D. Ross Robertson.

*GSM, University of California, Irvine, CA 92604 Email:

ben@coralreeffish.com

We surveyed the labrid reef fishes at multiple sites in the

eastern Pacific Ocean before, during, and after the recent El

Nino-Southern Oscillation event (ENSO). The only prominent

changes in labrid biogeography noted were the extension of

two tropical eastern Pacific species into Baja California

(Thalassoma virens and Stethojulis bandanensis) and a

massive ENSO-associated settlement of S. bandanensis onto

the Galapagos Islands where the species was previously rare.

Analysis of daily otolith increments revealed that the pelagic

larval duration of the new arrivals of S. bandanensis was

relatively short (about one month) and no different from the

pelagic larval duration for the species recorded at other

locations in the eastern Pacific Ocean before and during ENSO

as well as from the western Pacific Ocean at Palau and the

Cook Islands. The results suggest that a one month pelagic

larval duration was sufficient for spread among isolated island

groups in this region. Adults of this species were present at

some of their new locations during the subsequent cold La

Nina period.

REJUVENATION OR RUN-DOWN? THE LONG-TERM

RESPONSE TO DISTURBANCE OF FIVE CORAL

COMMUNITIES AT LIZARD ISLAND, GBR.

Wakeford, M. * and T.J. Done. *Australian Institute of

Marine Science, PMB 3, Townsville MC, Townsville,

Queensland, 4810, Australia. Email:

m.wakeford@aims.gov.au

Following disturbance to corals (eg crown-of-thorns starfish

outbreaks, coral bleaching and cyclones) there is potential for

fundamental changes in the benthic community, such as phase

shifts and alternate states. Large-scale and long-term shifts

from reef building to non-reef building communities are of

particular concern. We investigated a long-term photographic

record (1981 – 1999) of coral communities at Lizard Island for

evidence of such changes. Stereo-photographs taken of five

permanent sites were analysed to gauge fine-scale community

dynamics over time. During the study period, Lizard Island

was affected by a cyclone, coral bleaching and two outbreaks

of crown-of-thorns starfish. Diversity, species composition

and age/size frequency distribution were monitored at each site

and used to assess changes in the structural extent and

complexity of the reef. The trajectories of the coral

communities were characterised by varying degrees of

rejuvenation and run-down following disturbance. At one

extreme, there was no tendency for changes in the coral

composition and cover. However, a reduction in the maximum

colony size reached by Acropora plates reflected a decrease in

the interval between disturbances. This suggests that colony

size of plate Acropora may be a useful indicator of site

resilience. At the other extreme, one site had been transformed

into bare pavement supporting very little coral due to poor

recruitment and survival..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A1: Large Scale Ecology

11

EARLY LIFE HISTORY TRAITS, ADULT BODY SIZE,

AND EXTENT OF GEOGRAPHIC RANGE IN GULF OF

CALIFORNIA REEF FISHES.

Zapata, Fernando A.*. *Department of Biology,

Universidad del Valle, Apartado Aéreo 25360, Cali,

Colombia. Email: fazr@biologia.univalle.edu.co

Because adult reef fishes are sedentary and reef

environments are patchily distributed, reef fishes are dispersed

mostly by currents during their early life history (ELH). ELH

traits are thus considered to be determinants of dispersal

capability and extent of geographic distribution. This view,

however, has not been adequately demonstrated. To examine

whether egg type (P = pelagic, NP = non-pelagic) and

presence/absence of a pelagic prejuvenile stage (PPS) affect

extent of geographic distribution, I classified Gulf of

California reef fishes (N = 196) into four categories with

combinations of the above traits. Species endemic to the

Mexican Pacific had a greater proportion of species with NP

eggs than non-endemic species. Whereas 50% of the species

with NP eggs and no PPS were endemic, < 1% of the

remaining species were geographically restricted. On average,

fishes with NP eggs and no PPS also had smaller geographic

ranges than other species. Because species with NP eggs and

no PPS are smaller than other species, the effects of ELH traits

are confounded with those of adult body size. Large species

should have greater dispersal potential because fecundity is

positively correlated with adult body size. In fact, size of

geographic range was positively correlated with maximum

adult length, but only in species with NP eggs and no PPS.

Partitioning of the confounding effects of ELH traits and adult

body size by a two-way ANOVA confirmed that species with

NP eggs and no PPS were the most geographically restricted,

and that there was neither a significant effect of body size nor

a significant interaction between the two factors. This study

thus provides evidence that ELH traits influence extent of

geographic distribution in marine reef fishes..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A2: Planktonic Food Webs

Session A2: Planktonic Food Webs in Coral Reef Waters: trophic Structure,

Functioning and Interactions with Benthic and Pelagic Communities

12

PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON BUDGET AND

POC FLUX IN A FRINGING CORAL REEF AT

MIYAKO ISLAND, JAPAN.

Casareto B.E.* K. Yoshida and Y. Suzuki. *Laboratory of

Aquatic Science Consultant Co., LTD, Meishin BLDG.,

Kamiikedai 1-14-1, Ota-ku, Tokyo 145-0064, Japan. Email:

CASARETOBE@aol.com

The composition and the concentration of particulate organic

matter were comprehensively investigated on a fringing coral

reef area at Bora Bay of Miyako Island, Japan. Particulate

organic carbon and nitrogen (POC, PON), plankton

abundance, specific composition and its daily variation were

studied for seven size classes (0.8 to 8 µm, 8 to 22 µm, 22 to

53µm, 53 µm to 0.106 mm, 0.106 mm to 0.5 mm, 0.5 to 1 mm

and > 1mm) within the bay and in an outer influenced area.

Based on the species composition, plankton was classified as

“reef-lagoon” and “open ocean” plankton with the purpose to

evaluate POC fluxes towards the open ocean. Main POC

contribution within the bay was due to larval stages of benthic

fauna (120 µgC.l -1 ), nanoplankton composed by epiphytic

microalgae (pseudoplankton) and filamentous cyanobacteria

(124 µgC.l -1 ), and picoplankton flagellates (65 µgC.l -1 ). Faecal

pellets and detritus were also very abundant reaching 82 µgC.l -1

. The organic carbon budget within Bora bay (477 µgC.l -1 )

was slightly higher than that of the outer influenced area (437

µgC.l -1 ). Plankton originating from the bay influenced the

outer area, being also significantly transported to deep layers.

All these features showed that there is a net flux of organic

matter from bay towards the open ocean. The amount of this

flux as net organic carbon was estimated to be 8 to 17 kgC day -1

. A degradation experiment carried out during 150 days

indicated that 1 to 5 kgC day -1 of the exported amount of

organic carbon are of refractory nature.

IMPORTANCE OF PICOCYANOBACTERIA IN

CORAL REEF AREAS: A REVIEW

Charpy Loïc*, Blanchot Jean IRD, COM, rue de Batterie

des Lions 13007 Marseille, France Email:

lcharpy@com.univ-mrs.fr

Picocyanobacteria contribution to phytoplankton biomass

and production was studied during the last decade in Pacific

coral reef areas. Compiled data from literature show that

Synechococcus were mostly dominant in coral reef waters,

even when nitrogen is totally depleted like in Tuamotu atoll

lagoons. The switch in dominance from Prochlorococcus in

open ocean to Synechococcus in coral reef lagoons does not

seem to be related to N availability. Interpretation of such

results relies probably on differences in top-down control by

benthic and planktonic grazers and/or on the ability of some

strains of Synechococcus to fix N2.

THE NEED FOR TAXONOMIC EXPERTISE IN

FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY OF CORAL REEF

PHYTOPLANKTON

Delesalle B*. EPHE - ESA CNRS 8046, 52 Av. de

Villeneuve, F-66860 Perpignan Cedex. Email: bd@univ-perp.

fr

It is a cliché to state that taxonomy was not favoured during

the past 20 years. This situation especially applies to

phytoplankton ecology in coral reef waters. In fact, taxonomy

requires an extensive background knowledge and is often

deterrently time consuming. Consequently, phytoplankton

studies were often restricted to the 'easy' and rapid

measurement of the chlorophyll a concentration, roughly

considered as a good estimate of the phytoplankton biomass. A

better insight in the phytoplankton composition was gained

with the development of advanced techniques such as size

fractionation, epifluorescence microscopy or flow cytometry.

However, these techniques were mainly applied to

picophytoplankton whereas the nanophytoflagellates remained

understudied. Several recent studies conducted in French

Polynesian atolls has proven the functional importance of this

compartment. Firtsly, the selective feeding of the pearl oyster

Pinctada margaritifera was demonstrated using an elegant

approach combining optical microscopy and HPLC pigment

analysis. Secondly, taxonomic surveys undertaken within the

frame of studies on harmful algal blooms showed the presence

of several unknown species, some of them belonging to

potentially toxic genera, e.g. the Haptophyte

Chrysochromulina or the diatom Pseudonitzschia. Obviously,

the identification of the phytoplankton species will be needed

in future ecological studies of the planktonic foodwebs in coral

reefs, using advanced techniques such as SEM, TEM and

molecular biology.

LINKAGE BETWEEN BACTERIOPLANKTON AND

CORAL REEF BENTHOS: SMALL SCALE SPATIAL

VARIATION IN DOC, INORGANIC NUTRIENTS AND

BACTERIOPLANKTON GROWTH.

van Duyl F.C.*, G.J. Gast. *Netherlands Institute for Sea

Research, P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, The

Netherlands. Email: duyl@nioz.nl

This study focuses on the links between coral reef contact

water characteristics with respect to dissolved organic carbon

(DOC) and inorganic nutrients (DIN, DIP) and

bacterioplankton growth. At 5 reef stations along the SW coast

of Curaçao (Netherlands Antilles) 6 different water types were

sampled and analyzed for DOC, DIN, DIP, bacterial

production and abundance: 4 reef water types (live coral

surface contact water (CS), reef crevice water (RC), reef

bottom water (RB), reef overlying water (RO)) and 2 reference

water types collected offshore from each station at 2 and 8 m

depth. Within stations consistent patterns in the different

variables were found. DOC distribution suggests that live

stony corals are the major source for the enhanced DOC

concentrations over reefs. DIN was highest in RC water

suggesting that crevices and not the sandy sediments between

corals are the major net N regenerating spaces. Enhanced DIP

concentrations suggest net P regeneration in RC and CS water.

Highest specific growth rates of bacterioplankton were

established in the CS water. Growth in crevices was also

significantly enhanced compared to growth in reference water.

Significant coupling between bacterioplankton growth and

DIN suggests N-limitation of bacterial growth in CS and RO

water. In RC and RB water, available DOC might be the

growth limiting factor..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A2: Planktonic Food Webs

13

IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NET-ZOOPLANKTON TO

AND FROM CORAL REEFS.

Hamner, William M.* and Colin, Patrick L. *University of

California Los Angeles, Dept. Organismal Biology, Ecology

& Evolution, Box 951606, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1606,

USA, E-mail: hamner@biology.ucla.edu

The so-called “coral reef paradox” contrasts coral reefs as

oases of high biomass and diversity surrounded by oceanic

waters supposedly devoid of nutrients and plankton. We

review the literature on zooplankton near the windward reef

face and conclude that there is probably sufficient input across

the windward reef from net-zooplankton alone, irrespective of

net input from micro-zooplankton, phytoplankton and bacteria,

to account for the high biomass and diversity of coral reefs.

We then present new data from Palau where enormous

quantities of fish eggs and invertebrate larvae are exported

seaward from windward reefs on falling tides. Surprisingly,

although exported larvae are advected rapidly seaward, many

exported larvae do not disperse into oceanic currents but

instead they are retained in an island boundary layer separated

from oceanic currents by coastal shelf fronts. On rising tides,

boundary layer water and previously exported larvae return to

and reenter the reef complex. Flux between oceanic, boundary

layer and lagoon waters near coral reefs must be reevaluated.

ORGANIC INPUTS TO REEF ECOSYSTEMS

CONTRIBUTE TO NEW PRODUCTION. – HOW

MUCH? – SO WHAT?.

Hatcher B.G.* *Department of Biology, Dalhousie

University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, B3N 1G8. Email:

Bhatcher@is.dal.ca

The new production of an ecosystem is that proportion of its

net primary production during an ecological cycle that utilizes

allochthonous nutrients in the synthesis of organic material.

The remainder is recycled production that utilizes

autochthonous nutrients. The ratio of new to recycled

production (i.e. the f-ratio) reflects the relative importance of

nutrient inputs from outside the ecosystem, and is a function of

the degree of system closure. Large discrepancies between the

theoretical and operational definitions of new production

challenge the application of the theory to coral reef

ecosystems. The conceptual model of production for coral

reefs portrays them as relatively closed ecosystems with

efficient recycling, and low levels of dependence on external

nutrient inputs for primary production. Net ecosystem (i.e.

excess) production as defined by inorganic carbon and nutrient

fluxes has been estimated to approximate zero, suggesting that

reefs have little capacity for sustained export of organics. This

model is compromised if new nutrients supplied through the

capture and remineralization in situ of advected particulates

are recognized as contributing to new production. Calculations

based on a growing body of measurements of organic inputs to

reefs indicate that the new production of reef ecosystems in

hydrodynamically open and nearshore environments exceeds

excess production by 100% to 1000% (corresponding f-ratios

may exceed 0.2). The high export production implied by these

parameter values can reconcile large losses of detrital material

from reefs, but do not necessarily inform the estimation of

extractable yields from reef fisheries.

PLANKTON-BENTHOS COUPLING ON A

CARIBBEAN FRINGING REEF.

Land L.S.*, R.A. Eustice, J.C. Lang and S.A. Macko. *P.O.

Box 539, Ophelia, VA 22530, USA. Email: JandL@rivnet.net

Trophodynamic processes on coral reefs are complex and

poorly understood in detail. Near Discovery Bay, Jamaica,

particulate organic matter (POM–a mixture of phytoplankton

and other suspended organic particles), net zooplankton, some

planktivorous benthic invertebrates, and most benthic algae,

are more depleted in 13 C than most zooxanthellate cnidarians

(Millepora, octocorals, scleractinians, corallimorphs,

zoanthids), other reef animals, cyanobacteria and the seagrass

Thalassia N = 290

13 C analyses). Organic matter released

by the zooxanthellate cnidarians, probably as mucus and

dissolved organic exudates, may constitute a significant source

of carbon for many (especially non-planktivorous) reef

animals. In contrast, POM and net zooplankton, along with

most reef invertebrates and reef-associated fishes, are

generally more enriched in 15 N than benthic photosynthesizers,

such as cyanobacteria, algae, Thalassia, and the zooxanthellate

cnidarians N = 190

15 N analyses). Hence, much of the

nitrogen present in the tissues of zooxanthellate cnidarians on

this reef system probably originates as dissolved inorganic

nitrogen that is initially utilized by their symbiotic microaglae,

and which overwhelms the nitrogen derived from POM and

zooplankton ingested by the animal hosts.

PICOPHYTOPLANKTON AND HETEROTROPHIC

PROTISTS CONTRIBUTION TO THE DIET OF THE

PEARL OYSTER PINCTADA MARGARITIFERA IN THE

TAKAPOTO ATOLL (TUAMOTU ARCHIPELAGO,

FRENCH POLYNESIA).

Loret, P. Blanchot L.P.* J, Delesalle B, Le Gall S,

Jonquières G, Pastoureaud A, Dupuy C, Caisey X. Antenne

*IRD Station Biologique de Roscoff, BP 74, F-29682

Roscoff, France Email: blanchot@sb-roscoff.fr

The pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera is principally reared

in atoll lagoons where picophytoplanktonic biomass and

production is dominant. It was shown that under in situ

conditions, P. margaritifera do not efficiently retain these

picoparticles. The retention efficiency was negligible for

Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus and only 30%.

Pico/nanoeukaryotes were retained. Grazing experiments

showed that pearl oyster retain efficiently ciliates (>90%) and

dinoflagellates (99%). The ciliate Protocruzia was isolated

from the lagoon. The maximal growth was obtained with the

Synechococcus isolated from the lagoon. This ciliate was used

as a picoplantonivorous model. The hypothesis of a trophic

link between picoplanktonic communities and bivalves was

tested. After being biolabelled with the autofluorescent

Synechococcus isolated from the lagoon, the ciliate

Protocruzia was offered as a prey to the pearl oyster. The high

densities of ciliates observed in the stomach contents

demonstrated that it was ingested by the bivalve. As a

consequence, heterotrophic protists significantly contribute to

the diet of the pearl oyster whereas picocyanobacteria play a

minor role in the diet of this bivalve. From our experiments we

concluded that heterotrophic protists play a significant role in

the diet of the pearl oysters and can be considered as a

valuable trophic link between picophytoplankton and the

bivalves..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A2: Planktonic Food Webs

14

FEEDING AND MOVEMENT IN NOCTURNAL

PLANKTIVORES:

IMPLICATIONS FOR THE TROPHO-DYNAMICS OF

CORAL REEFS.

Marnane M.J.* Department of Marine Biology, James

Cook University, Townsville, Qld. 4811. Australia. Email:

Michael.Marnane@jcu.edu.au

Cardinalfishes (Family Apogonidae) form the major

component of nocturnal planktivore assemblages on Indo-Pacific

reefs. Their high abundances coupled with fast

population turnover rates suggest that cardinalfishes are likely

to play an important role in reef tropho-dynamics. To

investigate this role, feeding and foraging movements were

quantified in seven common species of cardinalfishes from the

One Tree Reef lagoon, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Of fish

collected at dusk, 5% to 36% had identifiable material in their

stomachs compared with 64% to 93% of fish collected at

dawn, suggesting predominantly nocturnal feeding in all

species. Stomach content analysis revealed generalised,

overlapping diets in most species, consisting largely of benthic

prey and emergent plankton. At night cardinalfishes moved

into a range of habitats to feed and displayed a striking degree

of spatial segregation between species. During the day species

shared restricted resting sites on the reef. Fish displayed a

strong fidelity to diurnal resting sites, with tagged individuals

returning to within an average of 35 to 67 cm of resting

positions daily over periods of up to 18 months. These results

suggest that cardinalfishes play a functionally different role to

that of diurnal planktivores, concentrating energy and nutrients

from a range of reef habitats into restricted sites on the reef.

This accrual of resources, in the form of fish biomass and

faeces is likely to have important consequences for predator

and detritivore communities.

PHYTOPLANKTON PRODUCTIVITY AND

HYDROLOGY OF ROCAS ATOLL (BRAZIL).

Nascimento Feitosa, Fernando Antônio do, de Oliveira

Passavante J.Z.* *Departament of Oceanography UFPE

Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Email: zanon@npd.ufpe.br

The Rocas Atoll a Biological Brazilian Reserve is located at

the South Atlantic Ocean at 3º51’30’’S and 33º49’29’’W,

around 265km offshore from Natal City Rio Grande do Norte

State. This Atoll ocupies a 3km 2 area being an arid and of

calcareous formation free of anthropic influence. This study

was carried out in order know the area hydrology and the

phytoplankton community production. In January/99 diurnal

sampling were made at surface at low tide in three natural

pools inside the Atoll( Tartarugas, Âncoras and Barretão) and

one collection out side to measure the in situ productivity by

the 14 C method and the biomass by the spectrophotometric

method. Concurrent hydrological data(salinity, temperature,

pH, dissolved oxygen, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and silicate)

were obtaind for comparation with the phytoplankton. The

results showed that the area is free of pollution with oxygen

saturation over 100%, the pH is alcaline and salinity of

35,29‰, the silicate varied from 8,91 to 16,51µmol.l -1 , nitrate

from 0,66 to 1,34µmol.l -1 , nitrito from 0,04 to 0,06µmol.l -1 e

phosphate from 0,01 to 0,02µmol.l -1 and the chlorophyll a

concentration varied from 0,64 to 1,10mg.m -3 .

FIELD AND NUMERICAL STUDY OF THE

PLANKTONIC FOOD WEB IN TAKAPOTO ATOLL

LAGOON (FRENCH POLYNESIA): IMPLICATIONS

FOR THE FARMING OF PEARL OYSTERS.

Niquil N.*, Stéphane Pouvreau, Asma Sakka, Louis

Legendre, Bruno Delesalle. *Univ. La Rochelle, F-17042 La

Rochelle Cedex 1. & EPHE-ESA CNRS 8046, F-66860

Perpignan Cedex. Email: nniquil@univ-lr.fr

The structure and functioning of the planktonic food web of

the lagoon of Takapoto Atoll (French Polynesia) is described

in order to assess the impact of farmed pearl oysters. Field data

provided a quantification of the plankton carbon stocks and of

some of the flows: net particulate primary production, DOC

exudation, bacterial production, grazing by protozoa on

different compartments, sinking rate of particles. The grazing

of farmed pearl oysters on the different size classes of plankton

was also quantified. All these data were combined in a carbon

food-web model. The missing flows were estimated by inverse

analysis. This combination of field and numerical approaches

highlighted several characteristics of the functioning of the

plankton community in the lagoon. As expected, primary

production which is the single entry of carbon in the food-web,

is mainly achieved by picophytoplankton. The overall flows

were dominated by a high production of non-living matter,

especially as dissolved organic carbon, and the trophic flows

were dominated by protozoa. The plankton consumption of

farmed bivalves was very low compared to the plankton flows

and the effects of bivalves on the planktonic food-web can be

considered as insignificant, at the scale of the whole lagoon.

PEARL-OYSTER GROWTH RATE IN

OLIGOTROPHIC WATERS. PRELIMINARY

RESULTS.

Pagès J.* & V. Prasil . *Centre I.R.D. de Tahiti. B.P. 529.

Papeete (French Pölynesia). Email: pages@ird.pf

Pearl oysters ( Pinctada margaritifera ) are being farmed in

increasing numbers in several lagoons of French Polynesia.

The location of a farm in a given lagoon could determine

growth performances through water renewal rate and trophic

level. To explore this, we installed a number of oysters in 32

sites among 13 lagoons. On two successive years, we

monitored gross shell weight (P) and shell height (H) during

12-15 months. In parallel, we monitored dissolved organic

matter (as assessed by U.-V. light absorption, A254) and

planktonic chlorophyll (Btot). We find that A254 (site average; n

= 32) is negatively correlated with growth rate, either in shell

weight (YP ; r_ = 0.42) or in shell height (YH ; r_ = 0.54). The

scarcer Btot data (n = 17) exhibit the same negative trend

against YP (r_ = 0.51) and YH (r_ = 0.54). This counter-intuitive

result can be interpreted on the basis of previous data gathered

in comparable atoll lagoons. We had found that oligotrophic,

well flushed environments showed a higher proportion of i)

particulate organic phosphorus in "large" (10 - 60 µm),

chlorophyll-less particles, ii) meso-zooplankton (>35 µm), and

iii) heterotrophic flagellates. It would then appear that confined

waters offer a qualitatively poorer diet despite high total

particulate (phytoplanktonic) content. Further data are still

being gathered. If the present results are confirmed, they mean

that oyster growth, at least for pearl production, is not limited

by carrying capacity as determined by bulk parameters. The

qualitative (i.e. taxonomic) set-up of the whole trophic web

should be considered..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A2: Planktonic Food Webs

15

ADVECTION AND CONSUMPTION OF

ZOOPLANKTON IN A RED SEA CORAL REEF.

Richter, Claudio *, Mohammad I. Badran, Alexander E.

Voigt and Riyad Manasreh. *Center for Tropical Marine

Ecology, Fahrenheitstrasse 1, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.

Email: crichter@uni-bremen.de

A six-week investigation was carried out to assess the lateral

influx and consumption of zooplankton into a fringing coral

reef in the Jordanian sector of the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea). A

current meter deployed near the coral reef at 10 m depth over

70 m bottom, revealed a net shoreward transport of water, with

a stronger onshore component during the cold than during the

warm hours of the day (1.16±0.08 versus 0.54±0.08cm s -1 ,

respectively; mean±SE). Shoreward advection was driven

mainly by the cross-shore component of the wind, and by the

added effect of nearshore cooling during the night.

Zooplankton collected every second day near the reef showed

high densities (1389±171 ind m -3 ) and biomass (266±37 mg

wet mass m -3 ) during periods of onshore flow. Offshore

flowing water, by contrast, was depleted by 34% in terms of

zooplankton abundance and by 61% in terms of biomass,

indicating selective feeding on large-sized zooplankton by the

reef biota. We calculate a net zooplankton uptake by the reef

community of ~1 g C m -2 d -1 , equivalent to 25% of the gross

community metabolism of the fringing reef system.

LINKS BETWEEN PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL

COMPONENTS IN SMALL CAVITIES ON A CORAL

REEF SLOPE.

Scheffers S.R.*, F.C. van Duyl, R.P.M. Bak, J. de Goeij.

*Carmabi Ecological Institute, P.O. Box 2090, Willemstad,

Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. Email: corals@cura.net

Hard substratum surface of crevices and cavities constitutes a

major habitat in coral reefs (up to 90% of the total surface

area), but there are few studies on their biological and physical

characteristics. We studied these cryptic habitats on the reef

slope (12-15 m) in Curaçao. Spatial characteristics of cavities

were explored with a new method, “the cave–explorer”.

Cavities (n=12) had a volume of 100-200 l, were

approximately 1 m wide, 0.5 m high, 1 m deep. They have a

sandy bottom, a highly irregular inner structure with small

openings in the side and back of the cavity. We used a cave-cam

(video) to study the macrofauna distribution in the front,

middle, and back compartments of cavities related to light-intensity

and water movement. Approx. 80% of total surface

area was covered: demosponges 39-53%, bryozoans 10-12%,

ascidians 7%, polychaetes 2-8%, coralline algae 17-27%.

Demosponge cover and species increased towards the back,

while ascidians only shifted in species composition. Highest

bryozoan cover occurred in the front and highest polychaete

cover in the middle compartment. This highly heterogenic

macrofauna composition is also reflected in a-biotic

parameters. Light intensity decreased with a factor 10 from

front to back. Water motion is highest in front of the cavity,

decreasing towards the middle, slightly increasing in the back

again. Video-tracking of suspended particles showed water to

enter the cavity via the “back-openings”, leaving through the

front opening of the cavity. Links between the distribution of

biological components and physical characteristics are studied.

A COMPARISON OF THE ROLE OF

APPENDICULARIANS AND SMALL COPEPODS IN

THE CYCLING OF CARBON THROUGH A COASTAL

SUBTROPICAL FOOD WEB.

Scheinberg R.D. * , Albert Calbet and Michael R. Landry.

University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1000 Pope Road, Honolulu,

HI 96822, USA, Email: rebeccas@soest.hawaii.edu

The role of appendicularians and small copepods in the

cycling of carbon through a coastal food web was investigated

in Kaneohe Bay, an oligotrophic subtropical embayment

located on the northeastern coast of O'ahu. The

appendicularians Oikopleura fusiformis and O. longicauda and

the small copepods Acrocalanus inermis, Parvocalanus

crassirostris, Oithona nana and O. simplex are associated with

patch reefs in Kaneohe Bay and potentially serve as a direct

link between the dominant bacteria-sized primary producers

and higher trophic levels in these waters. To evaluate the role

of these organisms in the cycling of carbon, grazing rates were

measured in situ using flow cytometric and epifluorescence

microscopic analysis of cell decline during feeding. Weekly

net tows and water collection were performed in the bay to

distinguish the temporal and spatial variability of the plankton

community. Results indicated that the mean transfer of carbon

through both food webs was relatively inefficient (3-13%).

However, the inefficiency of the appendicularian-mediated

food web was due in large part to the loss of carbon to the

environment in the form of particulates (82%). Therefore, the

most significant impact of appendicularians or copepods in this

system appears to be the contribution of appendicularians to

particulate carbon flux rather than the ability to efficiently

transfer carbon through the food web.

210 Po AND 210 Po BALANCE ASSOCIATED WITH

PARTICULATE MATTER BEHAVIOR IN CORAL

REEFS.

Tateda Y.* K. Kurosawa, Y. Suzuki, K. Iwao, M. Ouya. K.

Shimoike, H. Taniguchi, and K. Yamada. *Abiko

Laboratory CRIEPI, 1646 Abiko Chiba 270-1194 Japan.

Email: tateda@criepi.denken.or.jp

210 Po concentrations in oligotrophic water are controlled by

zooplankton density, which has high 210 Po affinity and removal

from surface water by downward transport of 210 Po rich fecal

pellet originated to zooplankton defecation. Contrary, the 210 Po

is released from organic matter under decomposition process

of biogenic debris in mid water. Therefore the 210 Po

concentration in water column can be proxy of organic matter

removal from surface water and degradation in deeper layer of

ocean. In coral reefs, 210 Po is expected to be removed from

water column by suspended organic matter consumption and

released from degradation of organic matter by reef

heterotrophic community. Thus imbalance between residence

times of 210 Po in reef water and surrounding coastal waters are

expected to be good information of organic particle inflow to

reef from open water and consumption by reef habitat. We

analyzed the 210 Po and POC/N concentrations in coral reef

waters at Bora Bay in Miyako Island and Akajima in Kerama

Islands. By box model calculation we estimate the 210 Po

residence times in the water column in and around the coral

reef, and calculate the balance of 210 Po to evaluate the POC

and PON behavior in coral reefs. The result suggested that

210 Po in water is positively correlated with particle matter in

reef water, however it also increased during degradation phase

of organic matter in reef..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A2: Planktonic Food Webs

16

ROLE OF BACTERIOPLANKTON IN REEF

ENVIRONMENTS.

Torréton, Jean-Pascal. IRD-Université Montpellier II,

UMR-CNRS 5556, Case 093, Montpellier Cedex 05,

France. Email: torreton@mpl.ird.fr

Detrital fluxes are known to be important in reef ecosystems

and the heterotrophic bacterial production is a key process

integrating the various pathways of detritus decomposition.

This literature based review investigates the importance of

bacterioplankton biomass, production and carbon demand, the

coupling between possible sources and bacterial growth, and

the fate of bacterial production. Bacterioplankton represents

the dominant C, N and P biomass in reef waters as in other

oligotrophic marine waters. Hence bacterioplankton represents

an important standing stock capable to reduce the nutrient

limitation of benthic organisms in these nutrient-poor

environments. This trophic potential is supported by in situ

studies. Indeed, over the reefs, bacterioplankton turnover rates,

and exoenzymatic activities are higher than in lagoon and

oceanic waters. Bacterioplankton production can reach values

in the range of planktonic primary production. These

characteristics suggest that bacterioplankton growth is fuelled

by organic matter released by benthic communities. On the

other hand, bacterioplankton abundance is lower over the reefs

than in surrounding waters. This latter phenomenon, the

elevated bacterioplankton turnover rates, and the short resident

time of waters show that bacterioplankton is very actively

consumed by benthic organisms. This trophic coupling has

been actually repeatedly assessed in laboratory experiments.

Establishing more quantitatively the trophic coupling between

bacterioplankton and other – either planktonic or benthic –

communities, using the study of temporal and spatial variations

of bacterioplankton parameters, in conjunction with

hydrodynamics, will require the use of new tools with high

acquisition rates in order to reach an acceptable resolution.

TROPHIC SUBSIDIES IN THE TWILIGHT ZONE:

ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITY PATTERNS AND

FOOD WEB STRUCTURE OF DEEP REEF FISHES IN

THE NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO.

Weaver D.C.* U.S. Geological Survey, Biological

Resources Division, Gainesville, FL, USA. Email:

doug_weaver@usgs.gov

The food web structure of deep (50-110m) reef fishes in the

northeastern Gulf of Mexico was examined. Fish communities

on high-profile topographic features are numerically

dominated by two species of streamer basses (Serranidae:

Anthiinae): the roughtongue bass, Pronotogrammus

martinicensis, and the red barbier, Hemanthias vivanus.

Stomach content analysis revealed that calanoid copepods,

pteropods, pelagic tunicates, and invertebrate larvae dominate

the diets of both species, and that these small planktivores

serve as primary prey for many larger reef predators. To

compare diets of reef fishes with prey availability and

encounter rates, stationary plankton tows (0.5m, 335_ nets)

were made in the water column at surface (2m), midwater

(35m) and near-reef (60-70m) depths. Preliminary results

indicate high flow rates (3-24cm/sec) and high prey

availability (0.2 to 3.0 zooplankters/m 3 ) in the vicinity of deep

reef features. Estimates of the relative abundance indicate that

99% by number and 90% of the biomass of resident reef fishes

are small, planktivorous taxa, and 65-90% of their diets are

comprised of calanoid copepods, forming the main link to

water column productivity and the primary source of prey for

the reef fish community..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A3: Molecular Phylogeny

Session A3: Molecular Phylogeny and Population Genetics in Coral Reefs

17

GENETIC MARKERS AS ESSENTIAL TOOLS IN THE

REGIONAL MANAGEMENT OF CORAL REEFS: AN

INITIATIVE IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA.

Ablan, M.C.A.*, McManus, J.W., Tsao, K.S., Chen,

C.A.,Bell, J.D., Cabanban, A.S.,Tuan, V.S., and Arthana,

I.W. *ICLARM, No.10 LL6 Equatorial Hotel Office Block

1 Jalan Bukit Jambul Penang, Malaysia 11900. Email:

m.ablan@cgiar.org

Coastal water systems depend on a fluid medium to transport

recruits for replenishment of populations. In coral reefs,

currents may carry propagules of many species over large

distances. The resulting connectivity among reef systems leads

to situations where different groups harvest the same stock.

Thus, management regimes in one area may be ineffective if

there are no restrictions on harvests, or safeguarding of

habitats, elsewhere. We report the use of genetic markers to

evaluate connectivity among populations from selected coral

reefs in Malaysia, Indonesia, Taiwan, the Philippines, Vietnam

and Solomon Islands. This initiative, also known as Population

Interdependencies in the South China Sea (PISCES), aims to

determine the extent of unit stocks in the South China Sea

region, to indicate the need for joint management of reef

fisheries. The project uses a model based on 15-24

polymorphic loci in 13-15 isozyme markers of four coral reef

species. Data were interpreted with information from current

patterns, life-history characteristics and some macroecological

correlates. Concordant results were obtained between this

study and another on VNTR in the mtDNA and isozymes of

the same D. trimaculatus individuals. The project is the result

of collaboration between ICLARM and several national

research institutions and is expected to facilitate the

formulation of recommendations for the regional management

of coral reef fisheries.

LEARNING FROM THE PAST: PERSISTANCE OF

HISTORICAL GENETIC BOUNDARIES INDICATE

LIMITS OF CONTEMPORARY LARVAL DISPERSAL.

Barber, P.H.* and Palumbi, Stephen R. *Dept.

Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University,

Cambridge MA 02138, Email: pbarber@oeb.harvard.edu

Many coral reef organisms have pelagic larval phases that

are believed to facilitate dispersal. It is commonly assumed

that duration of larval period is an important predictor of

dispersal potential and that realized dispersal can be estimated

through combining larval period duration with ocean current

data. To examine the relationship between larval period, ocean

currents, and realized dispersal, we examined patterns of

population genetic structure for three species of mantis shrimp

with 4-6 week larval periods from populations throughout

Indonesia. Although strong oceanographic currents predict

extensive dispersal, striking patterns of regional genetic

differentiation were observed in all taxa. Phylogeographic

patterns among taxa were largely concordant and mirrored

ocean basins that were more isolated during periods of lowered

sea levels. Although the observed patterns likely have

Pleistocene origins, the failure of dispersal to disrupt these

historical associations during 10,000 years of modern

oceanographic conditions forces us to conclude that

contemporary dispersal is much more limited that predicted.

The recovery of concordant regional patterns of genetic

structure suggests that our understanding of larval dispersal

behaviors and/or ocean currents may be over simplistic and

highlights the need for fine scale population genetic studies in

marine systems.

THE GENETIC STRUCTURE OF THREE WIDELY

SEPARATED POPULATIONS OF Chlorurus sordidus.

Bay L.*, Christine Dudgeon and Prof. J Howard Choat,

*School Marine Biology and Aquaculture, James Cook

University Townsville Qld. 4811, Australia. Email:

line.bay@jcu.edu.au

The effective management of coral reef fisheries depends on

the identification of local populations and levels of

connectivity amongst these. Recent advances in molecular

techniques have provided reef fish biologists with the tools to

examine the genetic structure of geographically separated

populations and levels of gene flow amongst these. The

majority of reef fishes have a bipartite life history where larvae

spend some time in the pelagic environment before returning

to the reef environment. During this phase larvae may disperse

away or return to the natal reef. Recent studies have failed to

find conclusive evidence of a relationship between genetic

subdivision of geographically separated populations and length

of larval life. It is possible that not only the duration of the

larval phase but also behavioural capability of larvae may

affect the dispersal ability and hence the level of genetic

subdivision amongst geographically separated adult

populations. We examine the genetic structure of the common

reef fish Chlorurus sordidus. C. sordidus larvae spend ~30

days in the pelagic zone but are undeveloped compared to

larvae of other reef fish species. We compare mitochondrial

DNA sequence data amongst three widely separated

geographic populations. Samples from the northern Great

Barrier Reef are compared with samples taken ~ 3000 km to

the west (Abrolhos Islands, WA) and those sampled ~1000 km

to the north (Kavieng, PNG). Results are interpreted with

respect to larval attributes and the geological history of the

region.

CORALLIMORPHARIA (CNIDARIA, ANTHOZOA):

AN ORDER, A CORAL, OR A SEA ANEMONE?

Cappola V.A. and D.G. Fautin*. *University of Kansas,

Division of Biological Sciences, Haworth Hall, Lawrence,

KS 66047. Email: fautin@ukans.edu

The anthozoan order Corallimorpharia is currently

considered equivalent in rank to the Scleractinia (hard corals)

and Actiniaria (sea anemones). Does Corallimorpharia merit

ordinal status and, if not, does it belong in the scleractinians or

actiniarians? This study is the first cladistic analysis of these

anthozoan orders based on both morphology and molecules.

Morphological and anatomical evidence (nematocysts,

structure of mesenterial filaments, structure of the mesoglea,

absence of siphonoglyphs, sphincter muscle feeble or absent,

acrospheres) support the Corallimorpharia and Scleractinia

being closely related, but the form of this relationship is

unresolved. The corallimorpharians have variously been

hypothesized to be corals without skeletons, representatives of

the ancestral anemones from which skeleton-producing polyps

diverged, the sister group to Scleractinia, and a suborder of

Scleractinia. Published molecular data of 16S mitochondrial

DNA and 18S ribosomal DNA support the corallimorpharians

within the scleractinian clade, but data from 28S ribosomal

DNA support corallimorpharians being more closely related to

actiniarians. Monophyly of the corallimopharians has not been

established by these molecular studies. We use morphological

and molecular evidence both independently and combined to

present a complete picture of the phylogenetic status of

Corallimorpharia..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A3: Molecular Phylogeny

18

EVIDENCES FOR HIGHER RATE OF CYTOCHROME

B EVOLUTION IN THE SCLERACTINIAN CORAL

GENUS ACROPORA IN THE FAMILY ACROPORIDAE.

Chen C.A. * and Carden C. Wallace. *Institute of Zoology,

Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115, Taiwan. Email:

cac@gate.sinica.edu.tw

The fundamental discipline of molecular evolution is to

estimate the divergence rates of molecules (DNA sequences or

proteins), and apply the rate to infer absolute divergence times

between species. The latter relies on well-preserved fossil

records and evolutionary rate of the molecules which are

approximately constant over time in all evolutionary lineages

(i. e., molecular clock hypothesis). Recent advances in

characterizing the mitochondrial genome of Acropora and

phylogenetic relationships in the family provide an opportunity

to examine the molecular evolution of mitochondrial genome

in scleractinian corals. In this study, we apply the likelihood

ratio test (LRT) and relative rate test (RRT) to examine the

patterns of rate heterogeneity in the family Acroporidae at two

mitochondrial genes, cytochrome b (cyt b) and ATPase 6.

Based on both LRT and RRT, we find significant evidence of

rate heterogeneity among evolutionary lineages of the family

Acroporidae at cyt b gene, but not at ATPase 6. The effects of

rate heterogeneity at Acropora cyt b gene in inferring the

divergence time and phylogenetic relationships of the family

Acroporidae are discussed.

DEMOGRAPHIC AND LIFE-HISTORY DIFFERENCES

IN REEF FISHES IN THE GREAT BARRIER REEF

LACK A GENETIC BASIS.

Dudgeon C.*, Nicholas Gust and David Blair. *James

Cook University, Dept. of Zoology, Townsville, QLD,

Australia, 4811. Email: Christine.Dudgeon@jcu.edu.au

Two species of parrot fish, Chlorurus sordidus and Scarus

frenatus are known to exhibit demographic and life history

differences across the continental shelf of the northern Great

Barrier Reef (GBR). Mitochondrial control region sequences

were analysed to test whether there was a genetic basis to the

observed ecological differences. Analysis of molecular

variance (AMOVA) revealed high levels of gene exchange for

both species at a local scale between reefs on mid and outer

continental shelf positions (20 km apart) and at a broader scale

along the length of the GBR province (>1000 km apart),

indicating that local differences in life history characteristics

on the northern GBR do not have a genetic basis. Rather it

appears more likely that phenotypically plastic responses to

prevailing social and environmental conditions explain

differences in the life history characteristics of both taxa.

However, analysis of genetic variability and historical

demography revealed striking differences between the two

species suggesting S. frenatus has undergone a population

expansion between 20 000 to 80 000 years ago whilst C.

sordidus has maintained equilibrium over this time. These

patterns could also reflect differences in the metapopulation

sizes or generation times between taxa. This study illustrates

contrasting ecological and genetic information which may

have implications for fisheries management.

REEF CONNECTIVITY IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA

AND SULU SEA, PHILIPPINES, INFERRED FROM

ALLOZYME ANALYSIS OF TWO REEF FISH

SPECIES.

Endriga M.A.* Mamauag S.S, Menez M.A.J., Alino P.M. .

*Marine Science Institute, University of the Philippines,

Diliman, 1101 Quezon City, Philippines. Email:

marla@upmsi.ph

Allelic variation in 4 populations of Pterocaesio tile and 12

populations of Chromis margaritifer at 12 to 14 polymorphic

loci was analyzed to compare levels of genetic structuring and

determine the extent of gene flow in the South China Sea

(SCS) and Sulu Sea. Fish were collected from the Kalayaan

Island Group (KIG) and Western Luzon (WL) coast in the SCS

and reefs in the Sulu Sea. Average heterozygosity was highest

in P. tile (H = 0.421) compared with 1998 (H = 0.391) and

1999 (H = 0.362) populations of chromis. It was highest in

Sulu Sea populations of both species, lowest at the NE

Investigator Shoal of the KIG among chromis, and lowest in

WL among caesionids. Overall Fst was significant in both

species (Fst = 0.1473 for P. tile; 0.1732 for C. margaritifer),

suggesting that these are highly structured populations.

Effective number of migrants per generation (Nem) are 1.4 for

P. tile and 1.2 for chromis. Genetic affinities were closest

between KIG and Sulu Sea populations of P. tile (D = 0.112)

which differed significantly from the WL population (D =

0.158). Cluster analysis on chromis populations yielded two

major clusters: the KIG and WL-Sulu Sea clades. Pair-wise

comparisons showed that each chromis population was

significantly different from the rest (D = 0.069-0.127) included

in the study. In general, proximate sites had higher affinities

with one another, with some exceptions.

GENETIC STRUCTURE OF LINCKIA LAEVIGATA

AND TRIDACNA CROCEA POPULATIONS IN THE

PALAWAN SHELF AND SHOAL REEFS.

Juinio-Meñez, Marie Antonette*, Richard Magsino,

Eizadora T. Yu. *Marine Science Institute, College of

Science University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon

City 1101 Philippines. Email:

meneza@msi01.cs.upd.edu.ph

Allozyme variation of 10 populations of Linckia laevigata at

8 polymorphic loci, and 12 populations of Tridacna crocea at

6 polymorphic loci were analyzed to compare genetic

variability and determine genetic affinities among shoal and

shelf reefs of Palawan, Philippines. Heterozygosity was

highest in populations from the shelf of Palawan and lowest in

the shoal reefs of KIG in the South China Sea for both species.

There were highly significant variations between populations

in 3 loci of L. laevigata and 5 loci of T. crocea. Overall Fst for

both species (L. laevigata, 0.049 and T. crocea, 0.1403) were

significant indicating genetic structuring among shelf and

shoal reef populations in Palawan. The estimated average

number of effective migrants per generation (Nem) between the

reef populations was 1.5 individuals for T. crocea and 5

migrants for L. laevigata. Nei’s unbiased distance for L.

laevigata was smaller than that for T. crocea. Cluster

analysis based on genetic distance generally showed groupings

of reefs that were geographically close to each other with a few

exceptions. Highly significant pairwise comparisons (Fst) of

the different reef groups indicate genetic substructuring of

these reef invertebrates between and within the four

geographic areas in Palawan..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A3: Molecular Phylogeny

19

PCR AMPLIFICATION OF 16S MITOCHONDRIAL

GENE OF ZOANTHUS SOCIATUS (ZOANTHIDEA,

ANTHOZOA) USING HETEROLOGOUS PRIMERS

Longo, L. L. * ; M. C. Arias & E. Schlenz *Departamento

de Zoologia Instituto de Biociências Universidade de São

Paulo São Paulo, SP, Brazil Caixa Postal 11461 CEP:

05422-970 Email – lllongo@ib.usp.br

The Zoanthidea order (class Anthozoa) is comprised mainly

of colonial cnidarians that do not secrete a skeleton, but some

of them have an assimilation mechanism of sediments within

their tissues. Most of the species have zooxanthellae

endosymbionts. The morphological identification of

Zoanthidea species has been very difficult due to the plasticity

of polipo and colony morphology. Although this group of

Cnidaria is very abundant, studies involving its biology and

taxonomy are rare. Histological sectioning has been used in an

attempt to determine characters that can be useful for

taxonomic purpose. Allozime analysis has been the only

molecular tool applied so far to Zoanthidea taxonomy.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis has been used

successfully in taxonomic and evolutionary studies of several

organisms. The main goal of our study is to test primers for

mtDNA regions derived from different organisms in Zoanthus

sociatus. As this species presents zooxanthellae

endosymbionts, it is crucial to have DNA extractions free of

this contaminant and also primers showing high specificity to

Cnidarians. Primers for the 16S mtDNA gene, described for

Hydra vulgaris, were inittially tested. The PCR product

obtained was a unique fragment of 1022 pb. This fragment was

cloned and sequenced.

GENETIC RELATIONSHIP OF COLOR ECOMORPHS

OF THE REEF STARFISH LINCKIA LAEVIGATA

(LINNEAUS) IN THE KALAYAAN ISLANDS GROUP

(KIG), WEST PALAWAN, PHILIPPINES.

Magsino, Richard M. *, Rachel G. Ravago, Marie

Antonette J. Meñez. *Marine Science Institute University

of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 Philippines.

Email: rickym@msi01.cs.upd.edu.ph

The coral reef starfish Linckia laevigata is an organism with

a high potential for dispersal due to its 28d planktonic larvae.

In the Kalayaan Island Group (KIG), Philippines, color morphs

of blue, orange and combinations of both colors exist

sympatrically. Genetic variation at 8 polymorphic loci for 3

reef populations in the KIG based on allozyme markers was

examined. Data for 163 individuals (85 blue and 78 orange)

showed highly significant genetic grouping for all populations

(Fst=0.086) of L. laevigata. Pairwise comparisons between

blue and orange ecomorphs of the species (Fst=0.079) revealed

lower but significant genetic variation. In two reefs where both

blue and orange L. laevigata occurred, significant Fst suggests

genetic differentiation of color ecomorphs within sites. Cluster

analysis revealed two genetically different groups of blue and

orange populations. Comparison of DNA sequences of the COI

segment of the mitochondrial DNA of the different color

morphs show considerable variation among individuals.

Results obtained were consistent with a previous allozyme

study on the population genetics of L. laevigata color morphs

in Pacific and Indian Ocean populations. Phenotypic and

genetic structuring of color variants of L. laevigata within the

KIG may reflect effects of the very variable and complex

hydrographic regimes and habitats in the shoal reefs that

affects recruitment dynamics of Linckia populations.

POPULATION GENETICS OF THE SEA URCHIN

TRIPNEUSTES GRATILLA ALONG THE WESTERN

COAST OF LUZON ISLAND, THE PHILIPPINES.

Malay, Maria Celia D. *, Marie Antonette Juinio-Meñez,

and Cesar Villanoy. Marine Science Institute, University

of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 Philippines.

Email: machel@msi01.cs.upd.edu.ph

The sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla is a fishery resource of

high commercial value and is intensively harvested throughout

much of Northwestern Luzon. However, the fishery is

primarily unregulated, which has led to the steep decline of

spawning stocks in many areas, notably in Bolinao,

Pangasinan. Preliminary hydrographic larval dispersal models

indicate that larval exchange within this region is influenced

by monsoonal shifts in circulation patterns. The genetic

structure of T. gratilla in Western Luzon, the Philippines is

being investigated using allozyme electrophoresis to provide

the basis for the formulation of coherent management plans for

regional sea urchin resources. Samples of T. gratilla intestines

were obtained from one batch of cultured sea urchins from the

UP-MSI Bolinao Marine Laboratory and 4 “wild” populations

in Western Luzon: Sta. Maria, Ilocos Sur; Bolinao,

Pangasinan; Masinloc, Zambales; and Lian, Batangas. Seven

polymorphic enzyme loci (MDH-1, MDH-2, SOD, GPI, MPI,

PGM, and LT) and 2 monomorphic loci (IDHP and LP) are

being screened to determine genetic variations between

populations and estimate larval dispersal and gene flow

between the different localities sampled. Baseline information

on population genetic structure will also be useful in

monitoring the impacts of enhancement efforts using cultured

sea urchins on the genetic structure of natural populations of T.

gratilla.

RETICULATE EVOLUTION IN THE ACROPORA

HYACINTHUS GROUP: RESULTS FROM

MITOCHONDRIAL AND NUCLEAR MARKERS.

Marquez L.M.*, M.J.H. van Oppen, B.L. Willis and

D.J.Miller. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, *James

Cook University, Townsville 4811, Australia. Email:

Luis.Marquez@jcu.edu.au

Two species in the Acropora hyacinthus group, A.

hyacinthus and A. cytherea, hybridise in vitro with up to 100%

fertilisation success, however, it is unclear whether this

potential for hybridisation has led to introgression and

reticulate evolution. Here, we present DNA sequence data for

three independent markers: rDNA ITS and 5.8S, the Pax-C

46/47 intron and the putative mtDNA control region for these

two species and for A. tenuis. The latter species was used as

an outgroup in phylogenetic analyses, as it appears to be

reproductively isolated from the former two through a

difference in spawning time. We found high levels of

variability in rDNA regions, with up to 55% variability for

ITS1. ITS sequences were shared between the two species in

the A. hyacinthus group suggesting that introgression occurs.

No ITS sequences were shared with A. tenuis. Phylogenetic

analyses of molecular data for samples of A. cytherea and A.

hyacinthus from sites along the length of the Great Barrier

Reef and from the Ningaloo Reefs in Western Australia

indicate that these two species do not constitute monophyletic

groupings. Moreover, phylogenies showed no clear

biogeographic patterns. Comparisons of phylogenies based on

the three different markers will be discussed..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A3: Molecular Phylogeny

20

ECOLOGICAL AND GENETIC DIFFERENCES

BETWEEN EASTERN PACIFIC PANAMANIAN

CORALS. AGARICIIDAE (Pavona varians, P. frondifera

AND Pavona sp. a)

Maté JL*. University of Miami, RSMAS-MBF, 4600

Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149, USA; and

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Unit 0948, APO

AA 34002, USA. Email: matej@naos.si.edu

Pavona is a common and conspicuous coral genus with a

distribution that ranges from the Red Sea and western Indian

Ocean to the far eastern Pacific. Three of six species reported

for the Panamanian Pacific (Pavona varians, P. frondifera and

Pavona sp. a) show strong development of colines that set

them apart from the others. I studied the ecological and

genetical differences among these three species to determine

their boundaries. Ecological information consisted on species

distribution, habitat preferences, tissue coloration, reproductive

ecology, and tolerance to bleaching. Genetical information

consisted on the analysis of the 10 allozyme loci. Pavona

varians and Pavona sp. a are sibbling species. Pavona varians

is the most widely distributed of the three species, found in

both reef and non-reef environments in the Gulf of Chiriquí

and the Gulf of Panamá.

COMPARING MITOCHONDRIAL AND NUCLEAR

GENE SEQUENCES : CRITICAL TOOLS TO DETECT

NATURAL SELECTION, CRYPTIC SPECIES

BOUNDARIES, AND RETICULATE EVOLUTION IN

REEF SPECIES.

Palumbi, Stephen R. *, Paul Barber, Laura Geyer, Shane

Lavery, and Steve Vollmer, *Dept. Organismic and

Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge MA

02138, Email: spalumbi@oeb.harvard.edu

Collection of gene sequence data to measure population

structure can now make use of information from multiple

independent loci to test hypotheses about the origin and

maintenance of genetic variation within closely related species.

The signature of selection on gene frequencies, typically

ignored in studies of single loci, can be tested by comparing

genetic structure of several loci. In the Indo-West Pacific sea

urchins in the genus Echinometra, allele frequencies of at the

locus responsible for egg-sperm recognition, the gene bindin,

differ strongly among localities even though neutral intron

variation does not. These patterns suggest selection driven by

mate recognition acts within populations. In addition,

comparison of phylogenetic patterns from multiple loci can 1)

test for genetic barriers between sympatric, cryptic species,

such as in comparisons of Indonesian stomatopods, 2) show

the history of population exchanges, such as in Indo-West

Pacific Penaeid shrimp, 3) and provide a robust framework for

evaluation of patterns of reticulate evolution in corals.

(GACA)n SIMPLE SEQUENCE REPEATS IN THE

NUCLEAR GENOME OF SEA ANEMONES

(CNIDARIA: ACTINIARIA AND

CORALLIMORPHARIA): ANALYSIS OF

POPULATION STRUCTURE AND SPECIES

DIVERSITY

Pinto, S.M.*, F.M.C. Fernandes-Matioli and E. Schlenz.

*Depto. de Zoologia, IB, Universidade de São Paulo, CP

11461, 05422-970. São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Email:

suzanamp@ib.usp.br.

DNA microsatellites molecular markers could be useful for

addressing evolutionary questions in sea anemones, and may

clarify the phylogenetic relationships among genera and

species, which do not differ throughout the morphological

characters. In this study, we show that PCR (polymerase Chain

Reaction) amplification using primers based on microsatellite

sequences are effective to address the genetic variability in 12

species of sea anemones. A total of 150 individuals belonging

to 11 species of sea anemones, Aiptasia pallida, Anthothoe

chilensis, Anthopleura krebsi, Bellactis ilkalyseae, Carcinactis

dolosa, Calliactis tricolor, Diadumene sp, Haliplanella

lineata, Paratelmatactis roseni, Telmatactis rufa, Tricnidactis

errans, and one species of corallimorpharian, Discosoma

carlgreni were examined. All species were collected from the

Brazilian coast. Specimens were collected during low tide

periods and SCUBA diving at depths bet ween 1 and 16 m . Total

genomic DNA was extracted from living, and 100% ethanol-preserved

sea anemones. DNA extracted from samples was

used as a template in PCR amplifications with the SPAR

technique using (GACA)4 as primers.

PHYLLOGEOGRAPHY OF CORAL REEF FISHES

THROUGHOUT THE PACIFIC OCEAN INFERRED

FROM GENETIC SURVEYS

Planes S.* *EPHE - ESA CNRS 8046 University of

Perpignan, 66860 Perpignan cedex - France. Email :

planes@univ-perp.fr

The geographic range of a species is mostly determined by a

succession of historical accidents. Althrough the idea is

simple, the combination can be infinite because species are

formed at different times, barriers to migration appear and

disappear through time. The Indo-Pacific area has been

recognised as the most diverse biogeographic area among

marine ecosystems. This diversity shows gradient with higher

diversity in the Indonesia-Philippines area and decrease of

species richness going East in the Pacific islands. Three major

theories (center of origins, center of accumulation, and center

of overlap) have proposed mechanisms that lead to higher

diversity in the Indonesian-Philippines area. We investigate

genetic approach as a new tool that could give evolutionary

perspective in biogeography. The rationale of such an

approach is that genetic diversity has been found to be

correlated to species richness. Three species (Acanthurus

triostegus, Forcipiger flavissimus and Zanclus cornuttus) that

are found althrough the Indo-Pacific area from Baja California

to South Africa were surveyed..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A3: Molecular Phylogeny

21

ASSESSMENT OF CRYPTIC REEF FISH SPECIES IN

BRAZIL USING MOLECULAR MARKERS

Rocha, Luiz A. and Brian W. Bowen. *University of

Florida, Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences,

7922 NW 71 st Street, Gainesville, FL 32653 USA. Email:

rocha@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu

In the last few years the growth of interest in reef fish

systematics among Brazilian ichthyologists has generated a

growing number of faunal surveys and, consequently, species

descriptions. Many of the unknown species being found can be

described based solely on morphology, but others seem to

differ from Caribbean sister taxa in just a few characters such

as color or size, what usually is not enough for establishing a

species identity. Examples of those so called “cryptic” species

are several grunts (Haemulidae), wrasses (Labridae) and

damselfishes (Pomacentridae). One of the first species

accessed during this study is the puddingwife Halichoeres

radiatus. It has a green-yellow body with four white spots

along the dorsum in the Caribbean, and a blue-orange body

without white spots in Brazil, but no significant difference was

found when comparing their morphology. In an attempt to

solve long debated questions about the identity of such

Brazilian taxa we are now applying molecular genetic

techniques and testing hypothesis of gene flow and population

structure between Brazilian and Caribbean reefs, which are

separated by freshwater discharges of big rivers such as the

Amazon and Orinoco in northeastern South America.

Preliminary data on sequences of Halichoeres radiatus

mitochondrial DNA indicate deep separations between

locations on the Brazilian coastline, offshore islands, and the

Caribbean.

MOLECULAR TOOLS FOR ASSESSING GENETIC

VARIATION WITHIN SCLERACTINIAN CORAL

SPECIES.

Romano, S.L.* and R.H. Richmond. *Marine Laboratory,

Univ. of Guam, UOG Station, Mangilao, Guam 96923 USA.

Email: sromano@uog9.uog.edu

Developments in molecular techniques have made it feasible

to use genotypic characters for analyses of relationships among

coral species, genera, and families. However, gene regions that

are useful for detecting genetic differences within and among

closely related species of many different organisms do not

demonstrate genetic differentiation on a similar scale for coral

species. Recent work has shown those molecular methods that

sample throughout the genome, such as RAPDs, AFLPs and

ISSRs, may provide the necessary resolution for analyzing

intraspecific variation in corals. Randomly amplified

polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers have been used as a

means of relatively easily, rapidly, efficiently and

inexpensively assaying genetic variation, from the level of the

individual to the species, in a wide variety of plants and

animals. While RAPD markers successfully differentiate

species within the genus Acropora, preliminary data indicate

that they may not be useful for assessing genetic variation

within scleractinian coral species. DNA extracted from

azooxanthellate coral sperm from 45 colonies of Acropora

surculosa was amplified with four different RAPD primers.

Analysis of 27 loci generated from these primers demonstrates

no population differentiation among four populations separated

by as much as 50 km. Mean genetic distances within

populations are 25-32% and between populations are 26-31%.

Continuing research is being conducted to determine whether

this result is due to lack of genetic variation within A.

surculosa or to lack of variability in coral RAPD markers.

LOW LEVELS OF MITOCHONDRIAL SEQUENCE

VARIATION IN SCLERACTINIAN CORALS.

Snell, Tonya L.*. *University at Buffalo, Dept. of

Biological Sciences, Buffalo, NY 14260 USA, Email:

tlsnell@buffalo.edu.

Mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA and cytochrome b gene

sequences often exhibit unexpectedly low sequence divergence

among some scleractinian corals. In this study, sequence

variation of another mitochondrial gene, cytochrome c oxidase

subunit 1 (COI), was investigated to determine whether this

trend was exhibited throughout this region of the

mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Approximately 700 base pairs

of the COI gene from Caribbean coral species in several

scleractinian families were sequenced and analyzed for intra-and

interspecific nucleotide and amino acid variability. Levels

of variability were extremely small (or zero) among colonies

within a species, even when samples were collected from

distant geographic locations (>3000 km). Among some

species, nucleotide divergence and amino acid divergence

were also very low. Phylogenetic relationships based on this

COI region support the placement of genera within families,

and the relationships among families were generally

concordant with those hypothesized using 16S mitochondrial

sequence data. Although mtDNA sequences are commonly

used to assess population structure and estimate divergence of

closely related species, low levels of mitochondrial nucleotide

substitution rates in scleractinian corals inhibit the use of these

markers for such purposes.

THE SCLERACTINIAN CORAL PAVONA CACTUS

EXHIBITS HIGH LEVELS OF GENETIC

POLYMORPHISM: A NEW GENETIC MARKER FOR

CLONAL POPULATION STUDIES.

Smith,C.R.*, Willis, B.L., Miller, D.J. and Chen, C.A.

*Australian Institute of Marine Science PMB No. 3

Townsville MC QLD 4810 Australia. Email:

c.smith@aims.gov.au

The prevalence of asexual reproduction in the life history of

scleractinian corals highlights the need for good genetic

markers to assess clonal population structure. In order for

genetic markers to be useful they must be easily assayed and

exhibit sufficient polymorphism to address the question at

hand. The ribosomal intergenic spacer region (IGS) is a region

with considerable potential for use as a genetic marker in

population level studies of scleractinian corals. A rapid, cost

effective method of assaying variation within the ribosomal

IGS region was developed for the agariciid coral Pavona

cactus. Possible contamination from symbiotic zooxanthellae

was avoided by the development of an assay which

preferentially amplifies host coral DNA rather than

zooxanthellae DNA through the use of the polymerase chain

reaction (PCR). This PCR based technique was able to rapidly

distinguish 17 distinct genotypes within a clonal population of

P.cactus at Eclipse Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

Allozyme electrophoresis, the more traditional genetic assay

for hard corals, resolved only 12 genotypes within the same

sample set. The high level of polymorphism observed within

the IGS region of P.cactus (as compared with that observed in

a clonal marine gorgonian, Junceella fragilis) may be

explained by the presence of internally repeated DNA

elements (subrepeats) in the P.cactus genome..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A3: Molecular Phylogeny

22

REPRODUCTIVE AND MORPHOMETRIC

CHARACTERS OF CARIBBEAN CORALS IN THE

GENUS ACROPORA ARE CONSISTENT WITH A

HYBRID ORIGIN FOR A. PROLIFERA

Stockwell, B., B. Willis.* and A. Morse. *Department of

Marine Biology, James Cook University, Townsville,

Qld.4811, Australia. Email: Bette.Willis@jcu.edu.au

Caribbean species in the coral genus, Acropora, comprise

two common species, A. palmata and A. cervicornis, and a

rarer species, A. prolifera, whose intermediate colony

morphology and lack of genetic distinctness have lead to

speculation that it may be of hybrid origin. We present

evidence that, in addition to colony morphology, both corallite

morphology and reproductive characters of A. prolifera are

intermediate between those of the other two species. Mean

egg volume and polyp fecundity are both distinct and

intermediate for A. prolifera, with A. cervicornis being

significantly more fecund and A. palmata having significantly

larger eggs. Multivariate analyses of corallite characteristics

(maximum calice diameter, calice roundness, corallite length,

and corallite wall thickness) clearly separated all three species

and indicated that corallite dimensions of A. prolifera are

intermediate between those of A. palmata and A. cervicornis .

Evidence that A. palmata and A. cervicornis may spawn

concurrently, coupled with congruence in the intermediacy of

A. prolifera for both reproductive and morphometric characters

is consistent with suggestions that A. prolifera may have

originated as a hybrid between A. palmata and A. cervicornis.

GENETIC CONNECTIVITY OF CORALS AMONG

WESTERN PACIFIC REEFS.

Takabayashi, M. * , Carter, D.A., Hoegh-Guldberg, O.

*Centre for Marine Studies, The University of Queensland

QLD 4072 Australia. Email: misaki@bio.usyd.edu.au

Genetic connectivity over large distances (thousands of

kilometres) is poorly described despite the widespread

distributions of Scleractinian corals and the importance of the

information for areas like conservation biology. Molecular

methods offer powerful opportunities to investigate this area of

coral reef biology. Variability in the DNA sequence of the

internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) of ribosomal genes was

investigated to analyse intra-specific genetic diversity of a

common coral, Stylophora pistillata, across the western Pacific

Ocean. Populations from Japan, Malaysia, northern and

southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR) were studied. The resulting

consensus dendrograms (maximum likelihood and neighbour

joining analyses) revealed that the genetic and geographic

distances were clearly correlated in these coral populations.

Despite this, statistical analyses (AMOVA) of genetic

distances revealed that ITS-1 sequence variability was greater

within populations (78.37%) than among populations

(12.06%). These results suggest significant connectivity

among reef systems that may be separated by as much as

several thousand miles. These results have important

implications for the local and global management of coral reefs

throughout the tropical Pacific.

EXAMINATION OF SPECIES BOUNDARIES IN THE

ACROPORA CERVICORNIS GROUP (SCLERACTINIA,

CNIDARIA) USING NUCLEAR DNA SEQUENCE

ANALYSES.

van Oppen, MJH*, BL Willis, HWJA van Vugt, DJ Miller.

*Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, James Cook

University, Townsville 4811, Australia. Email:

Madeleine.vanOppen@jcu.edu.au

While Acropora is the most species rich genus of the

scleractinian corals, only three species occur in the Caribbean:

Acropora cervicornis, A. palmata and A. prolifera . Based on

overall coral morphology, abundance and distribution patterns,

it has been suggested that A. prolifera may be a hybrid

between A. cervicornis and A. palmata. We have examined

species boundaries among these three morphospecies using

DNA sequence analyses of the nuclear Pax-C 46/47 intron and

the ribosomal DNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 regions. Up to 5.2 %

overall sequence divergence was observed in the ITS and 5.8S

sequences, but variability within species was as large as

between species and all three species carried similar

sequences. Since this is unlikely to represent a shared

ancestral polymorphism, the data suggest that introgressive

hybridisation occurs among the three species. For the Pax-C

intron, A. cervicornis and A. palmata had very distinct allele

frequencies and A. cervicornis carried a unique allele at a

frequency of 0.769. All A. prolifera colonies examined were

heterozygous for the Pax-C intron, while heterozygosity was

only 0.286 and 0.333 for A. cervicornis and A. palmata,

respectively. This suggest that A. prolifera is the product of

hybridisation between two species that have a different allelic

composition for the Pax-C intron, i.e. A. cervicornis and A.

palmata. We therefore suggest that A. prolifera is a hybrid

between A. cervicornis and A. palmata, which backcrosses

with the parental species at low frequency.

POPULATION GENETIC ANALYSES OF THE

RIBOSOMAL INTERNAL TRANSCRIBED SPACER 2

IN ACROPORA (CNIDARIA; SCLERACTINIA):

EFFECT OF ANCESTRAL POLYMORPHISM IN

EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF ACROPORA.

Wei, Nuwei Vivian*, Wallace, Carden C. Chang-Feng Dai,

Shan-In Vanson Liu, Chaolun Allen Chen. *Institute of

Oceanography, National Taiwan University, Taiwan.

Email: teresa@gate.sinica.edu.tw

Reticulate evolutionary history enforced by synchronous

spawning of Acropora has recently been suggested based on

fertilization trials and molecular markers. Under this scenario,

success of natural hybridization among morphologically

distinct Acropora may reinforce the exchange of genetic

background of species which spawn simultaneously in the

populations, but create genetic difference among species with

variations in spawning times, or of the same species at

geographically-distant populations. In this study, population

parameters were estimated for the ribosomal internal

transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of several Acropora species

obtained from diverse geographic localities. The ITS2 of A.

humilis, containing a set of microsatellites, showed the highest

genetic divergence ( > 30%) in comparison to three dominant

species, A. muricata, A. hyacinthus, A. valida, in the Penghu

(Taiwan) population..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A3: Molecular Phylogeny

23

USING A MULTI-LOCUS APPROACH TO EXAMINE

SPECIES-LEVEL RELATIONSHIPS IN THE

SCLERACTINIAN CORALS.

Vollmer, Steven V.* and Stephen R. Palumbi. *Dept. of

Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University,

Cambridge, MA 02138, Email: svollmer@oeb.harvard.edu

Efforts to construct molecular phylogenies within the

scleractinian corals have been hampered by surprisingly low

levels of genetic variability at loci commonly used in other

taxa. While there has been limited success with the higher-level

systematics of the corals, few loci have been identified

that are capable of resolving species-level relationships, and

those loci with sufficient variation often lack fixed differences

between species. As a result, the ability to address questions

about species relationships in corals, including whether

reticulate evolution may be common to some mass-spawning

species, have been limited by a lack of appropriate markers.

We examined patterns of genetic variability in Acropora

palmata and A. cervicornis from the Caribbean using

mitochondrial and nuclear loci. Sequence data from the

putative control region and cytochrome oxidase III of the

mitochondrion and nuclear intron data from 3 independent loci

show that these 2 species are genetically distinct. Levels of

genetic variability at these loci are suitable for inter- and intra-specific

phylogenetic comparisons, and the comparison of

mitochondrial versus nuclear loci may be useful for detecting

introgression.

POPULATION PHYLOGENETICS OF THE COMMON

CORAL REEF SPONGES LEUCETTA SPP. AND

PERICHARAX SPP. (PORIFERA: CALCAREA) FROM

THE GREAT BARRIER REEF AND VANUATU.

Woerheide, G.*; Degnan, B. M.; Hooper, J.N.A..

*Queensland Museum, P.O. Box 3300, South Brisbane, Q

4101, Australia & Molecular Zoology Lab., Dept. of

Zoology and Entomology, University of Queensland, St.

Lucia, Q 4072, Australia. Email: GertW@qm.qld.gov.au

Molecular data show that calcareous sponges (Porifera:

Calcarea) might be the link between sponges and

Ctenophora/Cnidaria. However, present knowledge of this

group of sponges from Indo-Pacific coral reefs is deficient -this

class of sponges remains fundamentally problematic at all

levels. The aim of the present study is to investigate for the

first time the phylogenetic relationships of populations of the

common (and allegedly 'cosmopolitan') calcareous sponges

Leucetta spp. and Pericharax spp. from the Great Barrier Reef

and Vanuatu, using mitochondrial (COII) and nuclear (ITS)

gene sequence analysis. Species of Leucetta and Pericharax

are particularly well-suited for this study as they are found on

nearly every Indo-Pacific coral reef; identification at species

level is difficult using traditional morphological characters;

and nothing is known about gene flow and larval dispersal

capabilities between Indo-Pacific populations. We test the

hypothesis that 'widely distributed' species of these taxa occur

in the western Indo-Pacific (H0), against the possibility that the

populations of these allegedly ‘widely distributed’ species

represent distinct cryptic sibling species (H1). We will also

compare different rates of evolution of investigated

mitochondrial and nuclear genes in Porifera and indicate

patterns of gene flow between populations – of high

significance also to other marine invertebrate groups.

SPECIES BOUNDARIES IN SCLERACTINIAN

CORALS.

Wolstenholme, Jackie*. *Dept of Marine Biology and

Aquaculture, James Cook University, Townsville Qld 4811

Australia. Email: jackie.wolstenholme@jcu.edu.au

Accurate definition of species and species boundaries is

critical for correctly interpreting evolutionary processes.

However, definition of boundaries between many species of

scleractinian corals remains unresolved because of merging or

overlapping skeletal characters between morphologically

similar species. Molecular evidence suggests that this apparent

morphological continuum between some species of corals is

due to hybridisation, and may be indicative of a reticulate

rather than divergent evolutionary history. Detailed

morphological analysis, using both descriptive and

morphometric characters of all morphs of the Acropora

humilis species complex, indicates that the five species present

in American Samoa correspond with seven field-recognisable

morphs. Three of the morphs have overlapping morphological

boundaries while the other four morphs have distinct

boundaries. Two of the distinct morphs are from a single

species, A. monticulosa. One morph with indistinct boundaries

and one morph with distinct boundaries are from the species A.

gemmifera. Molecular data, for the same colonies used in the

morphological analysis, compare the occurrence and frequency

of interbreeding between morphs with overlapping and distinct

morphological boundaries. Techniques established in this

project will be used to analyse samples collected from the

same species complex from six other Pacific locations to

assess biogeographic variation. The combined results will be

used to reconstruct the phylogenetic history, including zones of

hybridisation, of this species complex..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A4: Zooxanthellae

Session A4: Zooxanthellae in Animal Hosts: Honoring Len Muscatine and Bob

Trench

24

USE OF 13 C TO STUDY THE CORAL SYMBIOSIS

SYNERGY.

Amat A*, Juillet-Leclerc , Ruiz-Pino. LSCE, Domaine du

CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette, FRANCE. Email:

amat@ccr.jussieu.fr

Zooxanthellate Scleractinian corals have not to be regarded

as separate mineral and organic units. In order to investigate

interactions between photosynthesis and calcification, it is

therefore necessary to study simultaneously organic and

inorganic parts. Stable isotopic carbon ratio ( 13 C/12 C) has been

chosen here to allow this concomittant study. This proxy has

been measured in zooxanthellae, coral tissues and skeletons

from 4 species corresponding to 3 genus of Scleractinian

corals, adapted successively to different pCO2 and light

conditions. Stable isotopic composition (d 13 C) variations

versus light and CO2 are similar for animal and zooxanthellae

organic matter. The animal metabolism is therefore highly

coupled to the photosynthetic activity of its symbionts.

Organic matter and skeleton d

13 C variations are not correlated.

This result suggests that carbon sources for photosynthesis and

calcification have different origins and not a common one as

previously supposed by the common carbon pool hypothesis.

Whatever the genus considered, a light decrease implies an

organic matter d

13 C depletion; the CO2 influence is less

obvious. The impact of calcification on the aragonitedd 13 C is

highly species dependent. The light influence as well as the

pCO2 impact through photosynthesis and calcification on

13 C/12 C ratio is not straightforward.

THE EFFECT OF SYMBIOSIS ON SKELETAL

CHEMISTRY OF HERMATYPIC CORALS:

IMPLICATIONS FOR INTERPRETING CORAL

CLIMATE RECORDS

Cohen A.L.*, Gladfelter, Elizabeth H. and Layne, Graham

D.; Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole,

MA 02543, USA; Email: acohen@whoi.edu

The skeletal chemistry of massive hermatypic corals

correlates with sea temperature and other environmental

variables and is an important tool for reconstructing past

climate change. However, our confidence in interpreting coral

proxy data purely as a climate signal is limited by lack of

knowledge of how biological processes, specifically algal

photosynthesis, influence skeletal chemistry. We examined the

link between photosynthesis and skeletal Sr/Ca (a temperature

proxy) in a Porites lutea colony stained in-situ for age-control

and for which we have contemporaneous, logged hourly SSTs.

Examination of skeletal ultra-structure with SEM and in thin-section

yielded two different crystal morphologies whose

existence is likely connected with symbiont-induced diurnal

changes in pH of the extra-cellular calcifying fluid,

encouraging equant crystals to form at night and acicular

crystals during the day. We constructed Sr/Ca time-series

separately for each crystal type at daily resolution over a

growth period of one year using SIMS 1 ion microprobe.

Biweekly Sr/Ca cycles track tidally-induced, biweekly SST

cycles but the sensitivity of Sr/Ca to SST is five times greater

during the day than it is at night. Furthermore, the temperature-dependence

of daytime Sr/Ca is non-linear over the annual

cycle, changing between the winter and summer seasons. We

propose that algal symbiosis exerts a significant influence on

this important temperature proxy by enhancing skeletal

calcification rate. However, since the relationship appears

neither simple nor non-linear, accurate interpretation of coral-based

climate records will depend on our recognition and

understanding of this complex interaction.

DIFFERENT FORMS OF CELL DEATH ACTIVITY

DURING BLEACHING OF THE SYMBIOTIC SEA

ANEMONE AIPTASIA SP.

, Simon*, Dr.J.C.Bythell, Dr.M.D.A.Le Tissier and

Dr.J.C.Thomason. *Department of Marine Sciences and

Coastal management, University of Newcastle upon Tyne,

UK. Email: S.R.DUNN@NCL.AC.UK

The mechanisms of cell death, degradation and loss of host

tissues and symbionts during bleaching in symbiotic cnidarians

has remained equivocal. There is little evidence to indicate

whether host or symbiont is the first to show the affects of an

environmental stress. A critical issue that remains is whether

bleaching is the outcome of an adaptive stress response or

simply the degenerative effects of environmental perturbation.

In this study, cell death pathways were investigated in

response to hyperthermic treatment which induced bleaching

in the sea anemone Aiptasia sp.. Using a suite of techniques,

different forms of cell death activity were indicated. After a

treatment period of 3-4 days the host gastrodermis tissues

underwent necrotic cell death releasing zooxanthellae with a

normal, healthy appearance into the coelenteron. Longer

periods of hyperthermic treatment (7 days) were correlated

with the in-situ degradation of zooxanthellae remaining within

the degenerated host gastrodermis. Zooxanthellae degradation

was characterised by cell shrinkage, condensation of the

cytoplasm, formation of accumulation bodies at the periphery

of the cell wall and DNA fragmentation, which was indicative

of a form of programmed cell death. The existence of a

programmed cell death pathway within zooxanthellae is

important to the understanding of bleaching events and raises

interesting questions regarding the evolution of this process

which has previously been linked mainly with multicellular

organisms.

NOVEL STABLE ISOTOPE APPROACH TO STUDY

CARBON AND OXYGEN CYCLING BETWEEN

CORALS AND THEIR SYMBIOTIC ALGAE.

Erez, J.*, Schneider, K. and Luz, B.. *Institute of Earth

Sciences, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel, 91904.

Email: Erez@vms.huji.ac.il

The metabolic fractionations of 13 C / 12 C and 17 O/ 16 O, and

18 O/16 O in dissolved inorganic carbon (CT ) and oxygen (O2),

respectively, were used to study their cycling in Acropora sp.

from Eilat, Red Sea. The d

13 C of CT taken-up during

photosynthesis was very low (Av.= -8 ‰), and negatively

correlated with CO2(aq). These very low fractionations correlate

well with high calcification rates, suggesting that at low CO2(aq)

and high pH, photosynthesis may be supported by 13 C enriched

CO2(aq) produced from HCO3 - which combines with protons

generated by calcification. During respiration the d

13 C released

is more negative (-16 to -18 ‰) indicating that roughly 50% of

the respiratory carbon is of planktonic origin. d

13 C of isolated

symbionts show average values of –14‰ suggesting that up to

60% of the CO2 utilized by the symbionts may be of host

respiratory origin. Oxygen produced during photosynthesis is

depleted in 18 O relative to atmospheric dissolved O2. This

depletion (corrected for respiration based on 17 O) allows for

direct estimate of gross photosynthesis (GP). GP of the

symbiotic algae determined by this method, suggest that light

respiration was roughly twice the dark respiration. In addition

these data showed that during photosynthesis, significant

amount of oxygen (and probably also carbon) must be cycled

internally in accord with the carbon isotope data. Excess light

respiration and CO2(aq) production rates from calcification

match the internal recycling needed to explain the observed

oxygen isotopic data..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A4: Zooxanthellae

25

ZOOXANTHELLAL RESPONSE OF TRIDACNA GIGAS

MANTLE TO ELEVATED TEMPERATURES

Estacion, J. S. *, J. S. Lucas and J. H. Norton. *Silliman

University Marine Laboratory, Dumaguete City 6200,

Philippines. Email: mlsucrm@mozcom.com

The response of zooxanthellae within the giant clam

(Tridacna gigas) mantle to elevated temperatures (30-31°C)

was investigated under the laboratory conditions using

zooxanthellae density, chlorophyll a content per zooxanthella

and histological appearance of the mantle. Results showed that

mean zooxanthellae density increased with prolonged exposure

to elevated water temperatures. After 21 days, density of clams

in elevated water temperatures (1.41 x 10 7 cells/g fresh mantle)

was almost ten times lower than the control clams (13.4 x 10 7

cells/g fresh mantle) but chrolophyll a per cell was

significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the former. Histological

examination confirmed the decrease in zooxanthellae density

in the mantle. Compared to the controls, there was also an

increase in the number of zooxanthellae that were transparent.

These zooxanthellae seem to degenerating and losing their

cytoplasm.

COMPARISONS OF TISSUE BIOMASS AND

ZOOXANTHELLAE POPULATIONS OF FIVE REEF-BUILDING

CORALS LIVING IN THE BAHAMAS AND

ON THE FLORIDA REEF TRACT AND

RELATIONSHIP TO BLEACHING.

Fitt*,W.K., M.E. Warner, G.C. Chilcoat. University of

Georgia, Athens GA 30602 Email:

fitt@sparrow.ecology.uga.edu

Tissue biomass and zooxanthellae densities of five species of

Caribbean reef corals tend to decrease with depth and vary

with season, with highest values occurring during the coolest

season and the lowest at the end of the warmest season. Same

species, same depth comparisons between sites in the Bahamas

with those in the Florida Keys show that corals at the latter site

exhibit physiological parameters indicative of corals that

would normally live deeper on reefs compared to their

Bahamian counterparts. We suggest that the data illustrate the

importance of light penetration and influence of water quality

on the physiology and health of reef corals.

HOST-MEDIATED CO2 SUPPLY FOR

ENDOSYMBIONT PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN SEA

ANEMONE

Furla, Paola* & Denis Allemand *Observatoire

Océanologique Européen, Centre Scientifique de Monaco,

Avenue Saint-Martin, MC-98000 MONACO (Principality

of Monaco) Email:: Denis.Allemand@unice.fr

Within symbiotic Cnidarians, respiratory CO 2 is not enough

to supply photosynthesis of intracellular dinoflagellates,

Symbiodinium sp. Furthermore it has been shown recently that

the Rubisco of these Dinoflagellates is a form II which has

previously been reported to have a relatively low

discrimination ratio between CO2 and O2, raising the question

of how zooxanthellae fix inorganic carbon so efficiently?

To determine the mechanism of inorganic carbon supply, we

used isolated tentacles of the Mediterranean sea anemone,

Anemonia viridis. We demonstrated that the major source of

inorganic carbon is the HCO3 - present in the external medium

surrounding the animal. The absorption of HCO3 - from the

external seawater induces a polarization of the oral epithelium,

revealed by the generation of a pH gradient between sea water

and the coelenteric cavity of about 0.8 pH units. To further

study this mechanism, we used plasma membrane vesicles of

ectodermal cells from tentacles. We found that HCO3 - uptake

results from a H + secretion by an H + -ATPase which, in

addition to a membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase, induces the

dehydration of HCO3 - into CO2.

THE GROWTH AND SURVIVORSHIP OF REEF-BUILDING

CORALS EXPOSED TO ELEVATED

NUTRIENTS IN A LONG-TERM MANIPULATIVE

FIELD STUDY.

Hoegh-Guldberg Ove*, *Centre For Marine Studies,

University Of Queensland, StLucia, 4072. Qld, Australia.

Email: oveh@uq.edu.au <mailto:oveh@uq.edu.au>

Two species of reef-building corals (pocillopora damicornis

and acropora longicyathus) were exposed to increased

concentrations of inorganic n (ammonium, nh4cl) and p

(phosphate, nah2po4) in naturally ponding micro-atolls for 9

months as part of the encore (enrichment of nutrient on coral

reefs) project at one tree island reef (southern great barrier

reef). Growth rates were reduced to 57.7% and 71.1% of

control rates in two morphotypes ("pink" and "brown"

respectively) of p. Damicornis (p < 0.05) when exposed to

elevated ammonium concentrations for 9 months. Adding

phosphate resulted in similar yet not statistically significant (p

> 0.05) trends and treatment with both ammonium and

phosphate resulted in the lowest growth rates (59.4% and

75.7% of control growth rates) for the brown and pink

morphotypes respectively. Rates of mortality in ammonium

treated microatolls were 271% and 211% of control rates for

pink and brown morphotypes respectively (p = 0.0077) and

were highest in microatolls receiving both ammonium and

phosphate. Similar though not statistically significant trends (p

> 0.05) were seen with a. Longicyathus. The differences

between the two species seen in the present study highlight the

importance of multi-species studies. The results of this study

also demonstrate experimentally (and for the first time) that

increased concentrations of ammonium and phosphate under

field conditions over ecologically relevant time scales can

specifically decrease the growth and survivorship of reef-building

coral associations..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A4: Zooxanthellae

26

EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF ZOOXANTHELLA-CONTAINING

EGGS OF SCLERACTINIAN CORALS:

DOES THE PRESENCE OF ZOOXANTHELLAE

AFFECT THE DEVELOPMENT?

Hirose, M.* and M. Hidaka. Dept. of Chemistry, Biology

and Marine Science, Univ. of the Ryukyus, Nishihara,

Okinawa, 903-0213 Japan. Email: k988551@sci.u-ryukyu.

ac.jp

Early development of zooxanthella-containing eggs of

scleractinian corals was studied to understand how the

presence of zooxanthellae influences early development of

corals and how zooxanthellae become restricted to the

gastrodermis of planulae during the course of development.

Zooxanthellae distributed mainly in a hemisphere of spawned

eggs of Pocillopora verrucosa and P. eydouxi. The first

cleavage furrow started at the hemisphere that was rich in

zooxanthellae, dividing the zooxanthellae almost equally into

two blastomeres. The second cleavage divided the blastomere

into a zooxanthella-rich blastomere and a blastomere with few

zooxanthellae. The uneven distribution of zooxanthellae

persisted until the zygotes developed into gastrulae. If

blastomeres were isolated by pipetting at two- or four-cell

stages, the next cleavage started at the zooxanthella-rich

hemisphere as in the first normal cleavage, dividing the

zooxanthellae almost equally. Blastomeres isolated even at 8-

cell stage could develop into planulae suggesting that eggs of

the corals underwent indeterminate cleavage.

THE FUTURE OF CORAL REEFS: INTEGRATING

CLIMATE MODEL PROJECTIONS AND THE RECENT

BEHAVIOUR OF CORALS AND THEIR

DINOFLAGELLATES.

Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove*, *Centre for Marine Studies,

University of Queensland, St Lucia, 4072. QLD, Australia.

Email: oveh@uq.edu.au

Concern is increasing as to how coral reefs will fare under

climate change. All major climate models concur that current

rates of temperature change in the world’s oceans (1-2 o C per

century) will continue over the next 100 years if atmospheric

greenhouse gases increase. This scenario, together with the

explicit link between coral bleaching, mortality and sea

temperature, leads to the prediction that coral bleaching is

likely to become an annual feature of coral reef environments

in the 21 st century. This paper reviews the rationale behind

these predictions and explores how coral reefs might respond

to an increased frequency and intensity of coral bleaching.

While some workers suggest that corals-dinoflagellates will

adapt fast enough to the changes in sea temperature, the data to

support these opinions is scant or non-existent. Most evidence

suggests that corals and their symbiotic dinoflagellates will not

change fast enough to prevent major changes in coral reef

ecosystem distribution and function. Simple ecological

surveys done after a bleaching event reveal little about the

long-term decadal trends and may even serve to confuse

managers and policy makers who seek guidance in this

important debate. Two issues are central to a better

understanding of how reefs will respond to climate change.

These are: (a) the rates of genetic change (adaptation) under

extreme selection regimes and (b) the source of genetic

variability on coral reefs. The latter also suggests that a

greater knowledge of gene flow and connectivity between

reefs is crucial. Work on these issues is surprisingly limited

and must be a priority over the next few years.

PHOSPHORUS UPTAKE & ALLOCATION IN

AIPTASIA PALLIDA.

Kelty, R.*, Lipschultz. National Oceanographic &

Atmospheric Administration, National Centers for Coastal

Ocean Science, 1305 East-West Highway SSMC4, Rm.

9224, Silver Spring, MD 20910. Email:

ruth.kelty@noaa.gov

The physiology of phosphorus uptake and incorporation by

the anemone Aiptasia pallida was investigated by using

radiolabeled orthophosphate to trace the movement of

phosphate from seawater into the symbiotic associate and then

its redistribution within the anemone. The animal host is

capable of both actively transporting and assimilating

phosphate. In symbiotic anemones and corals, zooxanthellae

typically provide the energy for phosphate transport, and

uptake by symbiotic anemones is light enhanced. Regardless

of its source, the oxidation of carbon and concurrent

phosphorylation of ADP provide the ATP to drive active

phosphate uptake by the animal. Once phosphate is

transported across the plasma membrane, it is immediately

incorporated into ATP and other metabolic intermediates, then

slowly assimilated into macromolecular compounds. The

algae compete with the animal for phosphate in the host

cytoplasm and can also assimilate organic phosphorus

compounds, including phosphorus released by the host. No

evidence was found for phosphate recycling between the host

and algae, but there is a unidirectional flow of phosphate from

the animal to the algae. Furthermore, release of newly

incorporated phosphate into the incubation water suggests that

phosphorus is not tightly recycled.

THE MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY,

PHYSIOLOGY AND GENETICS OF SYMBIODINIUM:

A REVIEW AND SYNTHESIS OF

CHARACTERIZATIONS MADE ON CULTURED

SYMBIOTIC DINOFLAGELLATES.

LaJeunesse, Todd C.* and Robert K. Trench. Department

of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology University of

California Santa Barbara, CA 93106 Email:

lajeunes@lifesci.ucsb.edu

The symbiosis between dinoflagellates of the genus

Symbiodinium and numerous carbonate-producing

invertebrates is unarguably the most important ecological

interaction on present day coral reefs. Our knowledge of these

endosymbiotic algae has improved remarkably since culturing

techniques were developed to permit the isolation and

manipulation of symbionts outside the host and to conduct

comparative studies to distinguish attributes that are inherently

genetic and those which are affected by growth under different

environmental conditions. Over the last 25 years, examinations

of morphology, biochemistry, physiology and genetics have

identified high diversity among cultured isolates. However,

most of these studies were conducted without knowledge of

phylogenetic relatedness and thus prevented genealogical

comparisons. The genetic analysis on those same isolates is

now complete. We present a review of the various biological

attributes measured and arrange this information in a

phylogenetic context to determine how distinct lineages

correlate with function. For certain attributes, genetic

differences correlate with differences in morphology,

physiology and biochemistry, while for other characters they

do not..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A4: Zooxanthellae

27

SOURCES OF CAROTENOIDS IN THE ANEMONE,

Aiptasia pallida, AND THEIR ROLE IN ULTRAVIOLET

RADIATION PHOTOPROTECTION.

Mobley, K.B.* and D.F. Gleason. Georgia Southern

University, Department of Biology, Statesboro, GA 30460-

8042, USA. Email: kenyon_b_mobley@gasou.edu.

Using the common Caribbean anemone, Aiptasia pallida, as

a model for coral/algal symbiosis, laboratory experiments were

conducted to investigate the following: 1) the effects of

enhanced ultraviolet radiation (UVR), zooxanthellae density

and heterotrophic feeding (Artemia sp.) on carotenoid

composition and concentration and 2) the role of carotenoid

pigmentation in UVR photoprotection. Fed and unfed,

zooxanthellate and apozooxanthellate A. pallida were exposed

to the following light treatments: UVR (290 - 400nm) and

PAR (Photosynthetically Active Radiation 400-700nm); PAR

only; and no light. Chlorophyll a and c, as well as the

carotenoids b-carotene, peridinin, diatoxanthin and

diadinoxanthin, were analyzed by HPLC from anemone tissue

collected during the course of the 40-day experiment. After a

14 day exposure to UVR, significant decreases in chlorophyll

a, c and peridinin were observed in the UVR/ zooxanthellate/

unfed treatment. However there was no significant decrease in

the diadinoxanthin/ diatoxanthin pool indicating the presence

of the photoprotective xanthophyll cycle. This cycle is

hypothesized to protect the light harvesting photosynthetic

apparatus from excess excitation energy via non-photochemical

quenching suggesting a primary role for

carotenoids in UVR photoprotection in this species.

COMPARISON OF THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC

FEATURES OF ZOOXANTHELLAE EXPELLED AND

RETAINED BY STRESSED CORALS.

Muller-Parker, Gisele *. *Dept. of Biology & Shannon

Point Marine Center, Western Washington University,

Bellingham, WA 98225-9160, USA. Email:

gisele@biol.wwu.edu

The SEARUN project team compared the photosynthetic

parameters of expelled zooxanthellae with those retained by

the host coral Montastraea faveolata after exposure to elevated

(+2°C) temperature and enhanced PAR and UV-B irradiance.

Zooxanthellae were obtained from coral plugs collected near

Lee Stocking Island in the Bahamas (15 m depth; July 1998

and 1999) and subjected to different experimental treatments,

including seawater ammonium enrichment (2 or 10 uM).

Photosynthesis-irradiance curves were used to derive

photosynthetic capacity (Pmax) and photosynthetic efficiency

(alpha) of zooxanthellae. Photosynthetic parameters indicate

that zooxanthellae in the host are protected from moderate UV-B

stress and do not respond to increased seawater ammonium

availability. In contrast, expelled zooxanthellae are damaged

by UV-B exposure and utilize ammonium enrichments to

increase both alpha and Pmax. Increased temperature

decreases Pmax and alpha of both populations of

zooxanthellae; detrimental effects are more pronounced under

high PAR and UV-B. Our results show that the host provides

adequate photoprotection for resident zooxanthellae under

normal seawater temperatures. Although expelled

zooxanthellae lose this advantage, they gain the ability to

utilize seawater nutrient enrichments. However, there is no

escape from high temperature; Pmax and alpha of both

populations of zooxanthellae are reduced upon exposure to

+2°C..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A4: Zooxanthellae

28

LIGHT UTILIZATION AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN

PORITES BRANERII.

Pérez-Vivar, T.L., S, Enríquez, R Iglesias-Prieto*. Unidad

Académica Puerto Morelos ICML-UNAM Apartado Postal

1152, Cancún Q.R. 77500 México. Email:

iglesias@mar.icmyl.unam.mx

The spectroscopic characteristics and photosynthetic

responses of the Caribbean stony coral Porites branerii were

analyzed. Comparison of the absorption spectra of small

fragments of P. branerii with those obtained from the freshly

isolated symbiotic algae allowed us to quantify the effect of

multiple scattering by the coral skeleton on the chlorophyll a

specific absorption coefficient. Absorption spectra of colonies

obtained during a natural bleaching event indicate the presence

of a non-linear behavior of the coral absorptance (percentage

of light absorbed) as a function of chlorophyll content. At high

pigment concentrations, a two fold reduction in chlorophyll

resulted in minor variations in absorptance, whereas at low

pigment concentrations similar reductions in chlorophyll

content resulted in dramatic reductions in the absorptance of

the coral. Simultaneous determinations of photosynthetic

activity by polarographic and pulse amplitude chlorophyll a

fluorescence techniques indicate that oxygen evolution and

electron transport rates measurements show a linear behavior

at sub-saturating irradiances, but at high irradiances there is

disproportional increase in the electron transport rate relative

to oxygen evolution. Employing the spectroscopic data in

conjunction with in situ modulated pulse amplitude

fluorescence determinations we followed, the diurnal

variations in the photosynthetic activity of a naturally

occurring colony of P. branerii.

SYMBIOSIS GENES IN CNIDARIAN-ALGAL

ASSOCIATIONS: A HOST GENE, SYM32, ENCODES A

CELL ADHESION PROTEIN THAT IS UPREGULATED

AS A FUNCTION OF SYMBIOSIS

Schwarz, J.A. * and Weis, V.M.. *Department of Zoology,

Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331, USA.

schwarzj@bcc.orst.edu

The symbiotic association between cnidarians and

dinoflagellates is ultimately regulated by the interacting

genomes of the partners. By identifying cnidarian genes that

are expressed as a function of symbiotic state, we are

beginning to gain insights into how these partnerships are

regulated. Comparative protein profiles of the sea anemone

Anthopleura elegantissima reveal that symbiotic individuals

produce a variety of proteins that are absent, or nearly so, in

individuals that lack symbiotic algae (=aposymbiotic). The

most abundantly produced of these symbiosis proteins is a

32kD protein, sym32. Characterization of the cDNA sequence

suggests that this protein is a member of the Fas I family of

cell adhesion proteins, and possibly plays a role in cell

signaling. This gene is not specific to A. elegantissima; it also

exists in other symbiotic cnidarians that we have examined, a

scleractinian coral, an octocoral, and a jellyfish.

Immunolocalization studies in A. elegantissima have revealed

1) that the sym32 protein is not restricted to host cells which

contain algae (ie., both endoderm and ectoderm contain

sym32) and 2) that symbiotic individuals upregulate sym32

synthesis in both alga-containing and alga-free tissues. Sym32

levels are related to symbiont abundance; as the population of

algae increases, so do levels of sym32 in host tissues. In the

coral Fungia scutaria, the sym32 gene begins to be expressed

during embryonic development, prior to the host acquiring

algae, suggesting that this protein functions in early

development as well as in the symbiosis with algae.

THE ROLE OF CARBON IN RELATIONSHIP

BETWEEN ZOOXANTHELLAE AND CORALS ,

Stambler, Noga*, *Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan

University. Ramat Gan 52900, Israel. Email:

Stambln@mail.biu.ac.il

The population density of zooxanthellae is controlled by

nitrogen and carbon limitation. The coral host keeps the algal

growth rates far below their potential maximum. Under

increasing densities of algae, like those obtained as a result of

nutrient enrichment, the algae may become CO2 limited, and

may even compete with the animal for carbon for calcification.

Photosynthetic rates, on a per cell basis, were inversely

correlated with algal densities, indicating possible competition

among the algae for CO2. The relation between CO2 and Ca 2+

exchange and photosynthesis by corals was studied with

microelectrodes for Ca 2+ , O2, pH and CO2. It seems that Ca 2+

uptake is directly regulated by photosynthesis.

HOMOGENIZED TISSUE FROM APOSYMBIOTIC

Plesiastrea versipora STIMULATES THE RELEASE OF

ALGAL PHOTOSYNTHATE.

Starke-Peterkovic, T.*, A.J. Grant and R. Hinde. *School

of Biological Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney,

Australia, 2006 Email: tomo77@hotmail.com

Stimulation of photosynthate release from isolated

symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) is believed to be due to the

activity of a compound present in host homogenate referred to

as host release factor (HRF). It has been proposed that HRF is

only present in tissues from symbiotic animals. However, we

observed HRF activity in two rare, naturally aposymbiotic

samples of the temperate coral Plesiastrea versipora collected

in 1992 and in 1994. To confirm these findings, aposymbiotic

corals were produced by chilling at 4 o C for 4 h in the dark then

maintaining them in seawater in the dark at 20 o C. After twelve

weeks all algae had been expelled and corals were then fed

fortnightly with fish food (Liquifry, diluted 2 x 10 -7 ) and used

in experiments 8-11 weeks later. Homogenized tissue from

aposymbiotic corals was incubated with freshly isolated algae

from symbiotic corals for 2 h in the light. In three experiments,

release of algal photosynthate was stimulated up to four fold

by incubation in host homogenate (from symbiotic corals) and

up to three fold by incubation in aposymbiotic homogenate

when compared with algae incubated in seawater. Range

expressed as nmol carbon released/10 5 cells: 1.15 + 0.09 to 1.6

+ 0.16 in seawater; 2.91 + 0.14 to 6.19 + 0.048 in host

homogenate; 2.48 + 0.16 to 5.29 + 0.57 in aposymbiotic

homogenate (mean + SD, n = 3 or 4). These results using

aposymbiotic corals suggest that HRF is constitutively

produced by P. versipora..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A4: Zooxanthellae

29

CARBON ISOTOPIC RECORDS IN CORAL

SKELETONS: WHAT DO THEY MEAN?

Swart*, P.K., *Marine Geology and Geophysics,

Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences,

University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami

Fl 33149 Email: Pswart@srmas.miami.edu

There have been numerous attempts to understand the

meaning of carbon isotopic variation in zooxanthellate and

non-zooxanthellate coral skeletons. The model that is

currently acclaimed is that the carbon isotopic composition is a

function of the amount of insolation, with more positive _ 13 C

values occurring during periods of higher light intensity. We

present data on temporal and spatial variation in the carbon

isotopic composition of the zooxanthellae and coral tissue,

which casts further information on the cycling of carbon in

zooxanthellate corals. Our data, collected from Montastraea

faveolata growing on the Florida reef tract over a period of two

years, indicates a cycling in the carbon isotopic composition of

the coral tissue over approximately 2 per mille and a variation

of the difference between the carbon isotopic composition of

the zooxanthellae and the coral tissue. Although these

difference can be explained in a number of different ways, but

one possible explanation is that during the summer (periods of

high light intensity and long photoperiod), the corals are CO2

limited causing a reduction in the amount of fractionation

between the CO2 and the photosynthethate. Other explanations

involve seasonal change in the amount of heterotrophy and

autotrophy, changes in the isotopic composition of the DIC,

changes in the isotopic composition of the food source, or

changes in amount of lipids in the organism.

VISUALIZATION AND ISOLATION OF THE

CNIDARIAN SYMBIOSOME.

Trautman, Donelle* and Hinde, Rosalind. *School of

Biological Sciences, University of Sydney, NSW 2006,

Australia Email: rhinde@bio.usyd.edu.au

In cnidarian-algal symbioses, the alga is surrounded by a

host-derived membrane which forms a symbiosome. This

symbiosome membrane may have important roles in the

physiology of the symbiosis, but until now its roles have not

been investigated because it could only be seen using electron

microscopy. We have developed a simple method to extract

intact gastrodermal cells containing symbiotic algae, from the

anthozoan Zoanthus robustus, and to visualize the symbiosome

membrane using fluorescence microscopy. Large numbers of

motile gastrodermal cells were squeezed out through a small

slit made in the side of the zoanthid. The fluorescent probe

MDY-64 (yeast vacuole membrane marker) was used to

visualize the symbiosome membrane, and amino-chloromethyl-

coumarin was used to stain the cytoplasm of the

host cell. Intact symbiosomes, containing algae, were obtained

by ‘shearing’ off the host plasma membrane and cytoplasm by

dragging a suspension of the host cells through a needle and

syringe. Clean algal cells were obtained by further use of the

same method. Neither cleaned algae nor cultured algae

showed any trace of staining by MDY-64. These fluorescent

probes were also used successfully on host cells and symbionts

from the coral Plesiastrea versipora and the anemone Aiptasia

pulchella.

FISHING FOR SYMBIOSIS GENES IN CNIDARIAN-ALGAL

MUTUALISMS.

Weis, Virginia M.*. *Department of Zoology, Oregon

State University, Corvallis, OR, 97333, USA. Email:

weisv@bcc.orst.edu

Mutualistic symbioses between cnidarians and their

dinoflagellate symbionts form both the trophic and structural

foundation of coral reef ecosystems. Despite the profound

ecological significance of these symbioses, there have been

few studies that examine the underlying genetic interactions

between the animal host and algal symbiont. Genes and gene

products governing the onset, regulation, and maintenance of

these symbioses remain largely undescribed. We have been

investigating the molecular interactions that drive cnidarian-algal

symbioses in two associations; the temperate sea

anemone Anthopleura elegantissima and its dinoflagellate

Symbiodinium californium, and the tropical scleractinian

Fungia scutaria and its symbiont Symbiodinium spp. We have

identified several genes in A. elegantissima that are expressed

specifically as a function of the symbiotic state. These include

1) carbonic anhydrase, known to be important in inorganic

carbon transport, 2) sym32, a member of the fasciclin I family

of cell adhesion proteins, 3) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate

dehydrogenase, a glycolytic and Calvin cycle enzyme and 4) a

homologue to a calmodulin-binding protein. In addition to

investigating the roles of these “symbiosis genes” in the

regulation of the symbiosis, we are examining when these

genes are first expressed during symbiosis onset in the larval

stage of F. scutaria. In this way, we seek to identify the initial

cascade of events surrounding symbiosis onset in cnidarians

and their symbiotic algae.

PHOTOINHIBITION IN CORALS: IN THE EYE OF

THE BEHOLDER?

Winters, G.*, Y. Loya and S. Beer. *Department of Plant

Sciences and Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel.

Email: gidw@post.tau.ac.il

The methods used to investigate light responses of

zooxanthellae, and the different definitions of photoinhibition,

make it unclear whether this phenomenon is common in

shallow water corals. We used an underwater pulse amplitude

modulated (PAM) fluorometer (Diving-PAM) to investigate

the occurrence of photoinhibition in two Red Sea corals. In situ

photosynthesis rates were measured under ambient light at half

hourly intervals during 24hrs for Stylophora pistillata (2.15m)

and Favia favus (1.9m) using PAM fluorescence point

measurements. Measurements show diurnal variations in the

relative electron transport rates (ETRs), but no decreases in

ETRs as a result of high ambient irradiances were found.

Optimal quantum yields of PSII (variable fluorescence, Fv,

divided by maximal fluorescence, Fm) were measured for S.

pistillata using in situ dark-adaptation, at different times of the

day. After 30-60 min dark-adaptation, optimal yields did not

change throughout the day. Thus, neither a decrease in Fv/Fm,

nor in photosynthetic ETRs was detected during maximal

natural mid-day irradiances on cloudless days and in clear

shallow waters. "Photoinhibition" (defined as a decrease in

photosynthetic rates at high irradiances) could be detected only

under unnaturally high irradiances caused by the Diving-PAM's

halogen light source during the generation of "rapid

light curves". These results do not support the notion of

photoinhibition in corals under natural high light conditions.

Because of the variety of definitions of photoinhibition, we

conclude that the presence of this phenomenon in corals is

largely "in the eye of the beholder"..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A4: Zooxanthellae

30

ALGAL ACQUISITION BY SEXUAL OFFSPRING OF A

SOFT CORAL: DYNAMICS AND TEMPORAL

ASPECTS.

Yacobovitch T.* Benayahu Y. and Weis V. *Department of

Zoology, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel; Department

of Zoology, Oregon State University, OR 97331, USA.

Email: taliya@post.tau.ac.il

Acquisition of symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) from the

ambient environment by cnidarian sexual offspring occurs in

both scleractinians and octocorals, and is far more common

than maternal inheritance. We have been examining symbiosis

onset in the soft coral Heteroxenia fuscescens which acquires

its symbionts from the seawater as an aposymbiotic primary

polyps. Freshly isolated algae, added to laboratory grown

primary polyps, were seen swimming toward the polyp mouth

opening and after 4-12 hours, symbionts were present in the

primary polyps. Seven-day-old polyps contained an average of

45±18 algal cells (n=10), increasing in 60-day-old animals to

2128±713 cells (n=10). The location of the symbionts changed

with time. Whereas in three-day-old polyps, symbionts were

limited to the tentacle gastrodermis, in 7-day-old animals,

symbionts were also present in the upper portions of the stalk,

and in 30-day-old polyps, symbionts were present throughout

the host gastrodermis. Our findings indicate that primary

polyps are capable of acquiring symbiotic algae over a 2-3

month period. Finally, in the laboratory, algal swarmers had a

diurnal rhythmic motility induced by light. This activity

peaked once a day during the morning for 2-3 hours, when the

swarmers aggregated in large numbers around the polyp

mouth.

THE ACQUISITION AND FIXATION OF INORGANIC

CARBON BY THE TRIDACNA GIGAS -SYMBIODINIUM

SP. SYMBIOSIS.

Yellowlees, D.*, Leggat, W.. *Biochemistry and Molecular

Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland,

Australia 4811. Email: david.yellowlees@jcu.edu.au

The supply of inorganic carbon (C i) to zooxanthellae is an

essential component in the symbiotic relationship of Tridacna

gigas. It is required for photosynthetic CO2-fixation by the

dinoflagellates, a process which is intimately coupled to light

harvesting in all photosynthetic organisms. In symbioses such

as the giant clam and corals, the Ci is sourced from both host

respiration and sea water. The host supply system must meet

zooxanthellae demands otherwise the algae will be carbon-limited

and photosynthesis cannot operate at peak efficiency.

To source Ci from sea water, uptake into the haemolymph of

giant clams must occur through the gills before being made

available to the zooxanthellae in the Z-tubules of the host

mantle. This Ci gradient is contrary to most other marine

organisms where Ci is removed through the gills. The Ci

supply system in clams involves at least two carbonic

anhydrase isoforms which occur in both the gills and mantle.

These facilitate the movement of CO2 through the host tissue.

The zooxanthellae in turn possess an external carbonic

anhydrase and possibly a bicarbonate transporter to aid uptake

into the algae. However the kinetic properties of the Form II

Rubisco found in zooxanthellae requires the presence of a

CO2-concentrating mechanism in the chloroplast to ensure

productive carbon fixation and the resulting export of

photosynthate (glucose) to the host for respiratory purposes.

UV-RESISTANCE MECHANISMS OF A SOFT CORAL

AND THE INVOLVEMENT OF THEIR SYMBIOTIC

ZOOXANTHELLAE.

Zeevi Ben-Yosef D.*, Y. Kashman, Y. Benayahu.

*Department of Zoology, Goerge S. Wise, Faculty of Life

Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel.

Email: dafnaz@post.tau.ac.il

Along with photosynthetically active radiation that

zooxanthellate corals require for photosynthesis, they are also

exposed to damaging ultraviolet radiation (UVR). UV

absorbing compounds (MAAs) provides the most important

resistance mechanism against UVR in the marine environment.

We studied the resistance of the Red Sea soft coral

Heteroxenia fuscescens to UVR in course of its life cycle. The

dominant MAA compound was found to be palythine, whose

concentration declined with depth. Batches of azooxanthellate

planulae obtained from 2-3 and 18-20 m were exposed to

controlled radiation levels, corresponding to the ambient ones.

Planulae derived from both depths had LD50 values of 41-60

cumulative hours of UVR exposure. Azooxanthellate primary

polyps from the same depths showed LD 50 values of 30-94 hrs.

Zooxanthellate primary polyps derived from shallow and deep

colonies had LD50 in the range of 136-210 hrs. Yet, it seems

that the LD50 values depend on seawater temperature.

Zooxanthellate polyps that were incubated with glyphosate, an

inhibitor of MAAs biosynthesis, yield LD50 of 76 hrs, a value

2.5 times lowers than without its presence. Survivorship rates

of planulae, azoo- and zooxanthellate primary polyps, and

polyps incubated with or without glyphosate corresponded

with their respective MAAs levels. Our findings indicate that

the resistance to UVR is already acquired during early

onthogenesis of a coral through MAAs, whose presence is

related to the symbiotic state..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A5: Zooxanthellae Biodiversity

Session A5: Biodiversity and Biogeography of Zooxanthellae in Coral-Algal

Symbiosis

31.9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A5: Zooxanthellae Biodiversity

Session A5: Biodiversity and Biogeography of Zooxanthellae in Coral-Algal

Symbiosis

32

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MORPHOLOGY

AND MOLECULAR VARIATION OF

ZOOXANTHELLAE FROM TEMPERATE

AUSTRALIAN REEFS.

Aisyah E.N *, Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Hinde, R.; and Loh,

W. *School of Biological Sciences, Zoology Building AO8,

The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. Email:

eaisyah@mail.bio.usyd.edu.au

Until recently, the majority of zooxanthellae have been

ascribed to a single species, Symbiodinium microadriaticum.

Genetic analysis of zooxanthellae from a diversity of host

species has revealed that these symbionts potentially belong to

hundreds of host specific species. This study investigated the

morphological correlates of zooxanthellae from marine

invertebrates growing on temperate reefs at the southern end of

the Great Barrier Reef and Sydney Harbour. The results

indicate that the molecular differences (18S, 28S rDNA, RFLP

and sequence analysis) between zooxanthel-lae track

differences in morphology (TEM and confocal mi-croscopy).

Our results show that the soft coral Capnella gaboensis from

Sydney contain clade C. Zooxanthellae from other marine

invertebrates (clam Tridacna maxima; corals Acropora

longicyathus, Heliofungia actiniformis and Stylophora

pistillata; and zoanthid Palythoa caesia) taken from The Great

Barrier Reef belong to clade C. Zooxanthellae from zoanthid

Zoanthus robustus do not belong to either clade A, B nor C.

The significance of these results to the diversity of

zooxanthellae in the Pacific will be discussed.

ECOLOGICAL, BIOGEOGRAPHIC AND HOST-SYSTEMATIC

PATTERNS OF SYMBIONT DIVERSITY

AMONG REEF-BUILDING CORALS.

Baker A.C.*. *Wildlife Conservation Society, Osborn

Laboratories of Marine Science, New York Aquarium,

Boardwalk at West 8 th St., Brooklyn, New York 11224,

USA. Email: abaker@wcs.org

The diversity of symbiotic dinoflagellates (“zooxanthellae”)

in reef corals was surveyed using Restriction Fragment Length

Polymorphisms (RFLPs) in large subunit ribosomal rRNA

genes. In total >800 samples from >110 species of reef coral

from the western Atlantic (Bahamas, Panamá), eastern Pacific

(Panamá, Galápagos, Mexico) and Indo-west Pacific

(Australia) were surveyed. These methods, combined with

molecular sequencing of large subunit rDNA, distinguished

17-19 symbiont genotypes in four clades of Symbiodinium (A,

B, C and D). The distribution of these genotypes showed

strong ecological, biogeographic and host-systematic patterns.

Many (>35%) of the >100 scleractinian coral species surveyed

contained multiple symbiont genotypes (sometimes in single

coral colonies) which often showed light-related patterns of

zonation, both among colonies at different depths and within

colonies across sunlit and shaded surfaces. Given the

extremely conservative nature of: (1) the molecular methods,

(2) the per-species number of samples, and (3) the number of

sites visited, it is clear that inter- and intraspecific symbiont

diversity is a common feature of reef-building coral biology

with strong ecological and biogeographic implications. This

conclusion argues for an explicit recognition of symbiont

diversity in future studies of reef-building corals.

BLEACHING OF REEF CORALS PROMOTES RAPID

RESPONSE TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE.

Baker A.C.*. *Wildlife Conservation Society, Osborn

Laboratories of Marine Science, New York Aquarium,

Boardwalk at West 8 th St., Brooklyn, New York 11224,

USA. Email: abaker@wcs.org

The loss of zooxanthellae during bleaching is conventionally

viewed as a pathological stress response of universal detriment

to reef-building corals. However, because scleractinian corals

are known to host multiple taxa of algal symbionts (whose

distributions within host species often show strong patterns of

ecological zonation), it has been suggested that bleaching may

provide an opportunity for invertebrate hosts to recombine

with different symbiont taxa that are better suited to the

(changed) environment. This hypothesis was tested in eight

species of Caribbean scleractinian coral using controlled

reciprocal depth transplantation experiments. Results

demonstrated that severe bleaching caused by transplanting

corals from deep (20-23m) to shallow (2-5m) sites facilitated

rapid adaptive change in symbiont communities by first

removing existing symbionts. In contrast, transplants from

shallow to deep sites, resulted in little or no bleaching, and did

not lead to symbiont community change. The persistence of

suboptimal host-symbiont combinations (“shallow” symbionts

in the transplanted corals at the deep site) resulted in higher

coral mortality after a one-year period. These data represent

the first empirical findings supporting the “adaptive bleaching”

hypothesis. They challenge the view that bleaching is

universally detrimental, and demonstrate that bleaching may

allow reef coral symbioses to respond more rapidly to

environmental change.

SEASONAL POPULATION DYNAMICS OF ALGAL

SYMBIONTS OF ACROPORIDS AND TRIDACNIDS IN

AN OKINAWA REEF.

Belda-Baillie C.A*, Baillie, B.K.; Shimoike, K.; Maruyama,

T. *Marine Biotechnology Institute Co., Ltd., Kamaishi

Laboratories, Heita, Kamaishi City, Iwate 026-0001,

Japan. Email: carmen.baillie@kamaishi.mbio.co.jp

Acroporids and tridacnids are common components of

Akajima reef in Okinawa, Japan, where extensive bleaching

and death of corals were recorded in 1998 in association with

anomalously-high summer temperatures. To evaluate the

dynamics and possible role of symbiotic dinoflagellates in the

susceptibility of symbiotic reef organisms to bleaching, the

dinoflagellate symbionts of the stony coral Acropora digitifera

and the tridacnid clam Tridacna in Akajima reef were

monitored over four seasons of 1999. A. digitifera and

Tridacna were found to host at least 2 genetically-diverse

populations of the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium, based on

denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis and sequence

comparison of the hypervariable region of the algae’s 18S

rRNA gene. Measurement of the symbionts’ Chl a content and

density from replicate coral colonies and clams in replicate

plots and weeks of sampling showed no significant seasonal

bleaching and differences in algal growth. Initial assessment

of the mixed algal populations of A. digitifera and Tridacna

showed general consistency over the different seasons. The

year 1999 was a typical year with no anomalous temperature

changes on the reef, based on the daily temperature record of

the Akajima Marine Science Laboratory. These findings

suggest that no significant seasonal bleaching and algal

population shifts occur in some acroporids and tridacnids

during a typical year with respect to temperature. This

constitutes important baseline information on algal population

dynamics in reef invertebrates..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A5: Zooxanthellae Biodiversity

33

DIVERSITY OF ZOOXANTHELLAE IN A HOST

INDIVIDUAL.

Carlos A.A.*, Baillie, Brett K. and Maruyama, Tadashi.

*Marine Science Institute, University of the Philippines,

Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines. Email:

binoy@msi01.cs.upd.edu.ph

The traditional view of zooxanthella-invertebrate symbioses

suggests that individual hosts harbor taxonomically

homogeneous symbiont populations. To assess the diversity of

the zooxanthella assemblage inhabiting an individual host,

zooxanthellae from 6 species of clam (Tridacna gigas, T.

squamosa, T. crocea, Hippopus hippopus, H. porcellanus, and

Corculum cardissa) and 1 species of sea anemone (Aiptasia

sp.) were studied using temperature-gradient gel

electrophoresis (TGGE), coupled with polymerase chain

reaction (PCR) using zooxanthella-specific primers that were

designed to target hypervariable regions of the small subunit

ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA) gene. Results revealed that a clam

may harbor 2 or more genotypically-distinct zooxanthellae,

with 1 to 2 dominant taxa occurring at a time. The clams

studied associated with at least 4 zooxanthella taxa. Nucleotide

sequencing of the TGGE bands and phylogenetic

reconstruction revealed that the zooxanthella taxa in clams

were Symbiodinium spp.; 1 was identical to previously-cultured

clam symbiont isolates, 1 appeared identical to a

previously-studied unculturable clam symbiont, and the other 2

represented novel strains of Symbiodinium. Individual Aiptasia

sp. harbored only 1 zooxanthella taxon, which had a ssrRNA

sequence identical to that of S. pulchrorum, previously isolated

from Aiptasia pulchella. This study has shown that individual

tridacnid and cardiid clams can harbor heterogeneous

zooxanthellae.

IS ZOOXANTHELLA DIVERSITY IN NEWLY

SETTLED OCTOCORALS HABITAT SPECIFIC?

Coffroth M.A.*. *University at Buffalo, Department of

Biological Sciences, Buffalo NY 14260, USA. Email:

coffroth@acsu.buffalo.edu

The growing awareness of the diversity of zooxanthellae and

the increasing incidence of coral bleaching events has focused

attention on the nature and variability of naturally occurring

host-symbiont dynamics. In octocorals such as Briareum

polyanthes and Plexaura kuna, planulae initially lack

zooxanthellae and acquire algae upon metamorphosis. Adults

of these species harbor zooxanthellae belonging to

Symbiodinium clade B over a range of habitats and depth,

suggesting a stable symbiosis. Initial acquisition in new

recruits involves zooxanthellae belonging to multiple clades

that vary with habitat. Newly settled polyps placed at inshore

sites initially acquired zooxanthellae in Symbiodinium clade A,

while polyps from the same cohort acquired zooxanthellae

principally in Symbiodinium clade B when place at offshore

and forereef sites. The cladal composition within the newly

settled polyp changed over time and after 3-6 months the

majority of polyps harbored zooxanthellae of the same clade as

those found in adult hosts, regardless of site. In early ontogeny

the host-symbiont interaction appears to be more plastic than

in the adults, which harbor zooxanthellae in Symbiodinium

clade B throughout the species range. This flexibility may be

driven by either local algal abundance or selection for the

zooxanthella taxon best adapted for that environment. Why the

initial colonists are eventually replaced remains to be

determined.

ZOOXANTHELLAE DIVERSITY WITHIN THE

CORAL GENUS MADRACIS.

Diekmann O.E.*, Tonk, Linda; Bak, Rolf P. M.; Olsen,

Jeanine L. *University of Groningen, PObox 14, 9750 AA

Haren, Email o.diekmann@biol.rug.nl

The diversity of zooxanthellae within five morphospecies of

the coral genus Madracis was investigated. Individuals of the

different morphospecies were sampled at one site on Curaçao,

Netherlands Antilles, over a depth range from 2-50 meter.

Restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence

analysis of large subunit rDNA showed that, although there is

some variation, Madracis only harbours one type of

zooxanthellae. Comparison with known sequences showed that

all Madracis zooxanthellae belong to the type B clade and that

there is no relation of zooxanthellae variation with

morphospecies or with depth. The general idea that hosting

more than one type of zooxanthellae, as has been found in

Montastraea annularis complex, facilitates adaptation to a

varying environment does not apply to Madracis. However

preliminary data analysis of the faster evolving ITS region

does show differentiation between the predominantly shallow

M. mirabilis and the other morphospecies. This result suggests

that not only different types of zooxanthellae but also variation

within a zooxanthellae type may play an important role in

adaptation to different environments.

SYMBIONTS (“SYMBIODINIUM BERMUDENSE”) OF

AIPTASIA PALLIDA FROM BERMUDA AND FLORIDA

RESPOND DIFFERENTLY TO TEMPERATURE AND

IRRADIANCE.

Goulet T.L.* and Cook, Clayton B. *Harbor Branch

Oceanographic Institution, 5600 U. S. 1 North, Fort Pierce,

Florida USA 34946. Email: tgoulet@hboi.edu

One major correlate of temperature-related bleaching events

is reduced photosynthesis by zooxanthellae of bleaching

corals. We examined the effects of short-term elevated

temperatures (32 and 34°C.) on the photosynthesis-irradiance

responses of zooxanthellae from populations of the subtropical

sea anemone Aiptasia pallida in Bermuda and the Florida

Keys. Zooxanthellae from both locations have been identified

as Symbiodinium bermudense. Using PCR to amplify the

DNA encoding for ss-rRNA, we determined that the

zooxanthellae of Bermuda A. pallida fell in Clade ‘B’ while

those from Florida A. pallida fell in Clade ‘A’. The

zooxanthellae from the two locations differed in

photosynthesis-irradiance responses. Zooxanthellae from

Bermuda anemones had a typical P-I response at 25° with no

photoinhibition up to 530 µmol m -2 sec -1 . At 32° these algae

exhibited photoinhibition at I > 250, with net O2 fluxes < 0 at I

> 500. At 34° O2 fluxes were always negative, increasingly so

at higher irradiances. In contrast, zooxanthellae from Florida

A. pallida never exhibited photoinhibition at these

temperatures. P-I patterns were similar at 25 and 32°; Pmax was

reduced at 34°, although the cells were still net producers at I >

Ic The zooxanthellae found in A. pallida from the two

geographic locations clearly differed physiologically. We are

currently determining whether these differences can be

attributed to the zooxanthella cladal identity..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A5: Zooxanthellae Biodiversity

34

A PHYLOGENETIC COMPARISON OF

ZOOXANTHELLAE FROM REEF CORALS WITH

DIFFERENT MODES OF SYMBIONT ACQUISITION.

Hidaka, M* and Hirose, Mamiko. *Dept. of

Chemistry, Biology and Marine Science, Univ. of the

Ryukyus, Nishihara, Okinawa, 903-0213 Japan. Email:

hidaka@sci.u-ryukyu.ac.jp

The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that corals

that vertically transmit symbionts from their mother colonies

contain species-specific zooxanthellae, while corals that

acquire symbionts from the environment contain locality-dependent

zooxanthellae. We analyzed the internal transcribed

spacer 1 (ITS1) region of algal nuclear ribosomal DNA to

study the phylogenetic relationships of zooxanthellae

contained in shallow reef corals from Okinawa, Thailand and

Hawaii that show different modes of symbiont acquisition.

Algal ITS1 regions were amplified by PCR using

zooxanthella-specific primers, and PCR products were directly

sequenced after purification. In each case, one (presumably

dominant) symbiont genotype was analyzed for each colony.

When Symbiodinium from Porites astreoides in Florida was

used as an outgroup, the zooxanthellae from corals in Okinawa

were monophyletic while those from Thailand and Hawaii

formed a large unresolved cluster. Symbiont identity appeared

to depend on the locality where host corals were collected

rather than the specific identity of the coral host or its mode of

symbiont acquisition. This suggests that corals which receive

zooxanthellae from their mother colonies may also acquire

symbionts from the environment.

TESTING THE ADAPTIVE BLEACHING

HYPOTHESIS: THE MECHANISM AND

CONSEQUENCES OF ZOOXANTHELLA EXCHANGE.

Jacobs J. Rebecca*. *Biology Department, University of

California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA

95064, USA. Email: jacobs@biology.ucsc.edu

The "adaptive bleaching hypothesis" posits that loss of

zooxanthellae by invertebrate hosts under stressful conditions

provides the opportunity for acquisition of a genetically

different type of zooxanthella potentially leading to a more fit

symbiosis. It has also been suggested that acute bleaching may

represent only the most extreme case of zooxanthella exchange

and that new symbiotic combinations may form continually

without acute bleaching and in the absence of perceptible

stress. Here, the facultatively symbiotic sea anemone Aiptasia

pulchella was used as a laboratory system for testing the

adaptive bleaching hypothesis in three kinds of experiments.

In flexibility experiments, different zooxanthella types were

fed to aposymbiotic anemones to document the probability of

successful symbiotic establishment and the subsequent fitness

of symbiotic combinations (e.g., survival, growth rate,

susceptibility to bleaching) under several standard and altered

(stressful) conditions. In exchange experiments, heterologous

zooxanthellae were fed to symbiotic anemones to determine

whether: (1) the introduced zooxanthella establishes a

symbiosis; (2) the resident zooxanthella maintains a symbiosis;

or (3) both zooxanthella types co-exist under standard or

altered conditions. In preference experiments, various

combinations of zooxanthellae were fed to symbiotic and

aposymbiotic anemones to determine which symbiotic

combinations were favored under what conditions.

Zooxanthella genotypes were differentiated by denaturing

gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE).

CORAL ZOOXANTHELLAE DIVERSITY IN

BLEACHED REEFS.

Loh William*, Sakai, Kazuhiko; and Hoegh-Guldberg,

Ove.

Tropical Biosphere Research Center. The University of the

Ryukyus. Okinawa, Japan. Email:

w.loh@mailbox.uq.edu.au

Studies using ribosomal DNA sequences show that a diverse

array of symbiotic dinoflagellate strains or species live within

the tissues of reef-building corals which may affect the

sensitivity of their host taxa to bleaching. Extensive coral

bleaching occurred in shallow reefs off the Ryukyu Islands of

Japan in 1998 and many coral genera in this region suffered

local extinction. We have explored the question of whether the

genotype of symbiotic dinoflagellate determines the sensitivity

of corals by studying the molecular diversity of symbiotic

dinoflagellates from 8 intertidal coral species on reefs off

several Ryukyu Islands that were affected by bleaching. Five

of the coral species (Goniastrea aspera, G. edwardsi, Favites

chinensis, Platygyra ryukyuensis and Pavona frondifera)

showed very little visible bleaching. The remaining species,

Acropora digitifera, Stylophora pistillata and Seriatopora

hystrix bleached extensively. Genetic diversity was

investigated using the D1 and D2 domains of symbiotic

dinoflagellates 28S rDNA and single stranded conformational

polymorphism (SSCP). Up to 18 SSCP profiles were obtained

which inferred a high level of diversity and also the presence

of multiple genotypes within single hosts. Phylogenetic

analyses were done using the 28S rDNA sequences.

Interestingly, lower numbers of genotypes were detected from

bleach-susceptible coral species, suggesting that low

zooxanthellae diversity may contribute to host bleaching

sensitivity.

SPECIFICITY OF HOST-ALGAL SYMBIOSIS FROM

THE SCLERACTINIAN CORAL PLESIASTREA

VERSIPORA ALONG A LATITUDINAL GRADIENT:

ECOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF SYMBIONT

DIVERSITY.

Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio*, Loh, William and Hoegh-Guldberg,

Ove. *Centre for Marine Studies, University of

Queensland, St Lucia QLD 4072, Australia. Email:

m.Rodriguez@mailbox.uq.edu.au

Plesiastrea versipora is one of the most widely distributed

hermatypic corals in the Indo-Pacific area and is recorded

continuously from the cooler waters of South Australia

through the tropics and subtropics to South Japan. This broad

distribution stands in contrast to most other hermatypic corals

that are restricted to the warm, sunlit and relatively stable

conditions of tropical seas. Since the ability of this coral to live

in such diverse habitats may be related to the identity of the

symbiotic dinoflagellates it contains, we examined genetic

diversity in the symbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium sp.)

in P. versipora from southern Japan to Australia. Using

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs) in 18S

ribosomal DNA (rDNA), together with sequence analysis of

28S rDNA, we found two geographically distinct clades of

symbiotic dinoflagellates living within Plesiastrea versipora.

In sub-tropical and tropical waters, P. versipora hosts

symbionts belonging to Symbiodinium clade C, while at high-latitude

sites it contains members of clade B. The presence of

different symbionts at different latitudes in this hermatypic

coral may account for its spread in evolutionary time to the

cooler and more physiologically challenging environments of

high latitude reefs..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A5: Zooxanthellae Biodiversity

35

DIVERSITY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY OF SYMBIOTIC

DINOFLAGELLATES ASSOCIATED TO

ANTHOZOANS FROM KOREAN WATERS.

Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio *, Cha, Harim; and Song,

Jun-Im. *Department of Biology, Ewha Womens

University, Seoul 120-750, South Korea. Email:

m.rodriguez@mailbox.uq.edu.au

Anthozoans are important components of the intertidal

marine fauna along the coastlines of South Korea. Although

the systematics of this group has been studied extensively

within Korean waters, the diversity of the symbiotic

dinoflagellates associated with these cnidarians is still

unexplored. In this preliminary study, we examined the genetic

diversity of symbiotic dinoflagellates associated with

anthozoans from three locations within Korean waters. Partial

nucleotide sequences of 28S ribosomal DNA gene were used

to compare the symbionts extracted from three actinarians

(Anthopleura kurogane, Anthopleura japonica and

Paracicyonis actinostolides), two stony corals (Alveopora

japonica and Dendrophyllia sp.), and one gorgonian

(Muricella muricata). We found the same type of symbiont

(Symbiodinium clade A) living within the actinarians occurring

on the south and east coast of Korea. In the southernmost

location (Cheju Island), which is under the influence of warm

water currents from subtropical areas, different symbionts

were found in association with several anthozoans. Most of the

actinarians and one of the two stony corals (Dendrophyllia sp.)

contained members of Symbiodinium clade A. The other coral

(Alveopora japonica) and the actinarian Paracicyonis

actinostolides contained members of Symbiodinium clade C.

The gorgonian Muricella muricata contained symbionts that

were unlike those reported so far. The biogeographical

significance of these results will be discussed.

MOLECULAR AND PHYSIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY OF

ZOOXANTHELLAE IN BERMUDIAN CORALS.

Savage, A. M.* and Douglas, A. E. *University of York,

Department of Biology, P.O. Box 373, York, YO10 5YW,

UK. Email: ams114@york.ac.uk

Bermuda is a high latitude reef site with an impoverished

scleractinian coral fauna. The molecular diversity of the

zooxanthellae in reef organisms was analysed using sequences

of the 24S rDNA. All zooxanthellae isolated could be

assigned to one of the three main ribotypes (A, B and C)

known from lower latitudes, and none differed substantially in

sequence from previously described zooxanthellae. The

photosynthesis-irradiance characteristics of different

zooxanthellae genotypes was investigated, using zooxanthellae

freshly isolated from a variety of Bermudian host invertebrates

(corals, sea anemones and jellyfish) which had

photoacclimated to a common irradiance level. Significant

differences in quantum yield (a), photosynthetic maxima

(Pmax) and saturating light intensity (Ik) were observed between

24S genotypes of zooxanthellae. Those of ribotype A were

characterised by high values of a and Pmax. Zooxanthellae of

ribotype B had lower values of Pmax, but were clearly

subdivided into two physiological groups with significantly

different a and Ik values.

A SURVEY OF THE GENOTYPES OF

ZOOXANTHELLAE SYMBIOTIC WITH PHILIPPINE

GIANT CLAMS.

Silvestre, Vivian A.*; Monje, Virginia D.; Sison, Marilou

P.; Carlos, Alvin A.; Lluisma, Arturo, O.. * Marine Science

Institute, University of the Philippines,Diliman, Quezon

City 1101 Philippines. Email: vivian@msi01.cs.upd.edu.ph

Recent studies in algal-invertebrate symbiosis suggest that

different genotypes of zooxanthellae may have varying effects

on the growth and survival of their hosts. In giant clams in

particular, studies have been initiated to understand the

ecological significance of these genotypes. In this study, a

number of wild clams were sampled from selected parts of the

country to assess the frequency and distribution of the different

zooxanthellae genotypes. PCR-RFLP analysis of the 18srRNA

gene segment using Taq I restriction enzyme revealed two

genotypes , A and C, to be dominant in Philippine giant clams.

Giant clams in Bolinao, Tubbataha reef and Investigator reef

generally harbor C zooxanthellae (regardless of species of

clams), while those in Cebu, Bohol and certain islands at KIG

harbor A. Apparently, giant clams have a tendency to associate

with only one genotype of zooxanthellae; co-occurrence of the

two genotypes in the same host was rarely observed.

SHORT TERM RESPONSES OF ZOOXANTHELLAE

FROM SYMBIODINIUM CLADES A AND C TO

SUBOPTIMAL LEVELS OF TEMPERATURE, LIGHT

AND SALINITY.

Sison, Marilou P.*, Licuanan, Suzanne M.; and Gomez,

Edgardo D.;. *The Marine Science Institute, University of

the Philippines, Diliman Quezon City, 1101, Philippines.

Email: msison@msi01.cs.upd.edu.ph

Different zooxanthella genotypes respond to various physical

factors in different ways. Some show resistance to suboptimal

environmental conditions that may directly and indirectly be

related to the host-symbiont association. To determine how

zooxanthellae from Symbiodinium clades A and C differ in

their response to suboptimal environmental factors, symbionts

from four species of giant clams (Tridacna gigas, T. derasa, T.

squamosa and Hippopus hippopus) were exposed to varying

levels of temperature, light and salinity. The following basic

physiological measures were determined: growth rate, pigment

content, production and respiration. The physiological

characteristics of each clade are discussed in relation to their

possible use in enhancing the resistance of cultured giant clams

to various stressful conditions that normally trigger symbiotic

dissociation (bleaching)..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A5: Zooxanthellae Biodiversity

36

VARIATION AMONG CASSIOPEIA-ALGAL

SYMBIOSES.

Sloan, Adrienne J.*. *Department of Biology and

Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas

77204-5513, USA. Email: asloan@uh.edu

Theoretical and empirical investigations regarding the

evolution and ecology of endosymbiotic associations are

widespread. However, few studies address intraspecific

symbiont variation among the same host species. Variation in

cooperation among Cassiopeia xamachana and Symbiodinium

microadriaticum was investigated using a series of cross-infection

experiments. It was hypothesized that algal

symbionts are not equally benevolent across Cassiopeia hosts.

Cassiopeia larvae and their maternal algal symbionts were

collected from ten sites across 160-km in the Florida Keys.

Nine hundred larvae were collected from one medusa per site

and were divided among flasks once they settled as polyps (30

animals per vessel). Polyps were infected with maternal algae

and nine non-maternal algal types (10 combinations per host

type; three replicates per combination). For each combination,

host size, mortality, algal mitotic index and density in hospite

were measured at 3, 13, and 28 days after infection. Analysis

has revealed significant differences among the combinations

for mortality and growth. Some combinations experienced

100% mortality while others experienced little or no mortality.

Host size either increased, stayed the same, or decreased

depending upon the combination type. On average, maternal

combinations experienced more growth and less mortality than

non-maternal combinations. There is also evidence of

significant host-symbiont interaction effects.

SYMBIONT ZOOXANTHELLAE DIVERSITY OF

ALCYONACEAN CORALS FROM THE KEPPEL

ISLANDS, GREAT BARRIER REEF, AUSTRALIA:

HOW DOES IT COMPARE WITH SCLERACTINIAN

CORALS?

Strychar K.B*., Scott, P.T.; Coates, M.L.; and Sammarco,

P.W. *School of Environmental and Biological Sciences,

Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, QLD 4702,

Australia,. Email: k.strychar@cqu.edu.au

While scleractinian corals are the principle reef forming

organisms worldwide, alcyonacean corals are a primary

constituent of Indo-Pacific reefs as well. Within reef

environments, observations during bleaching events suggest

that alcyonacean corals may bleach at different times, bleach

less, or resist the effects of bleaching, when compared to

scleractinian corals. To examine potential differences between

these coral types, the small subunit ribosomal gene (18S

rDNA) of symbiotic zooxanthellae from three dominant

alcyonacean corals and two scleractinian corals was examined

by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and

DNA sequence analysis following PCR amplification and

cloning of the 18S rRNA gene using specific algae-related

primers. The restriction enzymes Taq I, Hha I, and Alw 261

were used to digest 18S rDNA clones to produce RFLPs.

Preliminary analysis of the RFLPs suggest soft coral

zooxanthellae cannot be categorised into the paradigm

established for scleractinian coral (i.e. clades A, B, and C).

Detailed phylogenetic tree and DNA sequence analysis of

clones from representative scleractinian and alcyonacean

corals confirms the RFLP data. This study has provided strong

evidence that soft coral symbiont zooxanthellae are different to

scleractinian symbiont zooxanthellae, and may be more

bleach-resistant.

THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC RESPONSE TO STRESS IN

DIFFERENT TAXA OF SYMBIOTIC

DINOFLAGELLATES.

Warner, Mark E.*, LaJeunesse, Todd; Schmidt, Gregory

W.; and Fitt. *Department of Botany, University of

Georgia, Athens, Georgia, 30602, USA. Email:

mwarner@dogwood.botany.uga.edu

Previous studies have shown or suggested that different types

of symbiotic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium show

variable levels of stress tolerance to perturbations in

temperature or light, or a combination thereof. While strong

correlations exist between some taxa of dinoflagellates and

their ecological distribution, the potential physiological

mechanisms that may be driving such correlations have

remained largely unexplored. Furthermore, it remains unclear

if related symbiont taxa have similar physiological constraints

that correspond to phylogenetic groupings. Multiple taxa of

symbiotic dinoflagellates originally isolated from a broad

range of host species and maintained in culture were subjected

to brief periods of elevated temperature and light stress, and

patterns of chronic photoinhibition, rates of photodamage to

photosystem II (PS II), and the potential for photosynthetic

recovery were assessed. Similar field experiments were also

conducted on a smaller scale using one primary Caribbean reef

building coral, Montastrea annularis, which is historically

known to show a high degree of symbiont “polymorphism”.

These data were combined with genetic characterizations using

the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) to assess

phylogenetic affiliation. The extent to which this species level

marker may be used for inferring physiological responses to

stress will be discussed.

EVOLUTIONARY RESPONSES OF ALGAL

SYMBIONTS TO CORAL BLEACHING EVENTS.

Wilcox, Thomas P.* *University of Texas, Austin, TX

78712 USA. Email: tpwilcox@mail.utexas.edu

The ecology and physiology of coral bleaching has been

extensively examined over the last 20 years. However, the

evolutionary implications of bleaching are largely unexplored.

Here I examine potential evolutionary responses of algal

symbionts during bleaching events. Using multi-level selection

theory, evolution of virulence theory, and simple population

genetic models, I consider the following two points: 1)

evolutionary implications of the ‘adaptive bleaching’

hypothesis, and 2) the evolution of resident algal populations

in response to a bleaching stress. Results indicate that frequent

sampling of environmental pools of symbiotic dinoflagellates,

postulated by the adaptive bleaching hypothesis, favor algal

symbionts that ‘cheat’. This results in the eventual extinction

of both hosts and symbionts. Evolution of resident (or

remanent) symbiont populations during bleaching and

recovery can be very complex. If the stress resulting in

bleaching is prolonged, the resident symbiont population can

recover through the accumulation of beneficial mutations that

ameliorate the stress for the symbiont. However, the effect of

this ‘recovery’ on the host depends upon the relationship

between traits that help symbionts grow under stressful

conditions and symbiont traits that help the host. In general,

the models considered demonstrate that great care should be

taken in interpreting field evidence for changes in resident

symbiont genotypes during or after a bleaching event. A

detectable change in symbiont composition does not mean that

change is adaptive..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A5: Zooxanthellae Biodiversity

37

SEASONAL VARIATION IN SYMBIONT

COMMUNITY COMPOSITION WITHIN SINGLE

COLONIES OF ACROPORA PALIFERA.

Yang Y. Avon*, Soong, Keryea; and Chen, Chaolun Allen.

*Institute of Marine Biology, National Sun Yat-sen

University, Kaohsiung, 424, Taiwan. Email:

yawen@mail.nsysu.edu.tw

Within-colony symbiont diversity has recently been

documented in scleractinian corals, and the distribution of this

diversity has been correlated with the ambient irradiance

(depth) experienced by the coral host colony. In this study, the

distribution of symbionts in the scleractinian coral Acropora

palifera was investigated by line transect survey at Nanwang

Bay (southern Taiwan), where the depth distribution of this

species is restricted to 1–2m. Symbiont diversity within and

among coral colonies was investigated using Restriction

Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs) in 18S ribosomal

DNA (rDNA). RFLP surveys revealed two distinct symbiont

genotypes belonging to Symbiodinium clades C and D, with

some samples containing composite RFLPs (C+D), indicating

that A. palifera can harbor mixed symbiont genotypes. Surveys

of within-colony symbiont diversity revealed that in August

1999 the distribution of C : D : C+D was 0 : 8 : 0 (N=8

colonies), while in January 2000 it was 4 : 10 : 4 (N=18) and in

March 2000 it was 7 : 11 : 3 (N=21). These data suggest that

seasonal variation in symbiont community composition may

occur in colonies of Acropora palifera..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A6: Coral Reef Fish – Pelagic

Session A6: Ecology of the Pelagic and Settlement Stages of Coral Reef Fishes

38

COMPARATIVE EGG DISPERSAL FROM INSHORE

AND OFFSHORE SITES IN A CARIBBEAN CORAL

REEF FISH, Thalassoma bifasciatum.

Appeldoorn, R.S.*, Hensley, D.A., Shapiro, D.Y.,

Kioroglou, S.. *Department of Marine Sciences, University

of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico 00681-9013 USA.

Email: r_appeldoorn@rumac.uprm.edu

Pelagically-spawning coral reef fishes are hypothesized to

select sites for spawning that result in eggs being rapidly

transported away from reef areas. Experiments at an inshore

reef and shelf-edge site were conducted to test the hypothesis

that shelf-edge spawning offers an advantage in rapidly

transporting eggs away from reef areas, with the bluehead

wrasse as the model species. Using drogues, spawning events

were simulated at known spawning sites (N = 4/site) and water

masses tracked for 24 hours. Simulated releases were paired

sequentially offshore/inshore. Experiments were run only

during the autumn season. There was no tendency for the

dispersal paths from inshore and shelf-edge sites to merge over

time: those from the inshore site stayed inshore, those from the

shelf-edge site stayed within 4 km of the shelf edge. However,

only one shelf-edge experiment resulted in dispersal off the

shelf platform. Dispersal from the shelf-edge site was much

more variable compared to the inshore site. Results indicate

that differences in dispersal due to site selection are scale

dependent: greater differences are observed when comparing

sites at greater distances apart. Thus, shelf-edge spawning

would facilitate the dispersal of eggs into an offshore

environment merely by being located closer to that

environment. Autumn spawning additionally favors retention

of eggs in the near shelf-edge environment.

RECRUITMENT OF CORAL REEF FISHES AT

LIMESTONE REEF, SOUTH AFRICA.

Beckley L.E.* *Oceanographic Research Institute, PO Box

10712, Marine Parade 4056, Durban, South Africa. Email:

seaworld@dbn.lia.net

Limestone Reef, a shallow inshore reef off Durban on the

east coast South Africa, is located about 300 km south of the

coral reefs of northern KwaZulu-Natal. Despite this,

numerous fish species commonly associated with western

Indian Ocean coral reefs have been recorded at this site. A

study of the recruitment of these fishes was made by deploying

light traps to ascertain the occurrence of settlement stage

larvae of these species in the water column on the seaward side

of the reef. Replicate traps were deployed on one evening

each month over a period of two years. Larvae of some 40

families of fishes were recorded with Clupeidae and

Tripterygiidae numerically dominant. Larvae of coral reef

fishes belonging to families such as Scorpaenidae, Lutjanidae,

Apogonidae, Lethrinidae, Chaetodontidae, Synodontidae,

Acanthuridae, Balistidae and Tetraodontidae were collected.

Their seasonal abundance is discussed relative to known

reproductive biology of the adults as well as local

oceanographic events and variability in the Agulhas current.

OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF FISH

LARVAE IN THE TAKLONG IS. NATIONAL MARINE

RESERVE, CENTRAL PHILIPPINES.

Campos, Wilfredo L. * and. Delola, Alfredo P. Division of

Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences,

University of the Philippines in the Visayas, Miagao, Iloilo

5023 Philippines. Email: oceanbio@miagao.i-next.net

The ichthyoplankton of the shallow reef flat portion of a

marine reserve located in Central Philippines was investigated

from August 1998 to May 1999. Of the twenty (20) species

groups of fish larvae identified, thirteen (13) were epibenthic

and seven (7) were pelagic. Overall mean density of all fish

larvae was 39.6 ind.100 m -3 , while fish eggs showed a mean

density of 840 per 100 m 3 . Atherinids comprised about 75 % of

the larvae in the samples. Species composition of the larvae

was found to be consistent with fisheries catch composition.

Larval densities in the reserve are well within the range

reported for reef areas. Seasonal abundance was highest

towards and during the southwest monsoon. Geographically,

abundance was found to be highest around channels, and

decreased towards the inner shallow portion of the reserve.

Future investigations shall include comparisons with adjacent

areas so to derive insights into the spatial scale of transport, as

well as larval flux rates.

PROCESSES AFFECTING DISTRIBUTION OF

PLANKTONIC EGGS OF PAIR AND GROUP

SPAWNING REEF FISHES OF PALAU.

Colin, Patrick L.* and Hamner, William M.. *Coral Reef

Research Foundation, P.O. Box 1765, Koror, Palau 96940.

Email: crrf@palaunet.com.

Studies were designed to test the hypothesis that many reef

fishes producing planktonic eggs spawn at times and places

which promote the offshore dispersal of eggs. Many species of

reef fishes, principally acanthurids, scarids and labrids, pair

and group spawn daily just after high tide in a narrow band-like

zone on the eastern and western fringing and barrier reefs

of Palau, Western Caroline Islands. Many of these fishes

migrate short distances daily to reach these spawning sites.

Current-following drogues were released at spawning sites

during times of intense spawning (“spawning drogues”) and

also some time after spawning had ceased (“post-spawning

drogues”). The tracks of these drogues were determined for 8-

24 hours after spawning and are presumed to reflect the

movement of fertile eggs. No difference was found in the

offshore transport component of the movement of spawning

and non-spawning drogues. Many drogues launched in water

containing newly spawned eggs came back over the reef, often

near their spawning sites, on the next rising tide. Eggs were

found to be concentrated on occasion after spawning by

langmuir cell effects and spawning and post-spawning drogues

often ended up very close to one another, centered in langmuir

slicks..9ICRS STATE OF KNOWLEDGE A6: Coral Reef Fish – Pelagic

39

THE ROLE OF LONG DISTANCE DISPERSAL

VERSUS LOCAL RETENTION IN REPLENISHING

MARINE POPULATIONS.

Cowen R.K.*, Claire B. Paris, Donald B. Olson. *Marine

Biology and Fisheries, Rosenstiel School of Marine and

Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 4600

Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL. 33149, Email:

rcowen@rsmas.miami.edu

Early models and evidence from genetics suggested that long

distance dispersal of larvae is likely a common event leading

to considerable population connectivity among distant

populations. However, recent evidence strongly suggests that

local retention is more the rule, and that long distance transport

is likely insufficient to sustain ecologically marine

populations. We build on earlier model results to examine the

probability of larval dispersal to downstream islands within

different regions of the Caribbean at varying distances from

source populations. Through repeated runs of an 3-D ocean

circulation model (MICOM), coupled with a random flight

model estimating larval subgrid turbulent motion, we estimate

the likelihood of particular circulation events transporting large

numbers of larvae to within a 5 and 10 km radii of downstream

populations, as well as account for total accumulations of

larvae over each year. Further, we incorporate realistic larval

behavior and mortality estimates into our models. Our results

are consistent with the hypothesis that marine populations

must rely on mechanisms enhancing self-recruitment rather

than depend on distant ‘source’ populations. We briefly

discuss field efforts that will test the predictions of these model

runs.

DEVELOPMENTAL PATTERNS AND THE

ONTOGENY OF SWIMMING IN DEMERSAL

SPAWNING CORAL REEF FISHES.

Fisher R.* &