1)      Martin Moe and Ken Nedimyer published a paper on the effect the loss of
long-spined sea urchins have played in the decline of Caribbean coral reef
systems.  The long-spined sea urchins keep coral reef substrates free of
turf and other algae types that choke out coral settlement and growth.  In
their work, they added sea urchins back to reef areas and corals rebounded.
Worldwide, Reef Ball Foundation has observed that where we see declines in
herbivores (fish, snails and urchins) we observe corresponding declines in
reef systems.  You can find Martin & Ken's papers by going to the Reef Ball
Mapping System and clicking on USA then Florida then Monroe County (Keys)
then scrolling down.

This has an implication for reef design and any Reef Ball projects in areas
where herbivores have declined and corals are important.  One should
consider modifications to your Reef Balls to aid in the reproduction,
survivability or habitat quality for Herbivores.  One such modification,
suggested by Martin Moe and Ken Nedimyer was the addition of cm sized
indentions in the surfaces of the Reef Balls which aids in recruitment of
juvenile sea urchins.  Attached to this email please find a picture of a
Reef Ball with this modification.  To achieve this effect, simply duct tape
bubble plastic to the inside of your mold panels.

2) The Kuwait Dive Team and Reef Ball have tentatively planned a 15 day
Coral Propagation and Transplant training program for March 2004.

3) The Canola Hilton in the Dominican Republic has been granted permits and
has approved construction of a Reef Ball Submerged Breakwater Project.
Construction will begin next month.

4) Vero Beach High School in Vero Beach Florida working with the county
Artificial Reef Coordinator JONATHAN GORHAM, are planning a Reef Ball
project.  More details soon.

5) The Manatee County Artificial Reef Program and the Manatee County School
Board have been approved for a Reefs Around the World Grant to get molds for
Sara Scott Harllee Magnet Middle School to build smaller sized Reef Balls to
be used under docks and around sea walls throughout Manatee County.  Go to
the Reef Ball Mapping system and click on Manatee County for more

6) Reef Ball is expecting a new application for an authorized contractor
from the Philippines.

7) Basil's in Mustique is considering another Reef Ball project.